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研究生:柯宗漢
研究生(外文):Tzong-han Ke
論文名稱:探討生產國際化對勞動市場的影響
論文名稱(外文):The study on the impact of international production on labor market
指導教授:朱筱蕾朱筱蕾引用關係朱筱蕾朱筱蕾引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsiao-Lei ChuChiang-Ming Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立暨南國際大學
系所名稱:經濟學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:經濟學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:78
中文關鍵詞:委外生產岸外生產生產國際化
外文關鍵詞:outsourcingoffshoringinternational production
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過去的文獻,對委外生產或岸外生產的經濟分析,常有不同的結果及論點。本文擬建構一個在世界經濟體系下的兩國模型,兩國的生產要素為非技術勞工和技術勞工,假設北國將部分技術性與部分非技術性工作委外至南國。其中委外至南國的工作,使用北國的生產技術。我們將探討,在全球化的趨勢下,生產國際化對南北兩國非技術勞工和技術勞工的工資分配,以及對南北兩國的生產技術有何影響。
The past literatures, to the economic analysis of outsourcing or offshoring, often have different results and arguments. This paper constructs a North-South two countries model, in which the two factors of the production are non-skilled workers and skilled workers. Assuming parts of the non-technical works and parts of the technical works in the North are transferring to the south, and the works which transfer to the South, use the North's production technology. Under the trend of globalization, we will discuss the impact of international production on the wage distribution between non-skilled workers and skilled workers, and the production technology in two countries.
目錄
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 跨國企業和生產國際化的興起 1
第二節 研究動機 3
第三節 本文架構 8
第二章 文獻回顧 9
第一節 委外生產 9
第二節 岸外生產 13
第三節 做中學習效果 15
第三章 理論模型 19
第一節 最終財部門分析 21
第二節 勞動市場分析 24
第三節 生產面分析 25
第四節 生產面分析之結果 26
第四章 生產國際化 29
第一節 最終財部門分析 30
第二節 勞動市場分析 32
第三節 生產面分析 33
第四節 生產面分析之結果 34
第五節 生產國際化之探討 37
第五章 結論與後續研究 56
第一節 本文結論 56
第二節 後續研究 61
參考文獻 65
數學附錄
數學附錄A 75
數學附錄B 77
表目錄
表1.1 國外直接投資每年成長率(1960-1993) 2
表1.2 外國企業佔製造業生產比例 (1970-1991) 2
表1.3 美國製造業非技術勞工與技術勞工實質工資 4
表1.4 美國製造業委外生產對生產力的影響 6
表3.1 模型設定之比較 21
表4.1 委外生產方式之比較 30
表4.2 委外生產對南北兩國技術勞工相對工資之影響 37
表4.3 委外生產對技術勞工相對工資的影響之結果比較 41
表4.4 委外生產對南北兩國生產技術之影響 42
表4.5 委外生產對北國生產技術之影響 44
表4.6 委外生產對南國生產技術之影響 45
表4.7 委外生產對北國生產技術影響之比較 45
表4.8 委外生產對南國工資之影響 49
表4.9 委外生產對北國工資之影響 52
表4.10 委外生產對南北兩國工資的影響之比較 53
表5.1 本文結論與過去文獻之比較 59
圖目錄
圖1.1 美國製造業技術勞工實質工資 3
圖1.2 美國製造業非技術勞工相對工資與就業率 5
圖2.1 北國廠商委外生產 11
圖4.1 北國技術勞工相對工資之變動 39
參考文獻
壹、英文部分
一、Journal article
Ai Ting Goh and Jacques Olivier, 2000. Learning by doing, trade in capital goods and growth. Journal of International Economics, 56(2), pp. 411–444.
Alan V. Deardorff, 1998. Fragmentation in simple trade models. The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, 12(2), July 2001, pp. 121-137.
Alexander Hijzen, Holger Görg and Robert C. Hine, 2005. International outsourcing and the skill structure of labour demand in the United Kingdom. The Economic Journal, 115, pp. 860-878.
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Amy Jocelyn Glass and Kamal Saggi, 2001. Innovation and wage effects of international outsourcing. European Economic Review, 45, pp. 67-86.
Anandi Mani and Jinyoung Hwang, 2004. Income distribution, learning-by-doing, and comparative advantage. Review of Development Economics, 8(3), pp. 452-473.
Andrew J. Clarke, 2006. Learning-by-doing and aggregate fluctuations: Does the form of the accumlation technology matter? Economics Letter, 92, pp. 434-439.
Antoine Soubeyran and Jacques-Francois Thisse, 1998. Learning-by-doing and the development of industrial districts. Journal of Urban Economics, 45(1), January 1999, pp. 156-176
Autor, David H., Frank Levy and Richard J. Murnane (2002). Upstairs, Downstairs: Computer-Skill Complementarity and Computer-Labor Substitution on Two Floors of
Large Bank. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 55(3), pp. 432-447.
Carmen Álvarez Albelo and Antonio Manresa, 2005. Internal learning by doing and economic growth. Journal of Economic Development, 30(2).
