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研究生:顏豪廷
研究生(外文):Hau-Ting,Yen
論文名稱:空間方塊-互動方塊應用於空間堆疊練習
論文名稱(外文):Space Cube:An Interactive Cubic Toy for Spatail Stacking
指導教授:劉育東劉育東引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu-Tung,Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:建築研究所
學門:建築及都市規劃學門
學類:建築學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:58
中文關鍵詞:草模方塊互動堆疊
外文關鍵詞:InteractiveStackingCubestudy model
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在建築的設計的過程中,草模的製造在設計過程中扮演了一個可以將概念快速轉化成可見模型;由於CAD/CAM時代的來臨,使得草模的製造方式中,建立模型的工具從傳統的實體演進到數位的模型;虛擬模型已成為建築師在探討概念初期所使用的新媒材。但是虛擬模型卻缺乏了真實的觸感及可以掌握模型整體感的表現(Chang,2005) 。以往許多設計者,經常礙於對於電腦介面的不熟悉,或是電腦操作流程過於繁複,導致設計者對於新媒材有操作上的困難,使預期設計的本質與原來的構想有所差別。有些研究者也針對這個議題,對真實與數位模型做比較(Lin, 1999),為了讓數位模型更加具有真實感,如VRAM利用數據手套及力回饋手套來增加虛擬模型觸感 (Regenbrecht et al. 1993; Wu,2003),這些研究除了提出數位模型的優點之外,也找出數位模型所缺乏的或無法取代實體模型的本質。透過觸及式設計介面(TUI)的操作過程可以使設計過程更加地簡化,設計者可以直覺性的去操作電腦媒材來輔助設計。

藉由堆疊實體方塊來建立3D模型,是一個容易的方式去幫助設計者在複雜的虛擬介面中分析與了解空間構成與組織的架構(R. Aish and P. Noakes. 1984)。在相關的研究上,使用了機器可讀取的模型(Machine-Readable Models)已達到了直覺的介面(J. H. Frazer,1982);在近期,有研究利用了量體為基本的實體模型,當設計者使用單元動作時,虛擬量體會即時的同步動作(T. Murakami et al 1994; Matthew G. Gorbet 1998; J.Lee 2003;M. Eng et al 2004,),但是這樣的模式卻是缺少了從虛擬回饋的訊息;還有另外一部份的研究是當設計者組裝量體之後,可以將模型連接到電腦上,電腦並可以辨識出這些方塊所組成的形體(D. Anderson et al 2000; E. Sharlin et al 2003);

有研究者利用了樂高為基本的實體模型,這樣的方式利用實體與虛擬的互動發展了新的遊戲模式;此實驗為一個即時性的模型發展工具,在堆疊實體模型的同時,在虛擬的場景中出現了相對應的模型,操作者可以藉由實體的方塊,與虛擬的方塊進行互動。在此篇論文建立出一個即時的實虛互動玩具,利用WEBCAM的視覺辨識系統,實體方塊可以控制電腦銀幕的虛擬方塊,而虛擬方塊可以回饋訊息給實體方塊進行同步的互動,設計者根據指示去調整特定的方塊,進而可以讓設計者檢視實體模型堆疊上所需的策略。
本論文呈現了一個以實體與虛擬互動為基礎的3D的輸入裝置,並且此裝置具有能力可以使用手與裝置互動,此裝置並且提高了設計者對於3D模型塑造(3D modeling)的直覺性,更降低了設計者在操作不同媒材上的複雜度。
In the initial process of architectural design, model building is a pivot part of transferring concepts into visual bodies. Since the progress by CAD/CAM, initial phase modeling has evolved into digital models from traditional visual ones. Virtual models have become a new generation medium for architects during early design phase.
Digital modeling software has many distinct characters, such as duplication, modification, and material simulation. However, virtual models lack the tough in reality and the ability to express the feeling as a whole (Chang, 2005). In the past, many designers often faced difficulties on new medium operation. As a result, the presented designs sometimes did not match the original ideas. Basically, this kind of situation is due to designers’ unfamiliarity toward the user interface or the complicated process of operations. Toward these issues, some researchers made comparisons and researches between virtual models and traditional ones (Lin, 1999). To bring more senses of reality, digital and force-feedback gloves, such as VRAM, are applied to get the tough of virtual models (Regenbrecht et al. 1993; Wu, 2003). By using the “Designing Tangible User Interface”, the design process can be easily simplified. On the other hand, it also greatly helps designers operate the computer medium toward CAD.
