(3.237.20.246) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/15 09:06
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:楊思燕
研究生(外文):Szu-Yen Yang
論文名稱:藻青素調控小鼠B16F10黑色素瘤細胞酪胺酸酶活性之分子機制
論文名稱(外文):Molecular regulation of CPC-induced downregulation of tyrosinase activity in B16F10 murine melanoma cells
指導教授:吳立真
指導教授(外文):Li-Chen Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立暨南國際大學
系所名稱:生物醫學科技研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學技術及檢驗學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:65
中文關鍵詞:藻青素黑色素酪胺酸酶黑色素生合成
外文關鍵詞:c-Phycocyaninmelanintyrosinasemelanogenesis
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:241
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
黑色素生成作用 (Melanogenesis),主要的功能是為了保護皮膚免於受到陽
光照射時所受到的紫外線傷害,屬於皮膚的防禦系統之一,但是如果此作用失
常,則會造成皮膚的病變,如過度的黑色素沉著現象 (hyperpigmentation) 與皮
膚癌 (melanoma) 等。黑色素生成的過程為一連串的氧化還原反應,而酪胺酸酶
為調控此反應速率決定步驟的主要酵素,許多美白的產品就是利用還原黑色素生
成過程中的代謝產物與抑制酪胺酸酶的活性和含量,而使得黑色素生成減少。藻
青素為水溶性的藻膽蛋白,具有特殊的蛋白質結構與特性,其抗氧化與清除自由
基的能力,展現了廣泛的醫用價值與醫療功效。因此我們認為藻青素有應用於發
展成為天然的美白產品的潛力,且在我們之前的研究結果中證實,藻青素可有效
地抑制小鼠B16F10 黑色素瘤細胞的黑色素生成反應,藻青素不僅降低了B16F10
酪胺酸酶的生成,還抑制了其活性。本實驗則是更深入地探討,藻青素抑制
B16F10 黑色素生成的分子機制。由本篇論文的實驗結果可知,藻青素在酪胺酸
酶基因轉錄層面的調控可能是藉由抑制CREB 的活化與增加ERK 的活性,使得
MITF 的表現量減少,造成酪胺酸酶生成量降低。而在酪胺酸酶蛋白質的後修飾
作用中,藻青素則透過抑制PKC-βⅠ 的生成而使得酪胺酸酶活性下降,最後造
成B16F10 黑色素生合成的抑制。另外由免疫螢光染色的結果可知,藻青素可被
B16F10 吞噬到細胞內,並且有進入細胞核的現象。而其進到細胞的方式與在細
胞核的作用,為我們日後實驗探討的重點。
The major function of melanogenesis is to prevent cells damage from the attack
of UV light. Over-production of melanin may result in hyperpigmentation and
melanoma. Tyrosinase is the key enzyme in melanogenesis. It catalyzes the
rate-limiting redox reaction of melanogenesis. Consequently, the inhibition of
tyrosinase activity or suppression of its expression may lead to reduce melanogenesis.
c-Phycocyanin (CPC) is a water-soluble protein with characteristics of anti-oxidant
and scavenging of free radicals. In the previous studies, the inhibitory mechanism of
CPC on B16F10 melanogenesis was studied. The results indicated that CPC activated
the activity of ERK and suppressed the activity of CREB, which led to diminished
level of MITF. Moreover, suppression of PKC-beta I by CPC might cause lowered
activity of tyrosinase, which further caused reduced level of melanogenesis. In
addition, CPC engulfed into B16F10 through endocytosis and then transferred into
nucleus was determined by confocal microscopic analysis.
