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研究生(外文):Wei-Jen Chen
論文名稱(外文):Design of a Peer-to-Peer On-Demand Video Streaming System for Heterogeneous Clients
指導教授(外文):Jen-Wen Ding
外文關鍵詞:Multiple Description Coding (MDC)Peer-to-Peermulticast treeon-demand videoheterogeneous clients
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隨著網際網路的普及以及傳輸技術的進步,在網際網路上傳遞多媒體的資訊已經成為主流的應用之一。由於同儕式網路(Peer-to-Peer, P2P) 技術快速發展並擁有分散網路流量以及容錯能力佳等特性,目前許多屬於應用層的視訊群播串流程式也開始從事這方面的研究。在先前的研究中,大多未考慮到節點之間的異質性與節點的上下傳頻寬不對等的問題,且目前的架構大多只能提供單一品質的影片觀賞,並無法針對使用者的可用頻寬及需求做可調適性的變動。因此,本論文以同儕式網路結合多重描述編碼 (Multiple Description Coding, MDC) 的傳輸方式,提供隨選視訊串流 (On-Demand Streaming) 服務,可以將影片編碼成許多獨立的子串流,針對使用者的傳輸能力給予不同的視訊品質,使用者也可以依據自己的可用頻寬接收數量不等的串流。而使用者只需接收到其中一條子串流便能收看,所接收的子串流個數越多,收看的品質效果越好。本研究提出了兩種用戶頻寬分配的方式,稱為公正分配與動態分配,改善了傳統建立視訊串流群播樹的問題,有效的適應異質用戶上下傳頻寬不相等的問題。而經由模擬實驗結果證明動態分配的頻寬分配方式可以使用戶得到最好的收看品質,且本研究所提出兩種頻寬分配的收看品質,皆較傳統建立視訊串流群播樹的方法為佳。
With the rapid development of network technologies and the widely use of the Internet, delivering multimedia data over the Internet has become one of the most popular applications. In recent years, much research has been devoted to Peer-to-Peer (P2P) technology. The main merits of P2P technology is that it can distribute the whole computing load and traffic load over all participating nodes and be able to provide better service reliability. For this reason, the research on application-layer video multicast has started to adopt the P2P architecture. However, previous research does not take into account the following two important factors: (1) client heterogeneity problem, (2) the asymmetric upload/download capability on each client. In addition, previous research assumes that all clients request the same video quality and the system is unable to provide adaptive video quality according to clients' available network bandwidth. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel design for on-demand streaming. We combine peer-to-peer technology with multiple description coding (MDC). Unlike previous approaches, in our system, each video stream is divided into multiple independent MDC descriptors, and different clients can receive different subset of the all descriptions according to each individual client's capability. in the worst case, a client can obtain the basic video quality by receiving only one MDC description. The more number of received descriptions, the better the video quality In our study, we explore two client bandwidth allocation schemes, the fair allocation and the dynamic allocation. Our simulation results show that both proposed schemes outperforms conventional P2P video-on-demand streaming system, and the dynamic allocation can achiece the best video quality.
摘 要 I
致謝 III
目 錄 IV
圖 目 錄 VI
表 目 錄 VIII
1. 緒論 1
1.1. 研究背景與動機 1
1.2. 研究目的 5
1.3. 論文架構 6
2. 文獻探討 7
2.1. 主從式架構的視訊串流(Client-Server Streaming) 7
2.1.1. 可調適的視訊編碼(Scalable Video Coding) 9 分層編碼(Layered Video) 9 細緻可調性編碼(FGS) 11 多重描述編碼(MDC Video) 11
2.2. 同儕式網路視訊串流(P2P Streaming) 13
2.2.1. 以拓樸分類(Topology) 14 網狀(mesh) 14 單一樹(single-tree) 14 多重樹(multi-tree) 15 階層式 (hierarchy) 16
2.2.2. 以可調適性視訊編碼分類(Scable Video Coding) 18 分層編碼(Layered P2P) 18 細緻可調性編碼(FGS P2P) 20 多重描述編碼(MDC P2P) 21
2.3 近年發展現況 22
3. 研究設計 25
3.1 系統架構概觀 26
3.2 演算法描述 32
3.3 快取規則(Caching Rule) 38
3.4 錯誤覆蓋(Failure Recovery) 40
4. 模擬實驗 42
4.1 模擬環境與設定 42
4.2 實驗結果分析 44
5. 結論 54
6. 未來研究 56
參考文獻 57
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