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研究生:莊郁諄
研究生(外文):Yu-Zhun Zhuang
論文名稱:語言與認知:探討漢語與英語使用者在運動事件認知上的可能差異
論文名稱(外文):Language and Cognition: Investigating the Possible Difference between Chinese and English Speakers in their Perception of a Motion Event
指導教授:陳振宇陳振宇引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jenn-Yeu Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:語言類型薩丕爾-沃爾夫假說運動事件語言與認知
外文關鍵詞:verb-framed languagelanguage and cognitionlinguistic typesmotion eventssatellite-framed languageThe Sapir-Whorf Hypothesisequipollently-framed language
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  依據語言共性與差異性(Linguistic universals and diversity),以及薩丕爾-沃爾夫假說(The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis),語言之間存在的差異會影響語言使用者的認知。本研究探討漢語與英語使用者對於運動事件(motion events)的認知是否與兩種語言之不同類型有關。實驗一以”The Hobbit”之英文本及繁體中文譯本第六章為材料,進行敘述句之比較分析,藉以探究中文之語言類型是否與英文不同。結果發現:英文可歸類為satellite-framed language,而中文之方法動詞(manner verb)與路徑動詞(path verb)的比率大致相等,可歸類為equipollently-framed language。實驗二與實驗三以無文字繪本圖片及數位短片作為材料,實驗二採用圖片與短片再認記憶,實驗三採用圖片與短片相似度判斷,探討語言種類(漢語、英語)、是否有語言登錄(看到每一張圖片或短片時,用口語進行描述)、和是否有記憶干擾(看完所有圖片和短片之後進行一項視覺空間的作業)等,對於再認記憶和相似度判斷的影響。刺激圖片和短片與目標圖片和短片的差異分兩種:一種是運動事件的方法不同(走、跑)、一種是運動事件的路徑不同(進、出)。結果發現:再認記憶的表現並未受到這些因素的影響,相似度判斷的表現只受到是否有語言登錄的影響,沒有語言登錄的情況下,受試者將不同運動方法的圖片及短片視為相似之比率,比在有語言登錄的情況下所反應出來的高;漢語受試者比英語受試者較傾向將不同運動方法的圖片和短片視為相似。此外,實驗二、三中受試者對圖片和短片所做的口語描述,經過分析顯示:漢語傾向為satellite-或equipollently-framed language,英語傾向為satellite-framed language。
  總結而言,英語受試者的認知表現(再認記憶與相似度判斷)似乎與英語做為satellite-framed language的語言類型無關。漢語受試者的認知表現則似乎比較符合漢語做為equipollently-framed language的語言類型。
According to the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis, the difference between languages affects the cognition of speakers. This study investigated whether the different linguistic types of Chinese and English might be related to their speakers’ perception of a motion event. Experiment 1 analyzed Chapter Six of “The Hobbit” (both English and its Chinese translation) with respect to the narration of motion events. Results showed that English belongs to the satellite-framed language, and Chinese the equipollently-framed language. Experiment 2 (recognition memory) and Experiment 3 (similarity judgement) used line drawings and short films as materials to examine the effects of linguistic types (Chinese and English), verbal encoding (participants described the drawings or the films while watching them), and memory distraction (participants took a distractor task after watching all drawings and short films) on recognition and similarity judgement of the drawings and films. When the drawings and films were different, they differed either in the manner or in the path of the pictured motion. Results showed that recognition memory was not affected by any of the variables; however, similarity judgement was affected by verbal encoding. Participants were more likely to judge two drawings or short films of a motion event with different manners as similar when they had verbally encoded the event than when they had not. Analysis of the verbal descriptions in Experiments 2 and 3 showed that Chinese belongs to satellite- or equipollently-framed language, and English belongs to satellite-framed language. In conclusion, English speakers’ perception of a motion event did not seem to bear a clear relationship with the linguistic type (satellite-framed language) of the language. But the Chinese speakers’ perception of a motion event better conformed to the linguistic type (equipollently-framed language) of Chinese.
中文摘要----------------------------------------------------Ⅰ
英文摘要----------------------------------------------------Ⅱ
目錄--------------------------------------------------------Ⅲ
表目錄------------------------------------------------------Ⅴ
圖目錄------------------------------------------------------Ⅵ

第一章 緒論-----------------------------------------------1
第一節 語言差異的理論基礎與相關研究-----------------------1
第二節 語言與認知的理論基礎與實徵研究---------------------9
第三節 研究目的與假設-------------------------------------19

第二章 實驗一:敘述句之比較分析---------------------------21
第一節 實驗材料-------------------------------------------21
第二節 實驗設計-------------------------------------------21
第三節 編碼方式-------------------------------------------22
第四節 預期結果-------------------------------------------22
第五節 實驗結果-------------------------------------------23
第六節 結論與討論-----------------------------------------28

第三章 實驗二:再認記憶-----------------------------------31
第一節 參與者---------------------------------------------31
第二節 實驗設計-------------------------------------------33
第三節 實驗材料-------------------------------------------34
第四節 實驗程序-------------------------------------------34
第五節 預期結果-------------------------------------------37
第六節 實驗結果-------------------------------------------38
第七節 結論與討論-----------------------------------------47

第四章 實驗三:相似度判斷---------------------------------49
第一節 參與者---------------------------------------------49
第二節 實驗設計-------------------------------------------50
第三節 實驗材料-------------------------------------------50
第四節 實驗程序-------------------------------------------51
第五節 預期結果-------------------------------------------52
第六節 實驗結果-------------------------------------------53
第七節 結論與討論-----------------------------------------60

第五章 總討論與建議---------------------------------------63
第一節 總討論---------------------------------------------63
第二節 研究建議-------------------------------------------67

參考文獻----------------------------------------------------69

附錄
附錄一 實驗材料之細目說明表---------------------------------73
附錄二 運動事件圖片列表-------------------------------------75
附錄三 語言能力自我評估表-----------------------------------81
附錄四 再認記憶實驗參與者之語言能力自我評估資料彙整表-------83
附錄五 相似度判斷實驗參與者之語言能力自我評估資料彙整表-----91
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