跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.231.230.177) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/28 18:29
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:陳姿宇
研究生(外文):Chen, TZU YU
論文名稱:共依附、認知與人際特性及惡質生活事件與青少年憂鬱的關連
論文名稱(外文):The relationships among codependency, cognitive and interpersonal characteristics, adverse life events, and adolescent depression
指導教授:陳秀蓉陳秀蓉引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:心理學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:175
中文關鍵詞:共依附認知與人際特性惡質生活事件青少年憂鬱
外文關鍵詞:codependencycognitive and interpersonal characteristicsadverse life eventsadolescent depression
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:23
  • 點閱點閱:1119
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:268
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:9
本研究主要目的有二:1.探討共依附傾向是否透過認知與人際特性、惡質生活事件影響青少年憂鬱;2.建立共依附、認知與人際特性、惡質生活事件、青少年憂鬱之影響路徑。本研究的假設:1.共依附、認知與人際特性、惡質生活事件與青少年憂鬱之間具有相關性;2.在人口與背景變項控制之下,共依附傾向會影響個人的認知與人際特性,導致憂鬱症狀之增加;3.在人口與背景變項控制之下,共依附傾向會透過認知與人際特性影響對惡質生活事件的知覺,導致憂鬱症狀之增加;4.檢證在共依附與青少年憂鬱的關係中,認知與人際特性對憂鬱而言具有中介效果,而惡質生活事件具有調節效果,並建立具有適配性的模式。
方法上,研究選取台北縣四所國中,每個年級選取兩班,一共有16班的在學青少年為研究對象,有效樣本數共計496人,男生有250人,女生有246人。使用五種測量工具,包括:「生活事件檢核表」、「自動化思考問卷---簡式版本」、「共依附評估工具---簡式版本」、「社交生活經驗量表」及「兒童青少年憂鬱篩選量表---兒童青少年版」。
研究結果發現:1. 共依附、自動化思考、惡質生活事件、青少年憂鬱彼此間之相關均為顯著正相關,人際問題解決特性與共依附、自動化思考、惡質生活事件、青少年憂鬱之相關均為顯著負相關。2. 共依附傾向愈高,則負向自動化思考程度愈強、對人際問題解決態度愈消極,導致青少年憂鬱症狀增加。3.共依附傾向越高者,其負向自動化思考愈強,個人感受到惡質的生活事件的衝擊愈大,青少年憂鬱症狀更增加。4.共依附、自動化思考、人際問題解決特性及惡質生活事件均可以直接影響青少年憂鬱,且共依附傾向可透過自動化思考、人際問題解決特性及惡質生活事件的部分中介間接影響青少年憂鬱,而人際問題解決特性可以透過自動化思考的部分中介間接影響青少年憂鬱。承上之結果,期待在學術與實務應用上,能夠增加心理諮商/心理治療人員對認知與人際特性及惡質生活事件在共依附與憂鬱中的角色加以重視,作為預防及治療青少年憂鬱疾患多元方向的考慮。

關鍵字:共依附、認知與人際特性、惡質生活事件、青少年憂鬱
Two main purposes were in this study. First was to test that codependency may influence depression of adolescents by cognitive and interpersonal characteristics and adverse life events. Second was to explore the significant pathway among codependency, cognitive and interpersonal characteristics, adverse life events and adolescent depression. There were four hypotheses in the study: 1.if there exist the correlations among codependency, cognitive and interpersonal characteristics, adverse life events, and depression, 2. between codependency and depression whether there was influencing through adolescents’ cognitive and interpersonal characteristics by controlling demographic and background variables, 3. test codependency may influence through cognitive and interpersonal characteristics, individual’s perception of adverse life events to depression also by controlling demographic and background variables, 4. to demonstrate that cognitive and interpersonal characteristics had meditative effect, and the variable of adverse life events was a modulator in the relationship between codependency and adolescent depression, finally built up their fit model.
The participants of the study were 496 students, seventh to eighth graders were chosen from four junior high schools in Taipei county of Taiwan. Each grade chose two classes and total classes were 16 . The sample of this study had 250 boys and 246 girls.
Five instruments were conducted in the study, including: Life Events Checklist, the shortened form of Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, Social Experiences Scale, the shortened form of Codependency Assessment Tool, and Depression Screening Scale for Children & Adolescents--- the Children & Adolescents Edition.
Our research found: 1.Significantly positive correlations among codependency, automatic thoughts, adverse life events, and adolescent depression, and negative correlations of interpersonal problem-solving characteristics with codependency, automatic thoughts, adverse life events, and adolescent depression. 2. Adolescent depression aggravates by the more tendency of codependency, worsen of negative automatic thoughts and less positive attitudes of interpersonal relationship. 3. Adolescent depression also aggravates by the more tendency of codependency, worsen of negative automatic thoughts, less positive attitudes of interpersonal relationship and severe impact of adverse life events. 4. Codependency, automatic thoughts, interpersonal problem-solving characteristics, and adverse life events could directly strong related with adolescent depression. And codependency could also influence adolescent depression indirectly by the meditative partially effect of automatic thoughts, interpersonal problem-solving characteristics, and adverse life events. Then interpersonal problem-solving characteristics could influence adolescent depression indirectly by the meditative partially effect of automatic thoughts. The results of our study suggested the cognitive and interpersonal characteristics played very important roles between codependency and depression, so for clinical psychologists and counselors may engage and emphasis those multiple factors in preventing and treating those who suffers depressive disorders of adolescent.

