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研究生:楊捷宇
論文名稱:國中基測英文閱讀測驗分析與閱讀技巧及策略教學之研究
論文名稱(外文):An analysis of the English reading comprehension tests in the basic competence test and the instruction of the reading skills and strategies in class
指導教授:余明忠余明忠引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:英語教學碩士在職專班
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:英文
論文頁數:138
中文關鍵詞:國中基測英文閱讀閱讀技巧與策略
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論文提要內容:
本論文旨在探討台灣國中基本學力測驗中英文閱讀測驗之題型,並且針對各題型相關之閱讀技巧及策略進行教學實驗,期望本論文的研究發現與建議能對國中英文閱讀教學有所貢獻。
本研究實驗對象為六十名台北市景美地區一所國中九年級的學生,這些學生來自於二個不同的班級,一班為實驗組,另一班為控制組。本研究採用Mo (1987) 及 Johnson(2004) 的閱測題型分類,並參考國中基測委員會的建議,討論基測英文閱讀測驗題型與分配情形。實驗前測內容包含二○○二年至二○○四年所有國中基測英文閱讀測驗的考題,由受試者參加測驗。接下來進行本研究的教學實驗,實驗組中的受試者接受為期十三週,每週二節課,針對基則範例進行英文閱讀技巧及策略的教學,在另一方面,控制組在相同的條件下,針對相同的範例內容進行字彙、文法、句型及文意的講解與練習。實驗結束後,二組受試者均參加二○○六年所舉辦的兩次基測, 而受試者在英文閱讀測驗的表現,即代表他們的學習成效。
本研究發現國中基測英文閱讀測驗有六種題型,分別為確認文章主旨、尋找細部資訊、猜測字詞意義、找出字詞指涉、導出暗示推論及引導正確結論,而在二○○六年的基測題目中,僅最後一個類型引導正確結論無相關考題,且各題型的次數分配顯示出相當不平均的考題分配情形,將近一半的題目都屬於尋找細部資訊的類型,且歸類於字面技巧 (literal skills) 的題型比重也遠超過屬於重要技巧 (critical skills) 的題型。此外,前測結果不僅顯示實驗組與控制組在教學實驗進行前並無顯著差異,也顯示受試者在字面技巧的表現優於重要技巧。本研究也發現閱讀技巧及策略教學在二○○六年的第一次基測是有顯著成效的,然而在第二次時,因受試者已畢業且缺乏有效練習,所以成效並不顯著。
最後,本研究建議基測委員會與試題設計者能多考慮著重各種不同的閱讀題型,尤其是要增加對於學生整體閱讀能力提昇有很大幫助的題型比重,如找出文章主旨與結論等屬於重要技巧的題型。國中英文教師也能設計適合學生的閱讀教材,經由不同題型的練習與強化,幫助學生將這些閱讀技巧與策略內化為他們閱讀能力的一部份,本研究也建議國中英文教材與課本的編寫者能將這些技巧與策略安排在適當的單元與活動中。
The present study aims to investigate the question types of the English reading comprehension tests in the BCT and to conduct an experiment on the effectiveness of related reading skills and strategies. The findings and suggestions of the present study may be helpful for the reading instruction in junior high school.
A total of 60 ninth graders in a junior high school in Jing-mei, Taipei participated in this experiment. They are from two different classes; one is the control group and the other is the experimental group. According to the categorization of the reading skills from Mo (1987) and Johnson (2004), the present study examined the question types of the English reading comprehension tests in the BCT and the frequency distribution of different question types. The reading pretest included all the reading passages and items from 2002 to 2004, and the participants were asked to take the pretest as a formal exam. Then, the experiment of the present study lasted for 13 weeks, two class periods a week. The participants in the experimental group received the instruction of the reading skills and strategies while the participants in the control group were taught the vocabulary, the grammar, the structures and their meanings in the same reading passages. After the formal reading instruction, the participants took both of the BCT in 2006, and their performances may reflect the effectiveness of the formal reading instruction.
There are several findings for the present research. First, six different question types are identified in the English reading comprehension tests of the BCT and they are identifying the main idea, finding the detailed information, determining the meaning out of context, finding the targets of the reference, drawing implications and inferences and drawing correct conclusions. But the last question type drawing correct conclusions was not identified in the BCT of 2006. Second, there existed an unbalanced distribution of these question types. Nearly half of the reading questions can be classified as the type finding the detailed information, and the proportion of the question types related to the literal skills was much larger than those of the question types concerning the critical skills. Moreover, the results of the reading pretest showed that there is no significant difference between the experimental and the control groups and that the participants performed better on the literal skills than on the critical ones. At last, the results of the participants’ performances in the first BCT of 2006 revealed that the formal reading instruction of the reading skills and strategies is effective. But the participants took the second BCT after they graduated, and the effectiveness of the instruction may reduce because of time and lack of practice.
Finally,the researcher would like to suggest the BCT committee include more reading question types that may emphasize students’ overall reading abilities. Junior high school English teachers may design their own reading classes and help their students improve and internalize the reading skills and strategies they need. The designers of the English textbooks may include these useful reading skills and strategies in different tasks and activities.
Acknowledgments........................................................................................................iii
Chinese Abstract..........................................................................................................vi
English Abstract..........................................................................................................viii
Chapter
1. Introduction.......................................................................................................1
Background and Problem .............................................................................1
Motivation…………………...……………………………………………..3
Purpose of the Study …………..……………..……………………………4
Significance of the Study ……………..………………………………….5
Organization of the study…………..………………………………………7
2. Literature Review……………………………………………………….…….8
The Theory of Reading…………………………..…………………..………8
The Reading Process……………………………..………………………8
The bottom-up model…………..……..……………………………..9
The top-down model…………………...…………………………...10
The interactive model…………………………….………………....12
The Reading Components…………..………………………..…………13
The two-component model…………………………………………13
The three-component model…………………………………..........14
Schema theory………………………………………………………15
The Reading Skills and Strategies…………..…………….…..…………….16
The Definition of the Reading Skills and Strategies………………........16
The Categorization of the Reading Skills and Strategies………….....…17
The Validity of the Instruction of the Reading Skills and Strategies…...20
The Reading Comprehension Tests………….…………………..…………22
The Validity of the Reading Comprehension Tests……….……………22
The Reading Comprehension Tests in the BCT……………..………….24
3. Methodology……………………………………………………………….27
Participants……………………………………………………………….27
Instruments……………………………………………………………….28
Procedures…………………………………………………………….…..31
The Procedures of the Formal Reading Instruction…………..…….….32
Phase One: Warm up and Instruction……………………...……....32
Phase Two: The Instruction of the Reading Skills and Strategies…33
Phase Three: Review and Q & A……………………….………….48
Data Analysis…………………………………………………………….48
4. Results and Discussion…………………………….………………………49
Results of the Question Types and Their Percentage………….…………49
The Reading Pretest……………….…………………………………..49
The BCT in 2006………………………………..…………………….52
Results of the Participants’ Performances in the Pretest………………...57
Results of the Participants’ Performances in the BCT of 2006………….63
5. Conclusion………………………………………………………….……...81
Summary…………………………………………………………………81
Pedagogical Implications………………………………………………...86
Limitations of the Present Study and Suggestions for Future Research…88

REFERENCES.........................................................................................................91

Appendixes
A. The Reading Pretest……………................................................................100
B. The Warm-up Activities…………….........................................................110
C. The Handouts of the Formal Reading Instruction for
the experimental group...…………………………………………….111
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