Digitizing Stacked cube models is a simple method to help designers understand and analyze the space constructions and system frameworks (R. Aish, 1984). Besides, several relative researches have showed that interfaces such as Machine-Readable Models fit intuition quite well (J. H. Frazer, 1982). Recently, certain researches even developed into a further step. By using solid geometry models connected with computer, the virtual models react simultaneously while designers make digitized units moved (T. Murakami et al 1994; Matthew G. Gorbet 1998; J.Lee 2003;M. Eng et al 2004). However, this kind of operation mode lacks reality feedbacks from virtual systems. Some other digital model researches adopted a different kind of mode. By using electric-connected units, models of these units could link up with computers and be identified (D. Anderson et al 2000; E. Sharlin et al 2003). Nevertheless, this kind of process is not real time reacting no matter connected or not. During the unit-contracture process, the user cannot interact with the 3D model in real time. Moreover, since units are connected with the single phase connector, the connected phase is also limited somehow.Due to the limitation mentioned above, a new method is developed to solve these issues. By using a real time interaction implement, solid geometry models could control the virtual ones on the screen. In the meantime, virtual model could also give feedbacks simultaneously for interaction.
Key words: tangible, cube, modeling, interaction
中文提要 ………………………………………………………………………………… i
英文提要 ………………………………………………………………………………… ii
誌謝 ……………………………………………………………………………………… iii
目錄 ……………………………………………………………………………………… iv
表目錄 …………………………………………………………………………………… vi
圖目錄 …………………………………………………………………………………… vii
第一章、 研究背景……………………………………………………………………… 1
1.1 建築與電腦 …………………………………………………………………… 1
1.2 問題陳述與研究目標 ………………………………………………………… 3
1.2.1 研究範圍 ………………………………………………………………… 3
1.2.2 問題定義 ………………………………………………………………… 3
1.3 研究目標與方向 ……………………………………………………………… 4
1.3.1整合虛擬與實體的設計環境…………………………………………… 4
1.3.2空間堆疊練習…………………………………………………………… 4
1.3.3虛實介面設計訊息的交換……………………………………………… 4
1.4 研究步驟與架構 ……………………………………………………………… 5
1.4.1 研究方法 ………………………………………………………………… 5
1.4.2 研究架構 ………………………………………………………………… 6
第二章、 先前研究回顧………………………………………………………………… 7
2.1設計初期草模設計流程個案歸納研究………………………………………… 7
2.1.1個案分析題目…………………………………………………………………7
2.1.2個案分析的設計………………………………………………………………7
2.1.3個案分析的工具………………………………………………………………8
2.2個案分析歸納與結果…………………………………………………………… 8
2.2.1個案分析的觀察…………………………………………………………… 8
2.2.2個案分析的歸納…………………………………………………………… 10
2.2.3 影像辨識 ………………………………………………………………… 10
2.3圖形使用者介面……………………………………… 12
2.3.1圖形使用者介面的特性…………………………………………………… 12
2.3.2圖形使用者介面應用於設計初期過程中………………………………… 13
2.3.3 視覺辨識…………………………………………………………………… 14
2.4實體設計介面…………………………………………………………………… 15
2.4.1人機互動介面……………………………………………………………… 15
2.4.2 TUI應用於設計初期過程中……………………………………………… 18
2.5 方塊玩具…………………………………………………………………………19
2.5.1 GUI應用於方塊玩具…………………………………………………………………19
2.5.2 TUI應用於方塊玩具…………………………………………………………………19
第三章、系統的設計……………………………………………………………………… 23
3.1系統的架構……………………………………………………………………… 23
3.2系統架構流程的設定…………………………………………………………… 24
第四章、系統的操作流程………………………………………………………………… 29
4.1實際操作的過程………………………………………………………………… 26
4.1.1實作的流程………………………………………………………………… 29
4.1.2量體3D位置偵測…………………………………………………………… 31
4.1.3虛擬量體的分析…………………………………………………………… 34
   4.1.4虛擬量體訊息回饋裝置…………………………………………………… 37
4.2操作與設計……………………………………………………………………… 39
第五章、系統測試………………………………………………………………………… 40
5.1實驗的設置……………………………………………………………………… 40
5.1.1 實驗的假設………………………………………………………………… 40
5.1.2 實驗的過程………………………………………………………………… 40
5.1.3 實驗的設計………………………………………………………………… 41
5.2實驗的結果與討論……………………………………………………………… 42
5.2.1 實驗結果的分析…………………………………………………………… 42
第六章、結論與後續研究………………………………………………………………… 48
6.1結論……………………………………………………………………………… 48
6.2研究貢獻………………………………………………………………………… 48
6.3研究限制………………………………………………………………………… 49
6.4後續研究………………………………………………………………………… 50
參考文獻 ………………………………………………………………………………… 51
附錄(A) 個案分析的過程………………………………………………………………… 53
附錄(B) 軟體介面………………………………………………………………………… 56
附錄(C) 硬體介面………………………………………………………………………… 58
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