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研究生:徐儷瑜
論文名稱:從情緒,認知與因應探討父母衝突對兒童適應的影響
指導教授:許文耀許文耀引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:168
中文關鍵詞:父母衝突兒童適應情緒安全感認知評估因應行為
相關次數:
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本研究以情緒安全感假說,與認知背景架構觀點為基礎,探討父母衝突對兒童的直接影響。藉由統整情緒安全感與認知評估之概念,釐清情緒與認知在兒童適應父母衝突時所產生的影響。並加上因應行為的觀點,探索兒童的因應行為,在適應父母衝突時之角色,比較兒童的情緒、認知及因應行為,三者對兒童適應父母衝突的影響性。
本研究的目的有四:一、將情緒安全感概念與認知背景架構中認知評估概念予以純化與細化;二、以純化與細化後的情緒認知反應,預測兒童在父母衝突下的內化問題與外化問題;三、探討兒童的因應行為,在情緒認知反應及適應問題之間的中介與調節效果;四、比較一般家庭兒童與高衝突家庭兒童在情緒、認知、因應行為及內化、外化適應問題之差異,並檢驗兩組兒童在內化與外化問題之不同影響機制。
本研究以台北市與台北縣各一所國小的五年級兒童及其父母、導師為研究對象,共有566名兒童、413位父母、20位導師參與,以問卷法收集資料。研究工具為「兒童知覺父母衝突量表」(CPIC)、「父母間次系統安全感量表」(SIS)、「兒童因應量表」(CCSC)、「夫妻衝突策略量表」(CTS)、兒童行為檢核表兒童版(CBCL-YSR)、老師版(CBCL-TRF)及家長版(CBCL)。資料分析採因素分析法及多元迴歸分析法進行。
本研究的結果如下:一、將情緒安全感與認知評估純化與細化後,形成兩個情緒反應:情緒激起及情緒失調;與六個認知反應:自責感、波及我、因應效能、建設性家庭表徵、破壞性家庭表徵、及父母衝突特徵。二、情緒認知反應能預測39%兒童內化問題,以情緒失調、情緒激起、缺乏因應效能、自責感、與波及我具有顯著預測力;對外化問題,情緒認知反應只能預測6%的變異量,以缺乏情緒激起、與自責感具顯著預測力。三、因應行為在情緒認知反應與適應問題之間,不具有中介效果,但有顯著調節效果,特別是在當兒童對父母衝突出現高自責時,越採取介入與尋求支持行為,其內化問題越顯著,但若採取低介入與低尋求支持行為,對其內化問題具有緩解效果。四、高衝突家庭兒童之內化較一般衝突家庭兒童顯著,他們對父母衝突的情緒激起、破壞性家庭表徵、建設性家庭表徵及缺乏因應效能均較高。情緒認知反應對不同衝突家庭兒童之不同適應問題,各有不同預測效果。高衝突家庭兒童之內化問題,情緒認知反應具有39%之預測力,以缺乏建設性家庭表徵波及我及兩種認知表徵最具預測力;對一般家庭兒童之內化問題,情緒認知反應亦有39%之預測力,以情緒失調、缺乏因應效能、自責感具有顯著預測力;而一般家庭兒童之外化問題,情緒認知反應有6%之預測力,以缺乏情緒激起、及自責感具有顯著預測力。
本研究進一步討論此研究結果的意涵,以及在研究概念與實務運用之貢獻,並提出研究限制及未來研究方向建議。
第一章、緒論……………………………………………………………… 1
第一節、父母衝突問題的嚴重性…………………………………… 1
第二節、父母衝突對兒童適應的影響……………………………… 1
第三節、父母衝突研究演進………………………………………… 2
第四節、研究問題…………………………………………………… 5
第二章、文獻探討………………………………………………………… 6
第一節、情緒安全感與認知評估…………………………………… 6
第二節、情緒安全感與認知評估之比較…………………………… 19
第三節、情緒安全感與認知評估之整合…………………………… 35
第四節、兒童的因應行為…………………………………………… 42
第五節、不同父母衝突經驗兒童之差異…………………………… 48
第六節、研究目的…………………………………………………… 53
第三章、研究方法………………………………………………………… 55
第一節、研究對象…………………………………………………… 55
第二節、研究工具…………………………………………………… 55
第三節、研究步驟…………………………………………………… 55
第四節、統計分析…………………………………………………… 59
第四章、研究結果………………………………………………………… 60
第一節、情緒安全感與認知評估之因素分析……………………… 60
第二節、純化後的情緒認知因素…………………………………… 75
第三節、兒童的因應行為…………………………………………… 81
第四節、不同父母衝突經驗兒童之比較…………………………… 99
第五節、對高衝突家庭兒童適應問題的預測……………………… 104
第六節、對一般衝突家庭兒童適應問題的預測…………………… 107
第七節、結論………………………………………………………… 110
第五章、討論與建議……………………………………………………… 112
第一節、情緒安全感與認知評估之純化與細化…………………… 112
第二節、情緒認知因素對兒童適應的預測………………………… 116
第三節、因應行為的影響…………………………………………… 120
第四節、對不同衝突經驗兒童適應問題的預測…………………… 125
第五節、兒童適應問題的評量……………………………………… 129
第六章、研究貢獻、實務應用與研究限制……………………………… 131
第一節、研究貢獻…………………………………………………… 131
第二節、實務的應用………………………………………………… 132
第三節、研究限制…………………………………………………… 134
參考文獻………………………………………………………………… 137
附錄……………………………………………………………………… 154
附錄一、兒童問卷…………………………………………………… 154
附錄二:老師問卷…………………………………………………… 162
附錄三、父母問卷…………………………………………………… 165
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