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研究生:楊德芬
研究生(外文):TE-FEN YANG
論文名稱:隔代教養對學步兒發展之研究
論文名稱(外文):The study of the development between the toddlers reared by grandparents and those reared by parents
指導教授:徐畢卿徐畢卿引用關係
指導教授(外文):Bih-Ching Shu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:護理學系碩博士班
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:護理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:137
中文關鍵詞:發展隔代教養學步兒
外文關鍵詞:developmenttoddlersgrandparents
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:11
  • 點閱點閱:548
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:4
本研究主要目的在瞭解「隔代教養學步兒」發展現況,進一步探討隔代教養成因、隔代教養類型、隔代教養時間、祖父母基本資料 (居住地、主要照顧者、家庭型態、教育程度、職業、照顧子女數、家中育兒助手之有無與年齡) 對學步兒發展之影響; 並比較隔代教養與雙親教養學步兒之發展情形。
本研究採用「橫斷式」( cross-sectional ) 研究設計,以立意取樣 ( Purposive Sampling )方式,選取台南縣、市18個月大 (2週)學步兒,使用「嬰幼兒發展測驗」 ( Denver Developmental Screening Test)為研究工具,並輔以「基本資料表」進行資料收集。研究共發出247份問卷,回收有效問卷217份,回收率87.85%。統計分析採「卡方檢定」、「多項式邏輯斯迴歸」( Multinominal logistic model )探討主要照顧者、「照顧者年齡」、「教育程度」、家庭型態與「隔代教養總時間」對學步兒發展之影響。
研究結果顯示:
一、學步兒發展現況:
(一)以「粗動作」與「精細動作」兩者「發展正常」比例最高,皆為67%;「身邊處理及社會性」面向次之 (42.9%),「語言」面向則最低 (36.9%),不及四成。
(二)「不同性別」學步兒整體發展並未呈現顯著差異。
二、「教養方式」與學步兒發展之相關:
「語言」面向之發展隨教養方式不同呈顯著差異,發展「不正常」者,以「完全隔代」組最多 (47人,43.9%),「雙親教養」次之 (18人,23.4%),「混合隔代」最少 (5人,15.2%)。「混合隔代組」學步兒出現「發展有問題」之發生比,為「雙親教養組」發生比之3.92倍 (OR = 3.92, CI = 1.24 ~12.34, p = 0.02)。其餘面向則未達顯著差異。

三、「主要照顧者基本資料」與學步兒發展現況之相關:
(一)「粗動作」:
主要照顧者、「照顧者年齡」、「教育程度」、家庭型態與隔代教養時間等變項與學步兒發展無顯著相關。
(二)「精細動作」:
(1)家庭型態為「核心家庭」者,學步兒出現「發展有問題」之發生比,為「折衷家庭」者發生比之2.41倍 (OR = 2.41, CI =1.17~ 4.93, p = 0.016)。
(2)「母系照顧者」教育程度為「高中以上」者,學步兒出現「發展有問題」之發生比,為「國中以下」者發生比之0.19倍 (OR = 0.196, CI = 0.06~ 0.64, p = 0.007)。
(3) 家中「有」育兒助手者,學步兒出現「發展有問題」之發生比,為「無」育兒助手者發生比之0.546倍 ( OR = 0.546, CI = 0.321~ 0.931, p = 0.026)
(三)「語言」:
(1)「父系照顧者」教育程度為「高中以上」者,學步兒出現「發展不正常」之發生比,為「國中以下」發生比之0.25倍 (OR = 0.257, CI = 0.08~ 0.81, p = 0.02)。
(2)「母系照顧者」教育程度為「高中以上」者,學步兒出現「發展不正常」之發生比,較教育程度為「國中以下」者發生比之0.23倍 (OR = 0.237, CI = 0.08 ~ 0.64, p = 0.004)。
(四)「身邊處理及社會性」:
主要照顧者、「照顧者年齡」、「教育程度」、家庭型態與隔代教養時間等變項與學步
兒發展無顯著相關。
四、家庭型態、「母系照顧者教育程度」與「家中育兒助手」為學步兒「精細動作」發展之重要解釋、預測變項; 「父(母)系照顧者教育程度」與「混合隔代型態」為學步兒「語言」發展之重要解釋、預測變項。