中文摘要……………………………………………………………………………..Ⅰ
英文摘要………………………………………………………………………..……Ⅱ
目錄……………………………………………………………………………….….Ⅲ
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………………..Ⅵ

第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………………………1
第一節 前言………………………………………………………………..……1
第二節 藻青素 (C-phycocyanin)……………………………………………….2
一、來源……………………………………………………………………...2
二、藻青素之生物功能……………………………………………………...2
三、藻青素的組成結構……………………………………………………...3
四、藻青素與血紅素的演化關係…………………………………………..4
五、藻青素之相關研究與應用價值………………………………………...5
第三節 膚色……………………………………………………………………..8
第四節 黑色素細胞 (Melanocyte)…………………..…………………………9
一、黑色素體 (Melanosome)……………………………………………...10
二、黑色素 (Melanin)……………………………………………………..11
三、酪胺酸酶 (Tyrosinase)………………………………………………..13
四、黑色素生成 (Melanogenesis)………………………………………..14
五、黑色素生成的抑制作用………………………………………………18
第五節 研究動機與目的………………………….…………………………...20
第二章 實驗材料……………………………………………………………..……21
一、細胞株來源…………...……………………………………………………21
二、實驗藥品……………………………………………………………………21
三、抗體…………………………………………………………………………24
四、實驗器材……………………………………………………………………25
五、實驗試劑配製………………………………………………………………26
第三章 實驗方法………………………………………………………………..…29
一、黑色素瘤細胞株B16F10之培養…………………………………………29
二、蛋白質萃取與定量分析……………………………………………………29
三、聚丙醯胺膠體電泳法………………………………………………………30
四、西方墨點法…………………………………………………………………31
五、免疫螢光染色………………………………………………………………31
六、免疫沉澱……………………………………………………………………32
第四章 實驗結果…………………………………………………………………..33
一、藻青素對B16F10黑色素生成之訊號傳遞路徑的影響………………..…33
Ⅰ、cAMP dependent pathway……………..……………………………………33
1. 藻青素對CREB之影響…………………………………………….…33
2. 藻青素對PI3K之影響…………………………………………...……33
3. 藻青素對AKT之影響…………………………………………………33
4. 藻青素對GSK3β之影響……………..…………………………..……34
Ⅱ、cAMP independent pathway……………..…………………………………34
1. 藻青素對PKC-βⅠ之影響…………………………………….………34
2. 藻青素對PKC-βⅡ之影響………………………………………….…34
二、藻青素是否進入細胞………………………………………………………35
三、藻青素進入細胞的高峰期…………………………………………………35
第五章 討論…………………………………………………………………..……36
一、藻青素對B16F10黑色素生成之訊號傳遞路徑的影響…………..………37
Ⅰ、cAMP dependent pathway……………..……………………………………37
(一) cAMP / PKA pathway…………………………………………………...…38
1. 藻青素對CREB之影響………………………………………….……38
(二) cAMP / PI3K pathway……………………………………………………..38
2. 藻青素對PI3K之影響…………………………………………...……38
3. 藻青素對AKT之影響…………………………………………………39
4. 藻青素對GSK3β之影響……………..……………………………..…39
Ⅱ、cAMP independent pathway…………………………………………...……40
1. 藻青素對PKC-βⅠ之影響……………………………………….……40
2. 藻青素對PKC-βⅡ之影響………………………………………….…40
二、藻青素是否進入細胞………………………………………………………41
三、藻青素進入細胞的高峰期………………………………………………....42
第六章 結論………………………………………………………………………..42
第七章 未來工作………………………………………………………………..…43
圖表…………………………………………………………………………………..44
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………………..52









圖目錄
圖一、藻膽體 (phycobilisome) 的構造………………………………………………3
圖二、(a)藻青素之立體結構 (b) (α β)3-trimer,其中黑色的圓點為phycocyanobilin所在的位置………………………………………………………………………..…..4
圖三、(a) phycocyanobilin (b) bilirubin 之化學結構………………….……..…..…5
圖四、皮膚表皮層的結構…………………………………………………...…..……8
圖五、黑色素細胞發育過程與黑色素生成的基因調控……………………..………9
圖六、黑色素體的成熟過程…………………………..…………………………..…10
圖七、黑色素生合成途徑………………..…………………………………………..12
圖八、酪胺酸酶與黑色素體的成熟過程…………..………………………………..13
圖九、PKC家族所參與的生理功能……..………………………………………..…17
圖十、人類黑色素細胞中,PKC調控酪酸酶活性的機制…………………………..17
圖十一、黑色素生成之訊息傳遞路徑……………..………………………………..18
圖十二、抑制黑色素生成路徑的方法歸納…..…………………………………..…20
圖十三-1、藻青素調控細胞中CREB與p-CREB之蛋白質表現...………………...44
圖十三-二、藻青素調控細胞中PKC-βⅡ之蛋白質表現………………………...…45
圖十三-三、藻青素調控細胞中PKC-βⅠ之蛋白質表現………………………...…46
圖十三-四、藻青素調控細胞中PI3K之蛋白質表現……………………..……...…47
圖十三-五、藻青素調控細胞中AKT 、p-ATK (Ser 473)與p-ATK (Thr 308) 之蛋白質表現………………………………………………………………………......…48
圖十三-六、藻青素調控細胞中GSK3β與p-GSK3β之蛋白質表現……..……...…49
圖十四、藻青素在小鼠B16F10黑色素瘤細胞內的分部情形……………………..50
圖十五、藻青素進入B16F10的高峰期……………………………………………..51
1.Alhaidari, Z., Olivry , T. & & Ortonne , J.-P. Melanocytogenesis and melanogenesis: genetic regulation and comparative clinical diseases. Veterinary dermatology 10 3(1999 ).