Chu Ping Lo, 2005. International outsourcing and intra-industrial trade. International Journal of Applied Economics, 2(2), pp. 69-82.
Edwin L.C. Lai, 1995. The product cycle and the world distribution of income a reformulation. Journal of International Economics, 39(3-4), pp. 369-382.
Egger, Hartmut and Egger, Peter, 2006. International Outsourcing and the Productivity of Low-Skilled Labor in the EU. Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, 44(1), pp. 98-108.
Elvan Ozlu, 1996. Aggregate economic fluctuations in endogenous growth models. Journal of Macroeconomics, 18(1), 27-47.
Galina An and Murat F. Iyigun, 2004. The export technology content, learning by doing and specialization in foreign trade. Journal of International Economics, 64(2), pp. 465-483.
Gene M. Grossman and Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2006. The rise of offshoring: It’s not wine for cloth anymore. Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, pp. 59-102.
Hartmut Egger and Peter Egger, 2000. Outsourcing and skill-specific employment in a small economy. Oxford Economic Papers, 55(4), pp. 625-643.
Hartmut Egger and Peter Egger, 2005. Labor market effects of outsourcing under industrial interdependence. International Review of Economics and Finance, 14, 349-363.
Henri L.F. de Groot, 1998. Macroeconomic consequences of outsourcing: An analysis of growth, welfare, and .product variety. De Economist, 149(1), pp. 33-51.
Hesham M. Abdel-Rahman, 2002. Skill differentiation and wage disparity in a decentralized matching model of North-South trade. Canadian Journal of Economics, 35(4).
Hesham M. Abdel-Rahman, 2003. Skill distribution and income disparity in a North-South trade model. Canadian Journal of Economics, 38(4), pp. 1298-1326
Holger Görg and Aoife Hanley, 2005. International outsourcing and productivity: Evidence from the Irish electronics industry. North American Journal of Economics and Finance, 16, pp. 255-269.
Jagdish Bhagwati, Arvind Panagariya and T.N. Srinivasan, 2004. The muddles over outsourcing. Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(4), pp.93-114.
Jim Y. Jin, Juan Perote-Peña and Michael Troege, 2004. Learning by doing, spillovers and shakeouts. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 14, pp. 85-98.
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Lloyd, P. J. & MacLaren, Donald, 2000. Openness and growth in East Asia after the Asian crisis. Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, 11(1), pp. 89-105.
Martin Stack and Ricard Downing, 2005. Another look at offshouring: Which jobs are at risk and why? Business Horizons, 48, pp. 513-523.
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Salvador Barrios and Eric Strobl, 2004. Learning by doing and spillovers: Evidence from firm-level panel data. Review of Industrial Organization, 25, pp. 175-203.
Selin Sayek and Fuat Sener, 2006. Outsourcing and wage inequality in a dynamic product cycle model. Review of Development Economics, 10(1), pp. 1-19.
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William R. DiPirtro and Emmanuel Anoruo, 2005. International trade and global income inequality. International Journal of Applied Economics, 2(1), pp. 121-131.





二、Working paper
Alexander Hijzen, Holger Görg and Robert C. Hine, 2003. International fragmentation and relative wages in the UK.IZA Discussion Paper, No. 717.
Alexander Hijzen, Tomohike Inui and Yasutuki Todo, 2006. Does offshoring pay? Firm-level evidence from Japan. RIETI Discussion Paper Series, 07-E-005.
Amiti, Mary & Wei, Shang-Jin, 2004. Fear of Outsourcing: Is It Justified?, CEPR Discussion Papers 4719, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
Andzelika Lorentowicz, Dalia Marin and Alexander Raubold, 2005. Is human capital losing from outsourcing? CESifo Working Paper Series No. 1616
Ann Bartel and Saul Lach, 2005. Outsourcing and technology change. NBER Working Paper Series, No. 11158.
Christopher Johann Kurz, 2006. Outstanding outsourcers: A firm-and plant-Level analysis of production sharing. FEDs Working Paper No. 2006-04
Deborah Schöller, 2006. Service offshoring: A challenge for employment? Evidence from Germany. Center for Globalization and Europeanization of the Economy (CeGE) Discussion Paper No. 61
Erkki Koskela and Rune Stenbacka, 2007. Equilibrium unemployment with outsourcing under labour market imperfections. IZA Discussion Paper, No. 2628.
Francesco Venturini, 2004. Learning-by-doing, hi-tech consumption and productivity resurgence.Computing in Economics and Finance 2004 75, Society for Computational Economics.
Geishecker, Ingo and Görg, Holger, 2004. Winners and Losers: Fragmentation, Trade and Wages Revisited. IZA Discussion Papers 982, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
Gene M. Grossman, 2006. Trading tasks: A simple theory of offshoring. NBER Working Paper Series, No. 12721.
Gordon Hanson, 2001. The Globalization of production. NBER Reporter: Spring 2001
Herve Boulhol and Lionel Fontagn, 2006. Deindustrialisation and the fear of relocation in the industry. CEPII, Working Paper, No. 2006-07.
