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研究生:戴姵儀
研究生(外文):Dai Pei-Yi
論文名稱:廚房油煙中多環芳香碳氫化合物排放特性與油煙質量粒徑分布之探討
論文名稱(外文):Emission Characteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Particle Size Distributions in Cooking Oil Fumes.
指導教授:劉希平劉希平引用關係
指導教授(外文):Liu Shi-Ping
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:公共衛生學系碩士班
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:107
中文關鍵詞:廚房油煙多環芳香烴質量粒徑分布
外文關鍵詞:Cooking oil fumesPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsParticle mass size distribution
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本研究針對油煙中PAH排放特性及油煙質量粒徑分佈之調查,主要分為實驗室模擬採樣及餐飲業實際周圍環境採樣二部分。在本研究實驗室模擬採樣部分主要探討三種油品(橄欖油、清香油、大豆油)在不同溫度(150℃和200℃)下油炸不同食材(雞塊、薯條)油煙中產生之油煙質量粒徑分佈與PAHs濃度分析。藉由設計之油煙管道設備,模擬廚房烹飪油炸時之油煙狀況,並加以採樣,分析油煙中氣-固相之PAHs和其質量之粒徑分佈。至於餐飲業實際周界環境採樣部分,則針對十家不同類型餐飲業(燒烤業、牛排業、速食業)煙道周界環境上、下風處之比較,分析其PAH濃度,並評估其可能來源。
實驗室模擬採樣研究結果顯示,氣-固相樣本中雖含有PAHs物質(主要為二~四環PAHs),但濃度及主要具致癌性物質(五~七環PAHs)則不顯著,可能原因為實驗設定之油溫溫度不夠高,一般PAHs生成溫度約在250℃以上(油煙中PAHs致癌物質較為顯著),本實驗設定之最高油溫溫度為一般常用之油炸溫度200℃,可能為致使PAHs生成濃度不明顯之主要原因。此外,於油煙質量粒徑分佈分析結果發現,油煙粒子粒徑約在0.73~30 um,最大濃度粒徑則為1.03 um。一般定義PM2.5-10為粗粒徑、PM1-2.5為細粒徑及小於PM1為次微米粒徑,於次微米範圍內易對人體健康造成危害,因此推論油煙粒子粒徑確實會對暴露人員(例如:廚師)造成健康危害。
餐飲業周界環境方面利用主成分分析觀察結果發現,周界採樣主要的污染來源皆為交通源,因周界採樣的干擾因子較多(交通源、風向狀況等),無法實際推測出油煙對於環境之實際污染狀況。若要實際瞭解餐廳油煙污染附近環境狀況,建議進行油煙餐廳煙道採樣。
This study investigated the emission characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) and particle mass size distributions in cooking oil fumes. The objections are divided into two portions: Laboratory imitation cooking fumes study and food restaurant adjacent environment. The imitation part of laboratory mainly investigated the particle mass size distribution in cooking oil fumes and concentration of PAHs by using three different cooking oil ( Olive oil、Lard and Soybean oil) at temperatures of 150℃、200℃ and to cook chicken fryer and french fries, by using a Lab-designed stack sampling device. The ambient environment adjacent to target restaurant PAHs samples were collected at the stack upwind and downwind of the emission stacks from restaurant (grill、beefsteak and fast food).
For laboratory imitation, the results show that the fractions of gaseous – particulate PAHs were predominant by 2~4 ring PAHs, the concentration and main carcinogens (5~7 ring PAHs) were not significant. The cooking oil temperature may be possible reason for the low PAH concentration. The PAHs formation temperatures are thought to be higher than 250℃, but our cooking oil study temperatures of 200℃ was set for practical usage of most households about concentration of PAHs no significantly. Besides, the results of particle size distributions in cooking oil fumes, ranged 0.73~30 um,the best concentration mode of particle size distributions was 1.03 um. According to general definitions of particle size: PM2.5-10 (coarse grain)、PM1-2.5 (fine grain) and <PM1 (submicron meter grain), indicated particle size distributions in cooking oil fumes may pose significant health issues in penetrating into the lung area during the breathing process. Therefore, particle size distributions of cooking oil fumes may be regarded as health hazard for exposed persons as, for example, cooks.
For ambient environment of restaurant, the results show by using principal component analysis of ambient sampling, showed the major pollution source was traffic exhaust.Stack sampling from cooking fume emission source was suggested to provide physical and chemical information for future application.Environment confounders (e.g. various vehicle emission, wind direction ect) hinder the contribution evaluation of cooking oil fume.
摘要……………………………………………………………………………………I
總目錄………………………………………………………………………………III
第一章 前言…………………………………………………………………………1
1-1 研究緣起……………………………………………………………………1
1-2 研究目的……………………………………………………………………2

第二章 文獻回顧……………………………………………………………………3
2-1 多環芳香碳氫化合物(Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,PAHs)…3
2-1-1 PAH之介紹…………………………………………………………3
2-1-2 PAH之來源…………………………………………………………7
2-1-3 PAH之生成機制……………………………………………………9
2-1-4 PAH之致癌性與致突變性…………………………………………11
2-1-5 對人體之危害…………………………………………………………14
2-2 烹調油煙(Cooking oil fumes,COF)…………………………………15
2-2-1 油煙之特性………………………………………………………15
2-2-2 油煙之形成………………………………………………………16
2-2-3 食用油油脂高溫加熱之反應……………………………………17
2-2-4 油煙對人體危害防治措施與設備………………………………18
2-3 污染物鑑定相關研究……………………………………………………21

第三章 實驗設備與方法…………………………………………………………22
3-1 實驗室模擬採樣…………………………………………………………22
3-1-1 採樣設備與器材…………………………………………………22
3-1-1-1 油煙收集設備…………………………………………22
3-1-1-2 採樣器材………………………………………………26
3-1-2 材料與方法………………………………………………………27
3-1-2-1 實驗材料………………………………………………27
3-1-2-2 油煙實驗設計與方法…………………………………28
3-1-2-3 煙道粒徑分布採樣……………………………………29
3-1-3 分析儀器與方法…………………………………………………32
3-1-3-1 分析儀器………………………………………………32
3-1-3-2 分析方法………………………………………………34
3-2 現場實際採樣……………………………………………………………37
3-2-1 採樣儀器…………………………………………………………38
3-2-2 材料與採樣步驟…………………………………………………39
3-2-2-1 材料……………………………………………………39
3-2-2-2 採樣步驟…………………………………………………39
3-2-3 分析方法……………………………………………………………41

第四章 結果與討論
4-1 實驗室採集氣-固相PAHs及油煙質量粒徑分布調查結果………………45
4-1-1 不同變因(油品、油溫、食材)下氣-固相PAHs物種濃度分布…46
4-1-2 油煙質量粒徑分布…………………………………………………61
4-1-3 排放係數……………………………………………………………64
4-2 餐飲業周界TSP採樣之調查結果…………………………………………68
4-2-1 上、下風處PAH物種布……………………………………………68
4-2-1-1燒烤業與牛排業………………………………………… 68
4-2-1-2速食業……………………………………………………74
4-2-2 不同餐飲業之總PAHs濃度比較…………………………………81
4-2-3 污染來源相關性鑑定………………………………………………82
4-2-3-1 主成分分析………………………………………………82
4-3 實驗室採樣與線採周界採樣比較…………………………………………88


第五章 結論與建議……………………………………………………………………90

參考文獻……………………………………………………………………………92

附錄…………………………………………………………………………………98
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