Keywords: codependency, cognitive and interpersonal characteristics, adverse life events, adolescent depression
目錄
第一章 緒論…...……………………………………………………1
第一節 研究緣起……………………………………………………1
第二節 名詞解釋 …………………………………………………6
第二章 文獻探討……………………………………………………8
第一節 青少年憂鬱…………………………………………………8
第二節 共依附的特性………………………………………………28
第三節 共依附與憂鬱之關連性……………………………………44
第四節 認知與人際特性……………………………………………49
第五節 惡質生活事件………………………………………………58
第六節 研究架構與假設……………………………………………64
第三章 研究方法……………………………………………………66
第一節 前置性研究…………………………………………………66
第二節 正式研究……………………………………………………68
第三節 研究程序與資料分析………………………………………77
第四章 研究結果……………………………………………………79
第一節 各研究變項在重要人口及背景變項上的特性……………79
第二節 各重要研究變項間之相關…………………………………94
第三節 多元迴歸分析結果…………………………………………98
第四節 結構方程式模組分析結果…………………………………108
第五章 結論與討論…………………………………………………124
壹、共依附與青少年憂鬱的性別差異…………………………………124
貳、共依附、認知與人際特性及惡質生活事件之關係………………125
參、共依附與青少年憂鬱的關係………………………………………129
肆、共依附、認知與人際特性及惡質生活事件對青少年憂鬱的影響
………………………………………………………………………129
伍、惡質生活事件在共依附與青少年憂鬱之關係中的角色…………130
陸、研究貢獻與臨床應用………………………………………………131
柒、研究限制……………………………………………………………131
捌、未來研究方向………………………………………………………132
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………135
中文部分………………………………………………………………135
英文部分………………………………………………………………139
參考文獻
中文部分
Corsuni, R. J, & Wedding, D.(1995);朱玲億,林美薰,李立維,趙家琛,李島鳳,游淑瑜,周士雍合譯(民89)。「當代心理治療的理論與實務」。台北:心理。

梅約醫學中心(Mayo Clinic)(2004);賴孟泉,林育如譯(民94)。「梅約憂鬱症小百科」。台北:天下雜誌。

王建楠、吳重達(民92)。兒童及青少年憂鬱症。「基層醫學」,18:154-165。

朱崇信(民93)。「青少年憂鬱情緒之相關因素探究:家庭經濟壓力與社會支持」。台灣大學社會工作學研究所碩士論文。

李仁宏(民92)。「雙親教養態度、家庭功能與青少年憂鬱傾性關係之追蹤研究」。高雄醫學大學行為科學研究所碩士論文。

吳秋月(民87)。「子女知覺父母婚姻暴力經驗、社會支持及共依附之相關研究」。國立台灣師範大學教育心理與輔導研究所碩士論文。

吳昭儀(民92)。「大學生的共依附與愛情態度之相關研究」。國立台灣師範大學教育心理與輔導研究所碩士論文。

吳麗娟(民86a)。「個體化」、「自我分化」的另一端---談「共依附」的意義與內涵。「諮商與輔導」:144,33-37。

吳麗娟(民86b)。「共依附」的特質與治療。「測驗與輔導」:145,3011-3014。

吳麗娟(民87a)。唯有放下他人,才能釋放自己---談「共依附」治療模式。「諮商與輔導」:145,18-23。
吳麗娟(民87b)。「共依附」父母的特質與其對孩子的影響。「諮商與輔導」:154,12-19。