2.Ando, H., Kondoh, H., Ichihashi, M. & Hearing, V.J. Approaches to identify inhibitors of melanin biosynthesis via the quality control of tyrosinase. The Journal of investigative dermatology 127, 751-761 (2007).
3.Aoki, H. & Moro, O. Involvement of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in expression of human melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R). Life sciences 71, 2171-2179 (2002).
4.Asad, S.F., Singh, S., Ahmad, A., Khan, N.U. & Hadi, S.M. Prooxidant and antioxidant activities of bilirubin and its metabolic precursor biliverdin: a structure-activity study. Chemico-biological interactions 137, 59-74 (2001).
5.Benedetti, S. et al. Antioxidant properties of a novel phycocyanin extract from the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Life sciences 75, 2353-2362 (2004).
6.Bertolotto, C., Bille, K., Ortonne, J.P. & Ballotti, R. In B16 melanoma cells, the inhibition of melanogenesis by TPA results from PKC activation and diminution of microphthalmia binding to the M-box of the tyrosinase promoter. Oncogene 16, 1665-1670 (1998).
7.Bhat, V.B. & Madyastha, K.M. C-phycocyanin: a potent peroxyl radical scavenger in vivo and in vitro. Biochemical and biophysical research communications 275, 20-25 (2000).
8.Bhat, V.B.M., K.M Scavenging of peroxynitrite by phycocyanin and phycocyanobilin from Spirulina platensis: protection against oxidative damage to DNA. Biochemical and biophysical research communications 286, 262-266 (2001).
9.Boissy, R.E. & Nordlund, J.J. Molecular basis of congenital hypopigmentary disorders in humans: a review. Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society 10, 12-24 (1997).
10.Boskovic, G., Desai, D. & Niles, R.M. Regulation of retinoic acid receptor alpha by protein kinase C in B16 mouse melanoma cells. The Journal of biological chemistry 277, 26113-26119 (2002).
11.Briganti, S., Camera, E. & Picardo, M. Chemical and instrumental approaches to treat hyperpigmentation. Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society 16, 101-110 (2003).
12.Bruch-Gerharz, D., Ruzicka, T. & Kolb-Bachofen, V. Nitric oxide and its implications in skin homeostasis and disease - a review. Archives of dermatological research 290, 643-651 (1998).
13.Busca, R. et al. Ras mediates the cAMP-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) in melanocytes. The EMBO journal 19, 2900-2910 (2000).
14.Busca, R. & Ballotti, R. Cyclic AMP a key messenger in the regulation of skin pigmentation. Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society 13, 60-69 (2000).
15.Cals-Grierson, M.M. & Ormerod, A.D. Nitric oxide function in the skin. Nitric Oxide 10, 179-193 (2004).
16.Ciferri, O. Spirulina, the edible microorganism. Microbiological reviews 47, 551-578 (1983).
17.Ciferri, O. & Tiboni, O. The biochemistry and industrial potential of Spirulina. Annual review of microbiology 39, 503-526 (1985).
18.Costin, G.E. & Hearing, V.J. Human skin pigmentation: melanocytes modulate skin color in response to stress. Faseb J 21, 976-994 (2007).
19.Dumaz, N. et al. In Melanoma, RAS Mutations Are Accompanied by Switching Signaling from BRAF to CRAF and Disrupted Cyclic AMP Signaling. Cancer research 66, 9483-9491 (2006).
20.Eisele, L.E., Bakhru, S.H., Liu, X., MacColl, R. & Edwards, M.R. Studies on C-phycocyanin from Cyanidium caldarium, a eukaryote at the extremes of habitat. Biochimica et biophysica acta 1456, 99-107 (2000).