本研究之實證結果可提供國內各界對台南地區隔代教養學步兒發展現況之瞭解,並對影響隔代教養學步兒發展之相關因素進行更多探索,作為健康從業人員推動幼兒發展相關工作之參考依據。
The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare development of toddlers who were reared by their grandparents (over 40 hours each week) and those who were reared by parents. Further analyses were also performed to explore the cause of grandparenting, the type of grandparenting, the duration of grandparenting and demographic characteristics that could significantly affect the development of toddlers.
A cross-sectional research design was used. Two hundred seventeen toddlers (age 18 months �b 2 weeks) were included by purposive sampling in Tainan areas. Among them, 107 toddlers reared by grandparents, 77 toddlers reared by parents and 33 toddlers by mixed type. The Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST)-Chinese version was conducted to assess the toddlers’ development status. Chi-square tests, multinominal logistic regression were used to assess whether there was any difference among three groups.
The result from the statistics are as follows:
1. The development status of toddlers:
The normal proportion are 67% in gross motor and fine motor dimensions, the personal-
-social dimension is 36.9% and the language dimension is 42.9%.
2. The correlation between the type of parenting of caregivers and the development of toddlers:
The rate of abnormal development is that toddlers reared by grandparents (43.9%) were more advanced in language developmentmixed than those reared by parents (23.4%) and those reared by mix type (15.2%).
3. The correlation between demographic characteristics of caregivers and the development of toddlers:
Multiple logistic regressions revealed that the family structure (OR = 2.41, CI =1.17~
4.93, p = 0.016), maternal education (OR = 0.196, CI = 0.06~ 0.64, p = 0.007) and the helper in caring toddler (OR = 0.546, CI = 0.321~ 0.931, p = 0.026) were associated with toddlers’ development in fine motor dimensions.
The paternal education (OR = 0.257, CI = 0.08~ 0.81, p = 0.02) and maternal education (OR = 0.237, CI = 0.08~ 0.64, p = 0.004) were associated with toddlers’ development in language dimensions.
4. The variables that could predict the development of toddlers:
According the result of statistics analysis, the family structure, maternal education, paternal education, the primary caregiver-mixed type and the helper in caring toddler were are the variables that could predict and explain the development of toddlers.
The finding of this study could provide the pediatricial practician to understand the
development of toddlers who reared by their grandparents.
中文摘要……………………………………………….…………..Ⅰ-Ⅲ
英文摘要………………………………….................…..Ⅳ-Ⅴ
論文目錄……………………………………………………………Ⅵ-Ⅸ
表目錄.................................................Ⅶ-Ⅷ
圖目錄....................................................Ⅷ
附件目錄...............................................Ⅷ-Ⅸ
第一章 緒論
 第一節 研究動機及重要性…………………………………….1-9
 第二節 研究目的……………………………………….......10
第三節 研究問題……………………………………………….11
第四節 名詞釋義…………………………………………....12-15
第二章 文獻探討
 第一節 「教養」之意涵……………………………....…..16-17
 第二節 「教養」對兒童之影響…………………………….17-18 
第三節 隔代教養之現況…………………………………...18-23
第四節 發展之定義、原則、相關理論與測量…………….23-44
第五節 學步兒發展特性…………………...............45-46
第六節 學步兒發展影響因素…………………...........46-51
第三章 研究方法
 第一節 研究架構……………..........................52
 第二節 研究設計……………..........................53
第三節 研究對象………………………………........…..53-54
第四節 研究工具………………….................…54-56
第五節 資料收集過程與倫理考量……………….....…56-58
第六節 資料之分析與處理……………………….....…59-60
第四章 研究結果
第一節 人口學資料……………………………………………61-72
第二節 學步兒發展現況……………………………………….73-77
第三節 教養方式與學步兒發展之相關....………………….77-83
第四節 主要照顧者基本資料與學步兒發展之相關………….83-91
第五節 主要照顧者對學步兒發展之預測………………………..92
第五章 討論
第一節 生物生態學理論…………………………………92-94
第二節 隔代教養現況………………………………....94-96
第三節 學步兒發展現況………………………………..96-100
第四節 主要照顧者基本資料對學步兒發展之影響….101-107
第六章 結論與建議
第一節 結論……………………………………….....108-109
第二節 建議…………………………………………..109-111
第三節 研究限制……………………………………..111-112
參考文獻
中文部份………………………………….............113-117
英文部份………………………………………….......117-126

表目錄
表1-1 台灣地區2000 ~ 2005年隔代教養相關研究…………..2
表1-2 隔代教養類型分類表…………………………………...12
表2-1 國內現有兒童發展測量工具之簡介與評析…………...40
表2-2 學步兒發展特性……………………………...........45
表4-1 常態分佈檢驗………………………………...........62
表4-2 隔代教養類型分類表……. …………………………...65
表4-3 主要照顧者人口學變項描述、比較性分析……………70
表4-4 學步兒發展測驗結果…………………………………..73
表4-5 不同性別學步兒發展測驗結果…………………………74
表4-6 不同性別學步兒發展測驗次數分配表………………..76
表4-7 教養方式與學步兒發展之相關………………………..78
表4-8 教養方式與學步兒發展測驗次數分配表……………..79
表4-9 主要照顧者與不同性別學步兒發展之相關…………..81
表4-10 雙親教養學步兒發展次數分配表……………………82
表4-11 方方檢定--主要照顧者人口學變項與學步兒發展之相關..84
表4-12 模式適合度檢定--主要照顧者人口學變項與「粗動作」發展86
表4-13 模式適合度檢定--主要照顧者人口學變項與「精細動作」發展.87
表4-14 主要照顧者人口學變項與「精細動作」發展之勝算比…..88
表4-15 分類表--主要照顧者人口學變項與「精細動作」發展….89
表4-16 模式適合度檢定--主要照顧者人口學變項與「語言」發展 89
表4-17 主要照顧者人口學變項與學步兒「語言」發展之勝算比…90
表4-18 分類表—主要照顧者人口學變項與「語言」發展……...91
表4-19 模式適合度檢定--主要照顧者人口學變項與「身邊處理及社會性」發展……91
表5-1 學步兒發展測驗篩檢結果……………………………..97

圖目錄
圖3-1 研究架構……………………………………………………….52
附錄目錄
附錄一 「嬰幼兒發展測驗」量表使用同意書................127
附錄二 台南市衛生局函……………………………….........128
附錄三 「人體試驗委員會」同意臨床試驗證明書………………129
附錄四 研究同意書…………………………………..........130
附錄五 研究問卷「基本資料」表………………………...131-136
附錄六 「嬰幼兒發展測驗」量表……………………………….137
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