邱一峰(民84)。「國中生憂鬱傾向及其相關因素之研究:性別、年級、家庭狀況、鬱卒、憂鬱與尋求幫助、自殺傾向之關係」。國立政治大學教育研究所碩士論文。

邱文彬(民90)。兒童憂鬱症的認知療法。「樹德科技大學學報」:3(1),79-92。

邱雅沂(民94)。「母親後設情緒理念、教養態度對青少年憂鬱傾向的影響:青少年情緒調節能力的角色」。國立臺灣師範大學教育心理與輔導學系碩士論文。

邱皓政(2005)。「量化研究法(二)統計原理與分析技術:SPSS中文視窗版操作實務詳析」。台北:雙葉。

林淑芳(民90)。「中學生共依附特質與信任感之發展與相關研究」。國立臺灣師範大學教育心理與輔導學系碩士論文。

林筱婷(民93)。「大學生的共依附與其在愛情關係中的人際行為之關係」。國立政治大學心理學研究所碩士論文。

俞筱鈞、黃志成(民74)。曾氏心理健康量表之修訂經過報告。「測驗年刊」:32,97-102。

徐士杰(民91)。「青少年憂鬱與社會畏懼、雙親教養態度之相關研究」。彰化師範大學輔導與諮商系碩士論文。

高尚仁(民87)。「心理學新論」。台北:揚智。


陳杏容(民89)。「青少年因應壓力行為之探討---憂鬱情緒與偏差行為」。東吳大學社會工作學研究所碩士論文。

陳秀菁(民90)。「大學生的共依附特質、人際親密能力與親密感之相關研究」。國立台灣師範大學教育心理與輔導研究所碩士論文。

陳詩潔(民95)。「大學生的共依附特質、自我感受與愛情關係品質之相關研究」。中國文化大學心理輔導研究所碩士論文。

張如杏、胡幼慧(民82)。青少年心理衛生與社會因素之探討---北市高職五專學生憂鬱症狀、自殺意念與自殺企圖之研究。「中華醫務社會工作學刊」:3,77-92。

張高賓(民94)。「兒童與青少年憂鬱篩選量表編製及應用研究」。國力高雄師範大學輔導與諮商研究所博士論文。

許瑞蘭(民90)。「國中生依附關係、人際問題解決態度與學校生活適應之相關研究」。屏東師範學院教育心理與輔導研究所碩士論文。

許儀貞(民91)。「台灣成年女性性別角色特質、共依附和自尊之相關研究」。國立臺灣師範大學 教育心理與輔導學系碩士論文。

楊浩然(民91)。「青少年憂鬱疾患及憂鬱症狀之追蹤研究」。國立台灣大學流行病學研究所博士論文。

楊晴惠(民88)。「中文共依評估量表之信效度研究」。長庚大學護理學研究所碩士論文。

劉若蘭、陳淑惠(民88)。專科學生壓力因應模式與憂鬱症狀之關係研究摘要。「學生輔導」:63,126-141。

劉淑言、蔡欣玲、陳映雪、吳聖良、陳美碧(民94)。門診青少年憂鬱症患者心理社會因素之分析研究。「榮總護理」:22,81-91。

鄭昭明(民82)。「認知心理學」。台北:桂冠。

蔡淑鈴(民90)。「青少年的親子關係與共依附特質之相關研究」。國立臺灣師範大學教育心理與輔導學系碩士論文。

蔡嘉慧(民86)。「國中生的社會支持、生活壓力與憂鬱傾向之相關研究」。國立高雄師範大學教育學研究所碩士論文。

英文部分
AACAP.(1998).Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with depressive disorder. Journal of American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry,37(suppl.),63-83.

Abela, J. R. Z., & Taylor, G.(2003).Specific vulnerability to depressive mood reaction in schoolchildren:The moderating role of self-esteem. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology,32,408-418.

Abela, J. R. Z., Hankin, B. L., Haigh, E. A. P., Adams, P., Vinokuroff, T., & Trayhern, L.(2005).Interpersonal vulnerability to depression in high-risk children:The role of insecure attachment and reassurance seeking. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology,34,182-192.

Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B.(1989).Hopelessness depression:A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review,96,358-372.

Ainsworth, M. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S.(1978).Patterns of attachment:A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale,NJ:Lawrence Erlbaum.

Alloy, L. B., Abramson, L. Y., Tashman, N. A., Berrebbi, D. S., Hogan, M. E., Whitehouse, W. G., Crossfield, A. G., & Morocco, A.(2001).Developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability to depression:Parenting, cognitive, and onferential feedback styles of the parents of individuals at high and low cognitive risk for depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research,25,397-423.

American Psychiatric Association.(2000).Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders(4th ed.). Washington,DC:Author.

Angold, A., Erkanli, A., Silberg, J., Eaves, L., & Costello, E. J.(2002).Depression scale scores in 8-17-year-olds:Effects of age and gender. Journal of Child Psychological Psychiatry,43,1052-1063.

Armsden, C. G., McCauley, E., Greenberg, M. T., & Burke, P. M.(1990).Parent and peer attachment in early adolescent depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,18,683-697.

Aro, H., & Paronen, O.(1989).Social support, life events and psychosomatic symptoms among 14–16-year-old adolescents. Social Science & Medicine,29, 1051-1056.

Aron, A.(2003). Self and close relationships. In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney(Eds.), Handbook of self and identity(pp. 442-461). New York:Guilford Press.

Aronen, E. T., & Soininen, M.(2000).Childhood depressive symptoms predict psychiatric problems in young adults. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry,45,
465-470.

Asher, R., & Brissett, D.(1988).Codependency:a view from women married to alcoholics. International Journal of the Addictions,23,331-350.

Aydin, B., & Öztütüncü, F.(2001).Examination of adolescents’ negative thoughts, depressive mood, and family environment. Adolescence,36,77-83.

Backe, B., Bonck, E. L., & Riley, M. L.(1993).Codependency and depression:A correlational study. Journal of Couples Therapy,4,105-127.

Baron, R. M. & Kenny, D. A.(1986).The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research:Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,51,1173-1182.

Baum, A.(1990).Stress, intrusive imagery, and .chronic distress. Health Psychology,9,653-675.

Beardslee, W. R., Keller, M. B., Seifer, R., Lavori, P. W., Staley, J., Podorefsky, D., & Shera, D.(1996).Prediction of adolescent affective disorder:Effect of prior parental
affective disorders and child psychopathology. Journal of the American Academy
of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,35,279-288.

Beattie, M.(1987).Codependent no more. Center City, MN:Hazelden Foundation.

Beck, A. T.(1964).Thinking and depression:Ⅱ. Theory and therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry,10,561-571.

Beck, A. T.(1967).Depression:Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. New York:Hoeber.
Beck, A. T.(1976).Cognitive therapy and emotional disorders. New York:International Universities Press.

Beck, A. T., & Rush, A. J.(1978).Cognitive approaches to depression and suicide. In:G. Serban(Ed.), Cognitive defects in the development of mental illness. New York:Brunner-Mazel.

Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G.(1979).Cognitive therapy of depression. New York:Guilford Press.

Beck, W. H.(1991).Codependence assessment manual. Chicago:Administrative Services.

Becnel, B. C.(1991).The co-dependent parent—Free yourself by freeing your child. LA: Lowell House.

Billings, A.G., Cronkite, R. C., & Moos, R. H.(1983).Social-environmental factors in unipolar depression:Comparisons of depressed patients and nondepressed controls. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,92,119-133.

Billings, A. G., & Moos, R. H.(1984).Comparison of children of depressed and nondepressed parents:Moos Family Environment Scale. Annotated Bibliography Abstracts.

Birmaher, B., Ryan, N. D., Williamson, D. E., Brent, D. A., Kaufman, J., Dahl, R. E., Perel, J., & Nelson, B.(1996).Childhood and adolescent depression:A review of the past 10 years. Part 1. Journal of American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry,35,1427-1440.

Blatt, S. J., & Zuroff, D. C.(1992).Interpersonal relatedness and self-definition:Two prototypes for depression. Clinical Psychology Review,12,527-562.

Borden, W.(1992).Narrative perspectives in psychosocial intervention following adverse life events. Social Work,37,135-141.

Bowen, M.(1978).Family therapy in clinical practice. New York:Jason Aronson.