Holger Görg, Aoife Hanley and Eric Strobl, 2005. Productivity effects of international outsourcing: Evidence from plant level data. mimeo, University of Nottingham.
Ingo Geishecker and Holger Gorg, 2004. Winners And Losers: Fragmentation, Trade And Wages. Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2004 165, Royal Economic Society.
Jacob Funk Kirkegaard, 2005. Outsourcing and offshoring: Pushing the European model over the hill, rather than off the cliff! IIE Working Paper No. 05-1
Jakob Roland Munch and Jan Rose Skaksen, 2005. Specialization, outsourcing and wages, IZA Discussion Paper, No. 1907.
Jakob Roland Munch, 2005. International outsourcing and individual job separations. Discussion Papers 05-11, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics (formerly Institute of Economics).
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Karsten Bjerring Olsen ,2006. Productivity impacts of offshoring and outsourcing: A Review. OECD. Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 2006/1.
Lucia Cusmano, Maria Luisa Mancusi and Andrea Morrison, 2006. Globalisation of production and innovation: How outsourcing is reshaping an advanced manufacturing area. CESPRI Working Paper No 194.
Mary Amiti & Shang-Jin Wei, 2004. Fear of Service Outsourcing: Is It Justified?. NBER Working Papers 10808, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
Mary Amiti & Shang-Jin Wei, 2005. Service Offshoring, Productivity, and Employment: Evidence from the United States. IMF Working Papers 05/238, International Monetary Fund.
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Meenakshi Rishi and Sweta C. Saxena, 2005. Is outsourcing really as bad as it is made to sound? A re-assessment and some perspective. Macroeconomics 0508009, EconWPA.
Michelle Connolly and Diego Valderrama, 2005. North-South technology diffusion: A new case for dynamic gains from trade Duke Economics Working Paper No. 99-08.
Mine Zeynep Senses, 2006. The effects of outsourcing on the elasticity of labor demand. CES Discussion Paper, Washington D.C., March.
Mine Zeynep Senses, 2006. The Effects of Outsourcing on the Elasticity of Labor Demand. Working Papers 06-07, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
Mitsuyo Ando and Fukunari Kimura, 2003. The formation of international production and distribution networks in east Asia. NBER Working Paper Series, No. 10167.
Murat F. Iyigun, 2000. Technology life-cycles and endogenous growth. University of Colorado Working Paper No: 00-7, August. 2000.
N. Gregory Mankiw and Phillip Swagel, 2006. The policies and economics of offshore outsourcing. Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 2120, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
Pol Antras and Elhana Helpman, 2006. Contractual frictions and global sourcing. NBER Working Paper Series, No. 12747.
Pol Antras, Luis Garicano and Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, 2006. Organizing offshoring: Middle managers and communication costs. NBER Working Paper Series, No. 12196.
re-assessment and some perspective. Working Paper, University of Pittsburgh
Richard Baldwin, 2006. Globalisation: The great unbunding(s). contributed paper to project Globalisation Challenges for Europe and Finland, Prime Minister’s Office, Helsinki, 20 September 2006.
Rishi, M., and S. Saxena (2004). Is outsourcing really as bad as it is made to sound? a
Robert C. Feenstra, 2007. Globalization and its impact on labor. University of California, Davis and NBER. February 8, 2007.
Robert Feenstra and Gordon Hanson, 2001. Global production sharing and rising inequality: A survey of trade and wages. NBER Working Papers 8372.
Rosario Crinò, 2006. Are U.S. white-collar really at risk of service offshoring? CESPRI Working Papers 183, CESPRI, Centre for Research on Innovation and Internationalisation, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy, revised Oct 2006.
Ting Gao, 2002. International outsourcing, innovation and growth. University of Missouri Working Paper No. 02-13.
Yongsung Chang, Joao F. Gomes and Frank Schorfheide, 2002. Learning- by-doing as a propagation mechanism. CEPR Discussion Papers 3599, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
Zhihao Yu, 2003. A new push on an old fundamental: Understanding the patterns of outsourcing. Carleton Economic Papers 03-08, Carleton University, Department
of Economics.









三、Book
Held, David, McGrew, Anthony, Goldblatt, David and Perraton, Jonathan (1999) Global
Transformations: Politics, Economics and Culture, Stanford, CA: Stanford University
Press.
Levy, F. and Murnane, R.J. (2004). The New Division of Labor: How Computers are Creating the Next Job Market. Princeton University Press.
Robert Feenstra and Gordon Hanson, 1996. Foreign Investment, Outsourcing and Relative Wages, Robert C. Feenstra, Gene M. Grossman, and Douglas A. Irwin, eds., Political Economy of Trade Policy: Essays in Honor of Jagdish Bhagwati, Cambridge: MIT Press, 1996, pp. 89-127.
Thomas I. Palley, 2007. The Economics of Outsourcing- How Should Policy Respond? The Levy Economics Institute.
貳、中文部分
一、書籍
方至民,國際企業管理:建構全球營運優勢,台北縣三重市:前程文化,2006。
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