21.Englaro, W. et al. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway triggers B16 melanoma cell differentiation. The Journal of biological chemistry 273, 9966-9970 (1998).
22.Fang, X. et al. Phosphorylation and inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 by protein kinase A. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97, 11960-11965 (2000).
23.Frame, S. & Cohen, P. GSK3 takes centre stage more than 20 years after its discovery. The Biochemical journal 359, 1-16 (2001).
24.Fujita, H. et al. Evidence for distinct membrane traffic pathways to melanosomes and lysosomes in melanocytes. The journal of investigative dermatology. Symposium proceedings / the Society for Investigative Dermatology, Inc 6, 19-24 (2001).
25.Gaggioli, C., Busca, R., Abbe, P., Ortonne, J.P. & Ballotti, R. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is required but is not sufficient to induce the expression of melanogenic genes. Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society 16, 374-382 (2003).
26.Glazer, A.N. Phycobiliproteins — a family of valuable, widely used fluorophores Journal of Applied Phycology 6 (1994).
27.Goding, C.R. Mitf from neural crest to melanoma: signal transduction and transcription in the melanocyte lineage. Genes & development 14, 1712-1728 (2000).
28.Gomez-Lojero C., P.-G.B., Prado-Flores G., Krogmann D. W., Carabez-Trejo A. and Pena-Diaz A The Phycobilisomes of the Cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima. 29, 1191-1205 (1997).
29.Gonzalez, R. et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of phycocyanin extract in acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Pharmacol Res 39, 55-59 (1999).
30.Gopalakrishna, R. & Barsky, S.H. Tumor promoter-induced membrane-bound protein kinase C regulates hematogenous metastasis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 85, 612-616 (1988).
31.Hardison, R.C. A brief history of hemoglobins: plant, animal, protist, and bacteria. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 93, 5675-5679 (1996).
32.Haus-Seuffert, P. & Meisterernst, M. Mechanisms of transcriptional activation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein CREB. Molecular and cellular biochemistry 212, 5-9 (2000).
33.Hayakawa, Y. et al. Calcium spirulan as an inducer of tissue-type plasminogen activator in human fetal lung fibroblasts. Biochimica et biophysica acta 1355, 241-247 (1997).
34.Henry, Y. et al. Nitric oxide, a biological effector. Electron paramagnetic resonance detection of nitrosyl-iron-protein complexes in whole cells. Eur Biophys J 20, 1-15 (1991).
35.Hernandez-Corona, A., Nieves, I., Meckes, M., Chamorro, G. & Barron, B.L. Antiviral activity of Spirulina maxima against herpes simplex virus type 2. Antiviral research 56, 279-285 (2002).
36.Hirahashi, T. et al. Activation of the human innate immune system by Spirulina: augmentation of interferon production and NK cytotoxicity by oral administration of hot water extract of Spirulina platensis. International immunopharmacology 2, 423-434 (2002).
37.Hirobe, T. Role of keratinocyte-derived factors involved in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of mammalian epidermal melanocytes. Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society 18, 2-12 (2005).
38.Horikoshi, T. et al. Involvement of nitric oxide in UVB-induced pigmentation in guinea pig skin. Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society 13, 358-363 (2000).
39.Imokawa, G., Kobayashi, T., Miyagishi, M., Higashi, K. & Yada, Y. The role of endothelin-1 in epidermal hyperpigmentation and signaling mechanisms of mitogenesis and melanogenesis. Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society 10, 218-228 (1997).
40.Imokawa, G., Yada, Y. & Kimura, M. Signalling mechanisms of endothelin-induced mitogenesis and melanogenesis in human melanocytes. The Biochemical journal 314 ( Pt 1), 305-312 (1996).
41.Johannessen, M., Delghandi, M.P. & Moens, U. What turns CREB on? Cellular signalling 16, 1211-1227 (2004).
42.Kadekaro, A.L. et al. Cutaneous photobiology. The melanocyte vs. the sun: who will win the final round? Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society 16, 434-447 (2003).
43.Kapitulnik, J. Bilirubin: an endogenous product of heme degradation with both cytotoxic and cytoprotective properties. Molecular pharmacology 66, 773-779 (2004).