Bowlby, J.(1980).Attachment and loss. New York:Basic Books.

Brand, A. H., & Johnson, J. H.(1982).Note on reliability of the Life Events Checklist. Psychological Report,50,1274.

Bray, J. H., & Williamson, D. S.(1987).Assessment of intergenerational family relationships. In A. J. Horestadt & M. Fine(Eds.),Family of origin therapy:Applications in clinical practice. Rockville,MD:Aspen Press.

Bronfenbrenner, U.(1986). Ecology of the family as a context for human development:Research perspectives. Developmental Psychology,22,723-742.

Brown, A.B.(2002).Teen depression:Overlooked and undertreated. Patient Care,36,37-47.

Brown, G. W., & Harris, T.(1978).Social origins of depression:A study of psychiatric disorder in women. New York:Free Press.

Brown, J. D., & McGill, K. L.(1989).The cost of good fortune:When positive life events produce negative health consequences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,57,1103-1110.

Buchwald, A. M.(1977).Depressive mood and estimates of reinforcement frequency. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,86,443-446.

Burge, D., & Hammen, C.(1991).Maternal communication:Predictors of outcome at follow-up in a sample of children at high and low risk for depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,100,174-180.

Calvete, E., & Cardeñoso, O.(2005).Gender differences in cognitive vulnerability to depression and behavior problems in adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,33,179-192.

Carson, A., & Baker, R.(1994).Psychological correlates of codependency in women. International Journal of the Addictions,29,395-407.

Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T. E.(1991).Individual differences are accentuated during periods of social change:The sample case of girls at puberty. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,61,157-168.
Cermak, T. L.(1986).Diagnostic criteria for codependency. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs,18,15-20.

Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L.(1998).The development of depression in children and adolescents. American Psychologist,53,221-241.

Clark, D. A., Beck, A. T., & Alford, B. A.(1999).Scientific foundations of cognitive theory and therapy of depression. New York:Wiley.

Coddington, R. D.(1972a).The significance of life events as etiologic factors in the diseases of children:Ⅰ.A survey of professional workers. Journal of Psychosomatic Research,16,7-18.

Coddington, R. D.(1972b).The significance of life events as etiologic factors in the diseases of children:Ⅱ.A study of a normal population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research,16,205-213.

Cole, D. A., & Turner, J. E. (1993). Models of cognitive mediation and moderation in child depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 271-281.

Compas, B. E.,Connor-Smith, J., & Jaser, S.S.(2004).Temperament, stress reactivity, and coping:Implications for depression in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology,33,21-31

Costello, E. J., Mustillo, S., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G., & Angold, A.(2003).Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Archives of General Psychiatry,60,837-844.

Cowan, G., & Warren, L.(1994).Codependence and gender stereotyped traits. Sex Roles,30,631-645.



Coyne, J. C.(1976a).Depression and the response of others. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,85,186-193.

Coyne, J. C.(1976b).Toward an interactional description of depression. Psychiatry,39,28-40.

Crepsi, T. D., & Sabatelli, R. M.(1997).Children of alcoholics and adolescence:Individuation, development, and family systems. Adolescence,32(12),407-417.

Crothers, M., & Warren, L.(1996).Parental antecedents of adult codependency. Journal of Clinical Psychology,52,231-239.

Cullen, J., & Carr, A.(1999).Codependency:An empirical study from a systemic perspective. Contemporary Family Therapy,21,505-526.

Culp, A. M., & Clyman, M. M.(1995).Adolescent depression mood, report of suicide attempts, and asking for help. Adolescence,30,827-838.

Davila, J., Hammen, C. L., Burge, D., Paley, B., & Daley, S. E.(1995).Poor interpersonal problem solving as a mechanism of stress generation in depression among adolescent women. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,104,592-600.

Davila, J., Ramsay, M., Stroud, C. B., & Steinberg, S. J.(2005).Attachment as vulnerability to the development of psychopathology. In:Abela, J. R. Z., & Hankin, B. L.(Eds.),Development of psychopathology:A vulnerability-stress perspective. Thousand Oaks,CA:Sage.

Dias, M.(2003).Deconstructing codependency:The relationship of codependency to femininity and related psychopathological factors. Dissertation Abstracts International:Section B:The Sciences and Engineering,63,4365.

Downey, G., & Coyne, J. C.(1990).Children of depressed parents:An integrative review. Psychological Bulletin,108,50-76.

Ellis, A.(1962).Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. Secaucus,NJ:Citadel. Rev. ed.,1994. New York:Carol Publishing.

Ellis, A.(1976).The biological basis of human irrationality. Journal of Individual Psychology,32,145-168. Reprinted:New York:Institute for Rational-Emotive Therapy.

Ellis, A.(1991).The revised ABCs of rational-emotive therapy. In J. Zeig (Ed.),The evolution of psychotherapy:the second conference. New York:Brunner/Mazel. Expanded version:Journal of Rational-emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy,9,139-172.

Fendrich, M., Warner, V., & Weissman, M. M.(1990).Family risk factors, parental depression, and psychopathology in offspring. Developmental Psychology,26,40-50.

Fergusson, D. M., & Woodward, L. J.(2002).Mental health, educational, and social role outcomes of adolescents with depression. Archives of General Psychiatry,59,225-231.

Fichman, L., Koestner, R., & Zuroff, D. C.(1994).Depressive styles in adolescence:assessment, relation to social functioning, and developmental trends. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,23,315-330.

Field, T., Diego, M., & Sanders, C.(2001).Adolescent depression and risk factors. Adolescence,36,491-498.

Fischer, D., & Beer, J.(1990).Codependency and self esteem among high school students. Psychological Reports,66,1001-1002.

Fischer, J., & Crawford, D.(1992).Codependency and parenting styles. Journal of Adolescent Research,7,352-363.

