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研究生:丹葳
研究生(外文):Tan, Wei
論文名稱:死亡圖像與西歐社會心態--以十四至十六世紀法國和尼德蘭地區為例
論文名稱(外文):The Images of Death and the Western European Mentalities: Studies in France and the Netherlands 1300-1600.
指導教授:張淑勤張淑勤引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chang, Shu-Chin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:歷史研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:歷史學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:245
中文關鍵詞:黑死病死亡之舞煉獄天堂地獄罪惡受難
外文關鍵詞:Black DeathDance of DeathPurgatoryHeavenParadiseHellSinPassion
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從十五世紀開始,死亡似乎成為啟發靈感的泉源。在十五世紀,關於死亡的圖像隨處可見,十六世紀則更甚。概觀西方從古至今的葬禮藝術,可以發現腐屍、骸骨和「死亡之舞」,只在這短暫的三百年間佔了重要地位。而快速瀏覽過這時期關於死亡的圖像,無法忽略大量描繪殉教和屠殺的場景。為何這病態的美學在十四世紀中期爆發?
當鼠疫在1348年復發,三分之一的歐洲人消失。傳染病開始後,歉收更為頻繁,城市和農村的暴動增加。土耳其人加緊他們的壓迫,而教會大分裂將西方基督教世界撕裂,內戰和對外戰爭毀壞了法國,以及宗教戰爭在十六世紀後半葉折磨著法國和低地國地區。這是西歐從十四世紀至十六世紀之間的概況。
眾多的因素聚集在一起,使西方文明從黑死病至宗教戰爭期間,產生了一種不安的氛圍。過去,如同現在,對於暴力的恐懼體現在暴力的圖像中;而對於死亡的恐懼則反映於死亡的圖像裡。當被瘟疫、飢荒和著魔的士兵所殺害的屍體大量出現時,灌輸罪惡感的佈道伴隨著令人厭惡的圖像,找到新的觀眾。死亡圖像的出現,歸屬於一個總體現象,那是由於對災難和無所不在暴力的恐懼,以及關於罪惡感的論述所引發的。
From the beginning of the fifteenth century, death seemed to have become the great source of inspiration. In the fifteenth century the image of death was to be seen everywhere. The sixteenth century went even farther than fifteenth. Even a rapid overview of Western funerary iconography from the Greco-Roman era to our own times immediately reveals that the representation of decomposing bodies, of skeletons, and of danses macabres only dominated the scene for a relatively brief period of 300 years. Even a rapid overview of the macabre of this period could not neglect the vast number of scenes representing martyrdom and massacre. Why this explosion of a morbid aesthetic as of the middle of the fourteenth century?
When the plague returned with a vengeance in 1348 and devastated a good part of continent for four years, a third of all Europeans perished. Moreover, just when these epidemics had started, bad harvests became more frequent, urban and rural revolts increased, the Turks accelerated their pressure, the Great Schism tore apart Latin Christianity, and civil and foreign wars ravaged France. The Wars of Religion afflicted France and the Low Countries during the second half of the sixteenth century. Such is the panorama of Western Europe between the fourteenth and the sixteenth century.
Here are so many factors that, gathered together, create a climate of anxiety in western civilization between the time of the plague and the end of Wars of Religion. Yesterday, as today, fear of violence is objectified in images of violence and fear of death in macabre visions. When the presence of corpse killed by plagues, famine, and soldiers becomes obsessive, the guilt-instilling sermon with its nauseating imagery will find a new audience. Clearly, the chronology of the macabre belongs to the same global phenomenon that brings together the discourse of guilt, fear before accumulated misfortunes, and the omnipresence of violence.
目錄
導論
第一章   時代氛圍
第一節 鼠疫的影響
第二節 失序的社會
第三節 憂鬱傾向
第二章   死亡的形象化和擬人化
第一節 死神圖像和屍體表徵
第二節 三個死者和三個生者的傳說
第三節 死亡之舞
第四節 社會意義
第三章   末日和來世景象
第一節 最後審判
第二節 死者復活
第三節 煉獄
第四節 天堂
第四章   罪與罰
第一節 地獄
第二節 罪惡
第五章   受難
第一節 受難和基督身體
第二節 受難與現實暴力
結論
附圖
參考資料
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Ziegler, Philip. The Black Death. London: Collins, 1969.
二、期刊論文
Ashley, Kathleen M. "The Resurrection of Lazarus in Late Medieval English and French Cycle Drama." Papers on Language and Literature 22 (1986): 227-44.
Becker, Christopher Bennett. “Dante's Motley Cord: Art and Apocalypse in Inferno XVI.” MLN 106, no. 1, Italian Issue (1991): 179-183.
Bossy, John. “The Mass as a Social Institution 1200-1700.” Past and Present, no. 100. (1983): 29-61.
DuBruck, Edelgard E. "Villon's Two Pleas for Absolution." L'Esprit Créateur 7 (1967): 188-96.
________. "Barclay's Veritable Source: A Ship of Fools by Pierre Rivière." Michigan Academician 4 (1971): 67-75.
________. "The Devil and Hell in Medieval French Drama," Romania 100 (1979): 165-79.
________. "Death and the Peasant: A Testimony on Fifteenth-Century Life and Thought by Johannes von Saaz." Fifteenth-Century Studies 3 (1980): 55-70.