44.Khaled, M. et al. Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta is activated by cAMP and plays an active role in the regulation of melanogenesis. The Journal of biological chemistry 277, 33690-33697 (2002).
45.Khaled, M. et al. Microphthalmia associated transcription factor is a target of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway. The Journal of investigative dermatology 121, 831-836 (2003).
46.Khan, M. et al. C-phycocyanin protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury of heart through involvement of p38 MAPK and ERK signaling. American journal of physiology 290, H2136-2145 (2006).
47.Kim, D.S. et al. Sphingosine-1-phosphate decreases melanin synthesis via sustained ERK activation and subsequent MITF degradation. Journal of cell science 116, 1699-1706 (2003).
48.Kim, D.S. et al. Delayed ERK activation by ceramide reduces melanin synthesis in human melanocytes. Cellular signalling 14, 779-785 (2002).
49.Kim, D.S. et al. Ceramide inhibits cell proliferation through Akt/PKB inactivation and decreases melanin synthesis in Mel-Ab cells. Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society 14, 110-115 (2001).
50.Kim, K.S. et al. Inhibitory effect of piperlonguminine on melanin production in melanoma B16 cell line by downregulation of tyrosinase expression. Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society 19, 90-98 (2006).
51.Krauss, G. Biochemistry of Signal Transduction and Regulation, Third Edition. (2003).
52.Lassalle, M.W. et al. Effects of melanogenesis-inducing nitric oxide and histamine on the production of eumelanin and pheomelanin in cultured human melanocytes. Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society 16, 81-84 (2003).
53.Lee, J. et al. Glycyrrhizin induces melanogenesis by elevating a cAMP level in b16 melanoma cells. The Journal of investigative dermatology 124, 405-411 (2005).
54.Li, B., Gao, M.H., Zhang, X.C. & Chu, X.M. Molecular immune mechanism of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis induces apoptosis in HeLa cells in vitro. Biotechnology and applied biochemistry 43, 155-164 (2006).
55.Lin, J.Y. & Fisher, D.E. Melanocyte biology and skin pigmentation. Nature 445, 843-850 (2007).
56.MacColl, R. Allophycocyanin and energy transfer. Biochimica et biophysica acta 1657, 73-81 (2004).
57.Mahalingam, H., Vaughn, J., Novotny, J., Gruber, J.R. & Niles, R.M. Regulation of melanogenesis in B16 mouse melanoma cells by protein kinase C. Journal of cellular physiology 168, 549-558 (1996).
58.Mahalingam, H., Watanabe, A., Tachibana, M. & Niles, R.M. Characterization of density-dependent regulation of the tyrosinase gene promoter: role of protein kinase C. Experimental cell research 237, 83-92 (1997).
59.Marks, M.S. & Seabra, M.C. The melanosome: membrane dynamics in black and white. Nature reviews 2, 738-748 (2001).
60.Miller, A.J. & Mihm, M.C., Jr. Melanoma. The New England journal of medicine 355, 51-65 (2006).
61.Morcos, N.C., Berns, M. & Henry, W.L. Phycocyanin: laser activation, cytotoxic effects, and uptake in human atherosclerotic plaque. Lasers in surgery and medicine 8, 10-17 (1988).
62.Morcos, N.C. & Henry, W.L. Medical uses for phycocyanin (The Regents of the University of California, Berkeley, Calif, 1989).
63.Morcos, N.C. & Henry, W.L. Medical treatment of tumors with phycocyanin (The Regents of the University of California, 1992).
64.Moreno, A. et al. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of C-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin from Spirulina platensis. Acta crystallographica 53, 321-326 (1997).
65.Negroiu, G., Branza-Nichita, N., Petrescu, A.J., Dwek, R.A. & Petrescu, S.M. Protein specific N-glycosylation of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1 in B16 mouse melanoma cells. The Biochemical journal 344 Pt 3, 659-665 (1999).
66.Newton, R.A., Cook, A.L., Roberts, D.W., Leonard, J.H. & Sturm, R.A. Post-transcriptional regulation of melanin biosynthetic enzymes by cAMP and resveratrol in human melanocytes. The Journal of investigative dermatology 127, 2216-2227 (2007).
67.Oka, M. & Kikkawa, U. Protein kinase C in melanoma. Cancer metastasis reviews 24, 287-300 (2005).
68.Oka, M. et al. Regulation of melanogenesis through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway in human G361 melanoma cells. The Journal of investigative dermatology 115, 699-703 (2000).