Fischer, J. L., Spann, L., & Crawford, D. W.(1991).Measuring codependency. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly,8,87-99.

Fischer, J., Wampler, R., Lyncss, K., & Thomas, E.(1992).Offspring codependency:Blocking the impact of the family of origin. Family Dynamics of Addiction Quarterly,2,20-32.

Frank, P., & Golden, G.(1992).Blaming by naming:Battered women and the epidemic of codependency. Social Work,37,5-6.

Friel, J. C.(1985).Codependence assessment inventory:A preliminary research tool. Focus on Family and Chemical Dependency,8,20-21.

Friel, J. C., & Friel, L.(1988).Adult children:The secrets of dysfunctional families. Deerfield Beach,FL:Health Communications.

Fuller, J. A., & Warner, R. M.(2000).Family Stressors as predictors of codependency. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs,126,5-22.

Galambos, N. L., Leadbeater, B. J., & Baker, E. T.(2004).Gender differences in and risk factors for depression in adolescence:A 4-year longitudinal study. International Journal of Behavioral Development,28,16-25.

Garber, J., & Hilsman, R. (1992). Cognitions, stress and depression in children and adolescents. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 1, 129-167.

Garber, J., Weiss, B., & Shanley, N.(1993). Cognitions, depressive symptoms, and development in adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,102,47-57.
Gatchel, R. J.(1993).Psychophysiological disorders:Past and present perspectives. In R. J. Gatchel & E. B. Blanchard(Eds.), Psychophysiological disorders:Research and clinical applications. Washington, DC:American Psychological Association.

Ge, X., Conger, R. D., & Elder, G. H. J.(2001).Pubertal transition, stressful life events, and the emergence of gender differences in adolescent depressive symptoms. Developmental Psychology,37,404-417.

Ge, X., Lorenz, F. O., Conger, R. D., & Elder, G. H. J.(1994).Trajectories of stressful life event and depressive symptoms during adolescence. Developmental Psychology,30,467-483.

Goodman, S. H., Hoven, C. W., Narrow, W. E., Cohen, P., Fielding, B., Alegria, M., Leaf, P. J., Kandel, D., McCue Horwitz, S., Bravo, M., Moore, R., & Dulcan M. K.(1998).Measurement of risk for mental disorders and competence in a psychiatric epidemiologic community survey:The National Institute of Mental Health Methods for the Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology.33.162-173.

Gotham, H., & Sher, K.(1996).Do codependent traits involve more than basic dimensions of personality and psychopathology. Journal of Studies on Alcohol,57,34-39.

Gotlib, I. H.(1992).Interpersonal and cognitive aspects of depression. Current Directions in Psychological Science,1,149-154.

Gotlib, I. H., & Cane, D. B.(1987).Construct accessibility and clinical depression:A longitudinal investigation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,96,199-204.




Gotlib, I. H., Lewinsohn, P. M., Seeley, J. R., Rohde, P., & Redner, J. E.(1993).
Negative cognitions and attributional style in depressed adolescents:An examination of stability and specificity. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,102,607-615.

Gotlib, I. H., & McCabe, S. B.(1992).An information-processing approach to the study of cognitive functioning in depression. In E. F. Walker, B. A. Cornblatt, & R. H. Dworkin(Eds.), Progress in experimental personality and psychopathology research(vol.15,pp.131-161). New York:Springer.

Graber, J. A., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Petersen, A. C.(1996).Transitions through adolescence:Interpersonal domains and context. Lawrence Erlbaum.

Haaken, J.(1990).A critical analysis of the codependence construct. Psychiatry,53,396-406.

Haley, G. M. T., Fines, S., Marriage, K., Moretti, M. M., & Freeman, R. J. (1985). Cognitive bias and depression in psychiatrically disturbed children and adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 535-537.

Hammen, C. L., Burge, D., Daley, S. E., Davila, J., Paley, B., & Rudolph, K. D.(1995).Interpersonal attachment cognitions and prediction of symptomatic responses to interpersonal stress. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,104,436-443.

Hankin, B. L.(2005).Personality and psychopathology:Prospective tests of cognitive vulnerability and stress as mediating processes. Under Review.

Hankin, B. L.(2006).Adolescent depression:Description, causes, and interventions. Epilepsy & Behavior,8,102-114.

Hankin, B. L., & Abramson, L. Y.(1999).Development of gender differences in depression:Description and possible explanations. Annals of Medicine,31,372-379.
Hankin, B. L., & Abramson, L. Y.(2001).Development of gender differences in depression:Anelaborated cognitive vulnerability-transactional stress theory. Psychological Bulletin,127,773-796.

Hankin, B. L., Abramson, L. Y., Miller, N., & Haeffel, G. J.(2004).Cognitive vulnerability-stress theories of depression:Examining affective specificity in the prediction of depression versus anxiety in three prospective studies. Cognitive Therapy and Research,28,309-345.

Hankin, B. L., Abramson, L. Y., Moffitt, T. E., Silva, P. A., McGee, R., & Angell, K. E.(1998).Development of depression from preadolescence to young adulthood:Emerging gender differences in a 10-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,107,128-140.

Hankin, B. L., Abramson, L. Y., & Siler, M.(2001).A prospective test of the hopelessness theory of depression in adolescence. Cognitive Therapy and Research,25,607-632.

Harper, J., & Capdevila, C.(1990).Codependency:A critique. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs,22,285-292.

Hoffman, K. B., Cole, D. A., Martin, J. M., Tram, J., & Seroczynski, A. D.(2000).Are the discrepancies between self- and others’ appraisals of competence predictive or reflective of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents:A longitudinal study, part Ⅱ. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,109,651-662.

