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研究生:張榮中
研究生(外文):Rong-Jhong Jhang
論文名稱:雙頻帶及超寬頻低雜訊放大器之設計
論文名稱(外文):Design of Dual-band and Ultra-Wideband Low Noise Amplifiers
指導教授:吳常熙
指導教授(外文):Chang-Hsi Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:龍華科技大學
系所名稱:電子系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:低雜訊放大器雜訊係數雙頻帶超寬頻
外文關鍵詞:Low Noise AmplifierNoise FigureDual-BandUltra-WideBanddesign
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低雜訊放大器是通訊系統中相當重要的前級電路,它提供了足夠大的增益以及最小的雜訊係數,進而決定了整體接收機的雜訊係數和靈敏度。本論文是以TSMC 0.18μm 1P6M CMOS製程的RF model來設計可變增益的雙頻帶鏡頻抑制低雜訊放大器以及超寬頻低雜訊放大器以應用於IEEE802.11 a/b/g以及IEEE802.15.3a的無線個人區域網路系統。在可變增益的雙頻帶鏡頻抑制低雜訊放大器的設計上,採用疊接結構加入兩組諧振使其形成雙頻帶並含有鏡頻抑制的功能,因此可省去後級的鏡頻抑制濾波器,不但能縮小面積,也可以節省成本。除此之外,採用電流鏡做為直流偏壓以達到可變增益的效果。在超寬頻低雜訊放大器的設計上,採用折疊式疊接結構並利用米勒頻率補償以及插入一個零點的方法來達到擴展頻寬的效果。並且在藉由回授網路的Miller等效,可改變輸入端阻抗,達到任意的輸入匹配條件。利用ADS進行模擬並透過CIC進行晶片製作,最後再透過CIC高頻量測實驗室進行量測。
The basic function of the LNA is to provide signal amplification while adding as little noise and distortion as possible to improve the overall noise figure and linearity of the front-end.This thesis uses TSMC 0.18μm 1P6M CMOS process’s RF model to design the variable gain low-noise amplifiers with dual-band Image-rejection and Ultra-Wideband Low Noise Amplifiers, they are applied on the systems of the 802.11a/b/g and 802.15.3a Wireless Personal Area Network(WPAN). A variable-gain CMOS dual-band LNA using concurrent image rejection technique is designed using cascode structure with two resonators which form an image-rejection dual-band response. Therefore, the rear image-rejection filter stage is abbreviated and the area and cost can be reduced. Beside, a current mirror is applied to provide variable dc bias which can tune the gain. On the design of the ultra-wideband LNA, a folded cascade with Miller frequency compensation and introduing a zero is used to expand the bandwidth. By the shunt-shunt feedback, the input impedance matching can be achieved. The Advanced Design System (ADS) is used to simulate and the chips are fabricated and measured by the aids of CIC.
摘 要 i
ABSTRACT ii
致謝 iii
目 錄 iv
表目錄 vi
圖目錄 vii
第一章 緒 論 1
1.1 LNA之發展近況 1
1.2 無線區域網路規範 2
1.2.1 IEEE 802.11規範標準 2
1.2.2 IEEE 802.15 TG3a 規範標準 5
1.2 接收機架構 10
1.3.1 超外差式接收機 11
1.3.2 直接降頻接收機 17
1.3.3 鏡頻抑制接收機 23
1.3.4 UWB接收機 27
1.3.5 接收機的性能指標 27
1.4 論文架構 28
第二章 低雜訊放大器設計考量 30
2.1 簡介 30
2.2 設計指標 30
2.2.1 功率 30
2.2.2 頻率 31
2.2.3 雜訊係數 31
2.2.4 增益 31
2.2.5 輸入阻抗匹配 32
2.2.6 隔離度和穩定性 33
2.2.7 非線性效應 34
2.2.8 靈敏度 42
2.2.9 動態範圍 43
2.3 雜訊 45
2.3.1 場效電晶體的雜訊 47
2.3.2 電抗元件的雜訊 48
2.3.3 雙埠網路的雜訊理論 48
2.3.4 雜訊最佳化 50
2.4 雙埠網路分析法 62
2.4.1 S參數 62
2.4.2 功率增益 65
2.4.3 穩定圓(Stability Circle) 66
2.4.4 無條件穩定(Unconditionally Stable) 68
2.4.5 同時共軛匹配(Simultaneous Conjugate Match) 69
2.4.6 等 圓( Constant Available Power-Gain Circle) 69
2.4.7 等雜訊指數圓(Constant Noise Figure Circle) 70
2.4.8 利用S參數設計放大器的步驟 70
第三章 可變增益雙頻帶低雜訊放大器設計 72
3.1 電路架構 72
3.2 設計原理 73
3.2.1 鏡頻抑制之頻率選擇 73
3.2.2 Input Match 74
3.2.3 Noise analysis 75
3.3 電路設計流程 76
3.4 模擬與量測 78
3.4.1 雙頻帶鏡頻抑制LNA各項參數的模擬與量測結果 78
第四章 應用於超寬頻系統之超寬頻低雜訊放大器 83
4.1 電路架構 84
4.2 設計原理 85
4.3 電路設計流程 87
第五章 結論 91
參考文獻 92
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