69.Pap, M. & Cooper, G.M. Role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 in the phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt cell survival pathway. The Journal of biological chemistry 273, 19929-19932 (1998).
70.Park, H.Y., Perez, J.M., Laursen, R., Hara, M. & Gilchrest, B.A. Protein kinase C-beta activates tyrosinase by phosphorylating serine residues in its cytoplasmic domain. The Journal of biological chemistry 274, 16470-16478 (1999).
71.Park, H.Y., Russakovsky, V., Ao, Y., Fernandez, E. & Gilchrest, B.A. Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone-induced pigmentation is blocked by depletion of protein kinase C. Experimental cell research 227, 70-79 (1996).
72.Park, H.Y., Russakovsky, V., Ohno, S. & Gilchrest, B.A. The beta isoform of protein kinase C stimulates human melanogenesis by activating tyrosinase in pigment cells. The Journal of biological chemistry 268, 11742-11749 (1993).
73.Park, H.Y. et al. MITF mediates cAMP-induced protein kinase C-beta expression in human melanocytes. The Biochemical journal 395, 571-578 (2006).
74.Park, H.Y., Wu, H., Killoran, C.E. & Gilchrest, B.A. The receptor for activated C-kinase-I (RACK-I) anchors activated PKC-beta on melanosomes. Journal of cell science 117, 3659-3668 (2004).
75.Park, S.H. et al. Terrein: a new melanogenesis inhibitor and its mechanism. Cell Mol Life Sci 61, 2878-2885 (2004).
76.Pinero Estrada, J.E., Bermejo Bescos, P. & Villar del Fresno, A.M. Antioxidant activity of different fractions of Spirulina platensis protean extract. Farmaco 56, 497-500 (2001).
77.Reddy, C.M. et al. Selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 by C-phycocyanin, a biliprotein from Spirulina platensis. Biochemical and biophysical research communications 277, 599-603 (2000).
78.Reddy, M.C. et al. C-Phycocyanin, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, induces apoptosis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Biochemical and biophysical research communications 304, 385-392 (2003).
79.Rimbau, V., Camins, A., Romay, C., Gonzalez, R. & Pallas, M. Protective effects of C-phycocyanin against kainic acid-induced neuronal damage in rat hippocampus. Neuroscience letters 276, 75-78 (1999).
80.Rito-Palomares M., N.L.a.A.D. Practical application of aqueous two-phase systems for the development of a prototype process for c-Phycocyanin recovery form Spiruilina maxim. (2001).
81.Romay, C. et al. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of C-phycocyanin from blue-green algae. Inflamm Res 47, 36-41 (1998).
82.Romay, C., Gonzalez, R., Ledon, N., Remirez, D. & Rimbau, V. C-phycocyanin: a biliprotein with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Current protein & peptide science 4, 207-216 (2003).
83.Romero-Graillet, C. et al. Ultraviolet B radiation acts through the nitric oxide and cGMP signal transduction pathway to stimulate melanogenesis in human melanocytes. The Journal of biological chemistry 271, 28052-28056 (1996).
84.Romero-Graillet, C., Aberdam, E., Clement, M., Ortonne, J.P. & Ballotti, R. Nitric oxide produced by ultraviolet-irradiated keratinocytes stimulates melanogenesis. The Journal of clinical investigation 99, 635-642 (1997).
85.Ross, E.D., W. The nutritional value of dehydrated, blue-green algae (Spirulina platensis) for poultry. Poultry science 69, 794-800 (1990).
86.Sarada R., P.M.G.a.R.G.A. Phycocyanin from Spirulina sp: influence of processing of biomass on Phycocyanin yield, analysis of efficiency of extraction methods and stability studies on Phycocyanin. Process Biochemistry. 34, 795-801 (1999).
87.Sasaki, M., Horikoshi, T., Uchiwa, H. & Miyachi, Y. Up-regulation of tyrosinase gene by nitric oxide in human melanocytes. Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society 13, 248-252 (2000).
88.Schopf, J.W. & Packer, B.M. Early Archean (3.3-billion to 3.5-billion-year-old) microfossils from Warrawoona Group, Australia. Science (New York, N.Y 237, 70-73 (1987).