Hogg, J., & Frank, M.(1992).Toward an interpersonal model of codependence and contradependence. Journal of Counseling and Development,70,371-375.




Holmes, T., & Masuda, M.(1974).Life change and illness susceptibility. In B. S. Dohrenwend & B. Dohrenwend(Eds.), Stressful life events:Their nature and effects. New York:John Wiley & Sons.

Hollon, S. D., & Kendall, P. C.(1980).Cognitive self-statements in depression:Development of an Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research,4,383-395.

Hughes-Hammer, C., Martsolf, D. S., & Zeller, R. A.(1998a).Development and testing of the codependency assessment tool. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing,12,264-272.

Hughes-Hammer, C., Martsolf, D. S., & Zeller, R. A.(1998b).Depression and codependency in women. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing,12,326-334.

Hultsch, D., & Deutsch, F.(1981).Adult development and aging. New York:McGraw-Hill.

Irwin, H. J.(1995).Codependence, narcissism, and childhood trauma. Journal of Clinical Psychology,51,658-665.

Isham-Colvard, D.(1998).Codependency:A meta-analysis of related variables. Dissertation Abstracts International:Section B:The Sciences and Engineering,59,2123.

Johnson, J. H., & McCutcheon, S. M.(1980).Assessing life stress in older children and adolescents:Preliminary finding with the Life Events Checklist. In I. G. Sarason & C. D. Spielberger(eds.),Stress and anxiety. Washington,DC:Hemisphere.

Joiner, T. E., Jr.(2002). Depression in its interpersonal context. In I. H. Gotlib & C. L. Hammen(Eds.), Handbook of depression(pp.295-313). New York:Guilford Press.

Joiner, T. E. J.,Katz, J., & Lew, A.(1999).Harbingers of depressotypic reassurance seeking:Negative life events, increased anxiety, and decreased self-esteem. Personality Social Psychological Bulletin,25,630-637.

Jorm, A. F., Dear, K. B. G., Rodgers, B., & Christensen, H.(2003).Interaction between mother’s and father’s affection as a risk factor for anxiety and depression symptoms:Evidence for increased risk in adults who rate their father as having been more affectionate than their mother. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology,38,173-179.

Kane, P., & Garber, J.(2004).The relations among depression in fathers, children’s psychopathology, and father-child conflict:A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review,24,339-360.

Kellogg, T., & Harrison, M.(1990).Broken toys broken dreams. Amherst,MA:BRAT Publishing.

Kendler, K. S., Gardner, C. O., & Prescott, C. A.(2003).Personality and the experience of environmental adversity. Psychological Medicine,33,1193-1202.

Kenny, D. A., Kashy, D. A., & Bolger, N.(1998).Data analysis in social psychology.In D. T. Gildert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey(Eds.), The handbook of social psychology. New York:Oxford University Press.

Kerr, M. E., & Bowen, M.(1987).Family evaluation:An approach based on Bowen theory. New York:W. W. Norton.

Kim, S. Y., & Ge, X.(2000).Parenting practices and adolescent depressive symptoms in Chinese American families. Journal of Family Psychology,14,420-435.



Kitchens, J. A.(1991).Understanding and treating codependence. Englewood Cliffs,NJ:Prentice-Hall.

Kobasa, S. C. O., & Maddi, S. R.(1977).Existential personality theory. In R. Corsini(Ed.), Current personality theories. Itasca,IL:Peacock.

Kottke, J., Warren, R., & Moffit, D.(1993).The meaning of codependency:A psychometric analysis. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Western Psychological Society, Phoenix,AZ.

Kowalski, R. M.(2003). Complaining, teasing, and other annoying behaviors. New Haven, CT:Yale University Press.

Krestan, J., & Bepko, C.(1990).Codependency:The social reconstruction of the female experience. Smith College Studies in Social Work,60,216-232.

Krueger, R. F.(1999).Personality traits in late adolescence predict mental disorders in early adulthood:A prospective-epidemiological study. Journal of Personality,67,39-65.

Krueger, R. F., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., & Silva, P. A.(1996).Personality traits are differentially linked to mental disorders:A multitrait-multidiagnosis study of an adolescent birth cohort. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,105,299-312.

Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S.(1984).Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York:Springer.

Lazarus, R. S., & Launier, R.(1978).Stress-related transactions between person and environment. In L. A. Pervin & M. Lewis(Eds.), Internal and external determinants of behavior. New York:Plenum Press.


Lewinsohn, P. M., Hops, H., Roberts, R. E., Seeley, J. R., & Andrews, J. A.(1993).Adolescent psychopathology:1. Prevalence and incidence of depression and other DSM-Ⅲ-R disorders in high school students. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,102,135-144.

Lewinsohn, P. M., Joiner, T. E. J., & Rohde, P.(2001).Evaluation of cognitive diathesis-stress models in predicting major depressive disorder in adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,110,203-215.

Lewinsohn, P. M., Roberts, R. E., Seeley, J. R., Rohde, P., Gotlib, I.H., & Hops, H.(1994).Adolescent psychopathology:2. Psychosocial risk factors for depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,103,302-315.

Lindley, N. R., Giordano, P. J., & Hammer, E. D.(1999).Codependency:Predictors and psychometric issues. Journal of Clinical Psychology,55,59-64.

Luthar, S. S., & Blatt, S. J.(1993).Dependent and self-critical depressive experience among inner-city adolescents. Journal of Personality,61,365-386.

Lyon, D., & Greenberg, J.(1991).Evidence of codependence in women with an alcoholic parent:Helping out Mr. wrong. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,61,435-439.