________. "The Death of Christ in French Passion Plays of the Late Middle Ages: Its Aspects and Sociological Implications." in Dies Illa. 81-91.
Fiero, G. K. "Death Ritual in Fifteenth-Century Manuscript Illumination." Journal of Medieval History 10 (1984): 271-34.
Finucane, Robert C. “Sacred Corpse, Profane Carrion: Social Ideals and Death Rituals in the Later Middle Ages,” in Mirrors of Mortality: Studies in the Social History of Death, ed. Joachim Whaley. 40-60.
Gillespier, Vincent. "Strange Images of Death: the Passion in Later Medieval English Devotional and Mystical Writing," in Zeit, Tod und Ewigkeit. 111-59.
Howell, Martha C. “Fixing Movables: Gifts by Testament in Late Medieval Douai.” Past and Present, no. 150 (1996): 3-45.
LeGoff, Jacques. "The Learned and Popular Dimensions of Journeys in the Otherworld in the Middle Ages" in Understanding Popular Culture: Europe from the Middle Ages to the Nineteenth Century, ed. Steven L. Kaplan. Berlin: Mouton, 1984, 19-37.
________. "Death and the Usurer.” in Your Money or Your Life. Economy and Religion in the Middle Ages. New York: Zone Books, 1988, 47-64.
Lerner, Robert E. “The Black Death and Western European Eschatological Mentalities.” The American Historical Review 86, no. 3 (1981): 533-552.
Little, Lester K. “Pride Goes before Avarice: Social Change and the Vices in Latin Christendom.” The American Historical Review 76, No. 1 (Feb. 1971): 16-49.
Mackenbach, Johan P. “Public Health Then and Now: Social Inequality and Death as Illustrated in Late-Medieval Death Dances.” American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 85, no 9 (Sep 1995): 1285-1292.
McCall, Andrew. "Hell." in The Medieval Underworld. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1979, 285-88.
McDonald, William C. "Beheim's Song on the Signs before Doomsday," Fifteenth-Century Studies 5 (1982): 151-66.
________. "On the Charnel house as a Poetic Motif: Villon and German Poetry on Death." Fifteenth-Century Studies 19 (1992): 101-45.
McGuire, Brian Patrick. “Purgatory, the Communion of Saints, and Medieval Change.” Viator 20 (1989): 61-84.
Mills, Robert. “For they know not what they do: Violence in medieval Passion Iconography.” Fifteenth- Century Studies 27 (2001): 200-217.
Morganstern, Anne McGee. “The La Grange Tomb and Choir: A Monument of the Great Schism of the West.” Speculum 48, no. 1 (1973): 52-69.
Nancy, Caciola.“Wraiths, Revenants and Ritual in Medieval Culture.” Past and Present 152 (1996): 3-45.
Nicholls, David. “The Theatre of Martyrdom in the French Reformation.” Past and Present 121 (1988): 49-73.
Ottosen, Knud. "History of the Office of the Dead." in The Responsories and Versicles of the Latin Office of the Dead. Aarhus: University Press, 1993.
Pilkinton, Mark C. "The Raising of Lazarus: A Prefiguring Agent to the Harrowing of Hell." Medium Aevum 44 (1975): 51-54.
Pouchelle, Marie-Christine. “ Représentation du Corps dans la Légende Dorée." Ethnologie Française, 1976.
Taylor, Jane H. M. “Danse Macabre and Bande Dessinée: A Question of Reading.” Forum for Modern Language Studies 25 (1989): 356-69.
________. “The Dialogues of the Dance of Death and the Limits of Late-Medieval Theatre.” Fifteenth-Century Studies 16 (1990): 215-32.
Thon, Peter. “Bruegel's The Triumph of Death Reconsidered.” Renaissance Quarterly 21, no. 3 (Autumn 1968): 289-299.
Turner, Ralph V. "Descendit ad Inferos: Medieval Views on Christ's Descent into Hell and the Salvation of the Ancient Just." Journal of the History of Ideas 27 (1966): 173-94.
Weinstein, Donald. "The Art of Dying Well and Popular Piety in the Preaching and Thought of Girolamo Savonarola." in Life and Death in Fifteenth-Century Florence, ed. Marcel Tetel. 88-104.
Whisnant, Norman E. "The Role of Death in Des Dodes Danz." Furman Studies 21 (1974): 24-28.

三、中文書目
Alexandre-Bidon, Danièle著,陳劼譯,《中世紀有關死亡的生活》,濟南市: 山東畫報,2005年。
Huizinga, Johan著,《中世紀的衰落: 對十四和十五世紀法蘭西、尼德蘭的生活方式思想及藝朮的研究》,杭州市: 中國美術學院出版社,1997年。
Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel著,《蒙大猶:1294-1324年奧克西坦尼的一個山村》,臺北市:麥田出版,2001年。
Russell, Jeffery Burton著,《天堂的歷史》,台北市:新新聞文化,2001年。
Vovelle, Michel著,《死亡文化史》,北京:中國人民大學出版社,2004年。

參、圖像資料
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