89.Sedlak, T.W. & Snyder, S.H. Bilirubin benefits: cellular protection by a biliverdin reductase antioxidant cycle. Pediatrics 113, 1776-1782 (2004).
90.Seo, S.Y., Sharma, V.K. & Sharma, N. Mushroom tyrosinase: recent prospects. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 51, 2837-2853 (2003).
91.Slominski, A., Tobin, D.J., Shibahara, S. & Wortsman, J. Melanin pigmentation in mammalian skin and its hormonal regulation. Physiological reviews 84, 1155-1228 (2004).
92.Stocker, R., Glazer, A.N. & Ames, B.N. Antioxidant activity of albumin-bound bilirubin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 84, 5918-5922 (1987).
93.Subhashini, J. et al. Molecular mechanisms in C-Phycocyanin induced apoptosis in human chronic myeloid leukemia cell line-K562. Biochemical pharmacology 68, 453-462 (2004).
94.Sulaimon, S.S. & Kitchell, B.E. The biology of melanocytes. Veterinary dermatology 14, 57-65 (2003).
95.Tachibana, M. MITF: a stream flowing for pigment cells. Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society 13, 230-240 (2000).
96.Tachibana, M., Kobayashi, Y. & Matsushima, Y. Mouse models for four types of Waardenburg syndrome. Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society 16, 448-454 (2003).
97.Takeda, K. et al. Ser298 of MITF, a mutation site in Waardenburg syndrome type 2, is a phosphorylation site with functional significance. Human molecular genetics 9, 125-132 (2000).
98.Tapia, G., Galetovic, A., Lemp, E., Pino, E. & Lissi, E. Singlet oxygen-mediated photobleaching of the prosthetic group in hemoglobins and c-phycocyanin. Photochemistry and photobiology 70, 499-504 (1999).
99.Thody, A.J. & Graham, A. Does alpha-MSH have a role in regulating skin pigmentation in humans? Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society 11, 265-274 (1998).
100.Tsatmali, M., Ancans, J. & Thody, A.J. Melanocyte function and its control by melanocortin peptides. J Histochem Cytochem 50, 125-133 (2002).
101.Tsatmali, M. et al. alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone modulates nitric oxide production in melanocytes. The Journal of investigative dermatology 114, 520-526 (2000).
102.Ujvari, A. et al. Translation rate of human tyrosinase determines its N-linked glycosylation level. The Journal of biological chemistry 276, 5924-5931 (2001).
103.Urabe, K., Aroca, P. & Hearing, V.J. From gene to protein: determination of melanin synthesis. Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society 6, 186-192 (1993).
104.Vadiraja, B.B., Gaikwad, N.W. & Madyastha, K.M. Hepatoprotective effect of C-phycocyanin: protection for carbon tetrachloride and R-(+)-pulegone-mediated hepatotoxicty in rats. Biochemical and biophysical research communications 249, 428-431 (1998).
105.Vance, K.W. & Goding, C.R. The transcription network regulating melanocyte development and melanoma. Pigment cell research / sponsored by the European Society for Pigment Cell Research and the International Pigment Cell Society 17, 318-325 (2004).
106.Vancoillie, G., Lambert, J. & Nayaert, J.M. Melanocyte biology and its implications for the clinician. Eur J Dermatol 9, 241-251 (1999).
107.Wang, X.Q. et al. Structure of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis at 2.2 A resolution: a novel monoclinic crystal form for phycobiliproteins in phycobilisomes. Acta crystallographica 57, 784-792 (2001).
108.Weller, R. Nitric oxide: a key mediator in cutaneous physiology. Clinical and experimental dermatology 28, 511-514 (2003).
109.Wu, H. & Park, H.Y. Protein kinase C-beta-mediated complex formation between tyrosinase and TRP-1. Biochemical and biophysical research communications 311, 948-953 (2003).
110.Zhan-Ping Zhou, L.-N.L., Xiu-Lan Chen, Jin-Xia Wang,Min Chen, Yu-Zhong Zhang and Bai-Cheng Zhou Singlet oxygen-mediated photobleaching of the prosthetic group in hemoglobins and c-phycocyanin. Journal of Food Biochemistry 29, 313-322 (2005).
111.Zhao, X. et al. Protein kinase Calpha plays a critical role in mannosylerythritol lipid-induced differentiation of melanoma B16 cells. The Journal of biological chemistry 276, 39903-39910 (2001).
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