Marchand, W. R., Wirth, L., & Simon, C.(2005).Adverse Life Events and Pediatric Bipolar Disorder in a Community Mental Health Setting. Community Mental Health Journal,41,67-75

Marolyn, W., Cheryl, Glickauf-Hughes, & Rebecca, J.(1999).Codependency: A grass roots construct's relationship to shame-proneness, low self-esteem, and childhood parentification. American Journal of Family Therapy,27,63-71


Martsolf, D. S., Sedlak, C. A., & Doheny, M. O.(2000).Codependency and related healeh variables. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing,14,150-158.

Martsolf, D. S., Doheny, M. O., & Sedlak, C. A. (2001).Depression and health in older women. International Journal of Psychiatric Nursing Research,6,746-759.

Mash, E. J., & Wolfe, D. A.(2002).Abnormal Child Psychology. Belmont,CA:Wadsworth.

Mellody, P., Miller, A. W., & Miller, J. K.(1989).Facing codependence. San Francisco:Haarper Collins.

Mendenhall, W.(1989).Co-dependency definitions and dynamics. Alcoholic Treatment Quarterly,6,3-17.

Mezulis, A. H., Hyde, J. S., & Clark, R.(2004).Father involvement moderates the effect of maternal depression during a child’s infancy on child behavior problems in kindergarten. Journal of Family Psychology,18,575-588.

Miller, L., Warner, V., Wickwamaratne, P., & Weissman, M.(1999).Self-esteem and depression:Ten year follow-up of mothers and offspring. Journal of Affective Disorders,52,41-49.

Minuchin, S.(1974).Families and family therapy. Cambridge,MA:Harvard University Press.

Moos, R.(1974).Social Climate Scale:An overview. Palo Alto,CA:Consulting Psychologists Press.

Moos, R.(1984).Context and coping:Toward a unifying conceptual framework. American Journal of Community Psychology,12,5-36.


Muris, P., Meesters, C., van Melick, M., & Zwambag, L.(2001).Self-reported attachment style, attachment quality, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in young adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences,30,809-818.

Needles, D. J., & Abramson, L. Y.(1990).Positive life events, attributional style, and hopefulness:Testing a model of recovery from depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,99,156-165.

Netemeyer, R. G., Williamson, D. A., Burton, S., Biswas, D., Jindal, S., Landreth, S., Mills, G., & Primeaux, S.(2002).Psychometric properties of shortened versions of the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire. Educational and Psychological Measurement,62,111-129.

Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J.(1991).A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster:The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,61,115-121.

O’Brien, P., & Gaborit, M.(1992).Codependency:A disorder separate from chemical dependency. Journal of Clinical Psychology,48,129-136.

Olson, D., Sprenkle, D., & Russell, C.(1979).Circumplex model of marital and family system:Cohesion and adaptability dimensions, family types and clinical application. Family Process,18,3-28.

Ostrander, R., Nay, W. R., Anderson, D., & Jensen, J. (1995). Developmental and symptom specificity of hopelessness, cognitive errors, and attributional bias among clinic-referred youth. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 26, 97-112.

Ostrander, R., Weinfurt, K. P., & Nay, W. R.(1998). The role of age, family support, and negative cognitions in the prediction of depressive symptoms. School Psychology Review,27,121-137.

Park, R. J., Goodyer, I. M., & Teasdale, J. D.(2004).Effects of induced rumination and distraction on mood and overgeneral autobiographical memory in adolescent Major Depressive Disorder and control. Journal of Child Psychological Psychiatry,45,996-1006.

Pearlin, L. I., & Schooler, C.(1978).The structure of coping. Journal of Health and Social Behavior,19,2-21.

Pervin, L. A.(1968).Performance and satisfaction as a function of individual-
environment fit. Psychological Bulletin,69,56-68.

Petersen, A. C., & Compas, B. E.(1993).Depression in adolescence. American Psychologist,48,155.

Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P.(1984).Causal explanations as a risk factor for depression:Theory and evidence. Psychological Review,91,347-374.

Potter-Efron, L. A., & Potter-Efron, P. S.(1989).Assessment of co-dependency with individuals from alcoholic and chemically dependent families. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly,6,37-57.

Prest, L., & Storm, C.(1988).The codependent relationships of compulsive eaters and drinkers:Drawing parallels. American Journal of Family Therapy,16,339-349.

Prest, L. A., & Protinsky, H.(1993).Family systems theory:A unifying framework for codependence. The American Journal of Family Therapy,21,352-360.

Rehm, L. P.(1977).A self-control model of depression. Behavior Therapy,8,787-804.

Reinherz, H. Z., Giaconia, R. M., Lefkowitz, E. S., & Pakiz, B.(1993).Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a community population of older adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,32,369-377.

Reynolds, W. M., & Johnston, H. F.(1994).Handbook of depression in children and adolescents. New York:Plenum Press.

Rini, C., Dunkel-Schetter, C., Wadhwa, P., & Sandman, C.(1999).Psychological adaptation and birth outcomes:The role of personal resources, stress, and sociocultural context in pregnancy. Health Psychology,18,333-345.

Roehling, P., Fowler, B., Gaumond, E., & Dancz, D.(1992).Codependence:A valid construct? Paper presented at the Annual American Psychological Association Convention, Washington,DC.

Roehling, V. P., & Gaumond, E.(1996).Reliability and validity of the codependent questionnaire. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly,14,85-95.

Roehling, P., Koelbel, N., & Rutgers, C.(1996).Codependence and conduct disorder:Feminine versus masculine coping responses to abusive parenting practices. Sex Roles,35,603-618.

Rose, D. T., Abramson, L. Y., Hodulik, C. J., Halberstadt, L., & Gaye, L.(1994).Heterogeneity of cognitive style among depressed inpatients. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,103,419-429.

Schaef, A. W.(1986).Co-dependence:Misunderstood-mistreated. San Francisco:Harper & Row.

Sedlak, C. A., Doheny, M. O., & Estok, P. J.(2000).Alcohol use in women 65 years of age and older. Health Care for Women International,21,567-581.

Segrin, C.(2001). Interpersonal processes in psychological problems. New York:Guilford Press.

Seligman, M. E. P.(1974).Depression and learned helplessness. In R. J. Friedman & M. M. Katz (Eds.), The psychology of depression:Contemporary theory and research. Washington, DC:Winston-Wiley.

Siegal, R.(1988).Women’s dependency in a male-centred value system:Gender based values regarding dependency and interdependence. Women in Therapy,7,113-123.

Southall, D., & Roberts, J. E.(2002).Attributional style and self- esteem in vulnerability to adolescent depressive symptoms following life stress:A 14-week prospective study. Cognitive Therapy and Research,26,563-579.

Spann, L., & Fischer, J.(1990).Identifying co-dependency. The Counsellor,8,27.

Stark, K. D., Schmidt, K. L., & Joinrt, T. E., Jr.(1996).Cognitive triad:Relationship to depressive symptoms, parents’ cognitive triad, and perceived parental messages. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,24,615-631.

Sweeney, P. D., Anderson, K., & Bailey, S.(1986).Attributional style in depression:A meta-analytic review. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,50,974-991.

Swann, W. B. Jr.(1990).To be known or to be adored:The interplay of self-enhancement and self-verification. In E. T. Higgins & R. M. Sorrentino(Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition(pp.408-448). New York:Guilford Press.

Tavris, C.(1992).The mismeasure of women. New York:Simon & Schuster.

Taylor, S. E.(2003).Health psychology. New York:McGraw-Hill.

Teasdale, J. D.(1983).Negative thinking in depression:Cause, effect, or reciprocal relationship? Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy,5,3-25.


Teichman, M., & Basha, U.(1996).Codependency and family cohesion and adaptability:Changes during treatment in a therapeutic community. Substance Use and Misuse,13,599-615.

Tiet, Q. Q., Bird, H. R., Hoven, C. W., Moore, R., Ping, W., Wicks, J., Jensen, P. S., Goodman, S., & Cohen, P.(2001). Relationship between specific adverse life Events and psychiatric disorders. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,29,153-165.

Timbremont, B., & Braet, C.(2006).Brief report:A longitudinal investigation of the relation between a negative cognitive triad and depressive symptoms in youth. Journal of Adolescence,29,453-458.

Twenge, J. M., & Nolen-Hoeksema S.(2002).Age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, and birth cohort difference on the children’s depression inventory:A meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,111,578-588.

Van Os, J., & Jones, P. B.(1999).Early risk factors and adult person-environment relationships in affective disorder. Psychological Medicine,29,1055-1067.

Van Wormer, K.(1989).Co-dependency:Implications for women and therapy. Women and Therapy,8,51-63.

Vernberg, E. M.(1990).Psychological adjustment and experiences with peers during early adolescence:Reciprocal, incidental, or unidirectional relationships? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,18,187-198.

Wade, T. J., Cairney, J., & Pevalin, D. J.(2002).Emergence of gender differences in depression during adolescence:National panel results from three countries. Journal of American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry,41,190-198.

Watson, D.(2000).Mood and temperament. New York:Guilford Press.

Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Harkness, A. R.(1994).Structures of personality and their relevance to psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,103,
18-31.

Webster, D.(1990).Women and depression (alias codependency). Family and Community Health,13,58-66.

Wegscheider-Cruse, S., & Cruse, J. R.(1990).Understanding co-dependency. Deerfield Beach,FL:Health Communications.

Weinhold, B. K., & Weinhold, J. B.(1989).Breaking free of the co-dependency trap. Stillpoint Publishing.

Weiss, L., & Weiss, J. B.(1989).Recovery from co-dependency. Deerfield Beach,FL:Health Communications.

Weissman, M. M., & Jensen, P.(2002).What research suggests for depressed women with children. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry,63,641-647.

Weissman, M. M., Warner, V., Wickramaratne, P., Moreau, D., & Olfson, M.(1997).Offspring of depressed parents:10 years later. Archives of General Psychiatry,54,932-940.

West, M., Spreng, S. W., Rose, S. M., & Adam, K. S.(1999).Relationship between attachment-felt security and history of suicidal behaviors in clinical adolescents. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry,44,578-582.

Whelton, W. J., & Greenberg, L. S.(2005).Emotion in self-criticism. Personality & Individual Difference,38,1583-1595.

Whitfield, C. L.(1987).Healing the child within:Discovery and recovery for adult children of dysfunctional families. Pompano Beach,FL:Health Communications.
Whitfield, C. L.(1991).Co-dependence:Healing the human condition. Deerfield Beach,FL:Health Communications.

Wichstrom, L.(1999).The emergence of gender difference in depressed mood during adolescence:The role of intensified gender socialization. Developmental Psychology,35,232-245.

World Health Organization.(1992). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders:Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. Switzerland.

Worth, M. J.(1997).Codependency and psychopathology. Dissertation Abstracts International:Section B:The Sciences and Engineering,57,4732.

Wright, P. H., & Wright, K. D.(1991).Codependency:Addictive love, adjustive relating, or both? Contemporary Family Therapy,13,435-454.

Wright, P., & Wright, K.(1995).Codependency:Personality syndrome or relational process?In Duck, S., & Wood, J.(Eds.),Confronting relationship challenges. London:Sage.

Yoder, K. A., & Hoyt, D. R.(2005).Family economic pressure and adolescent suicidal ideation:Application of the family stress model. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior,35,251-264.

Zuboff-Rosenzweig, L.(1996).The degree of similarity concerning abuse within the family backgrounds of Al-Anon members and controls. Alcoholism Treatment Quaryerly,14,81-101.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top