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研究生:劉建志
論文名稱:JPEG2000編碼器之加速和TIDSP系統平台上之實現
論文名稱(外文):Acceleration and Implementation of JPEG2000 Encoder on TI DSP Platform
指導教授:杭學鳴杭學鳴引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:電機學院IC設計產業專班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:95
語文別:英文
論文頁數:105
中文關鍵詞:JPEG2000TI DSPDSP系統加速EBCOT
外文關鍵詞:JPEG2000TI DSPDSP platform accelerationEBCOT
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由於數位影像應用的逐漸普及,為了提供更有壓縮效率以及支援更多功能的影像處理,一個新一代的靜態影像壓縮標準JPEG2000於是產生。它在高壓縮率下也能夠提供相當好的主觀品質,此外,它在壓縮效能和傳送位元流時提供了更細緻的調整功能。然而,JPEG2000在計算上的複雜度相當的高,在本論文中,我們將JPEG200編碼器實現在TI DSP平台上。我們根據JPEG2000中最複雜的Tier部份,提出兩種改善方法,並且加上TI DSP最佳化的各種相關工具來進行加速。
我們的參考軟體採用了openJPEG ver.1.0,因為這套軟體的小波轉換模組已經使用一維補嘗式結構(lifting scheme)來進行加速,所以針對佔了整個編碼器九成運算量的Tier1模組,我們先探討常見的改善方式,並實際在我們所使用的平台上做測試,然後我們提出了兩種改進方法,一種稱為VGOSS(Variable group of sample skip),另外一種則是修改VGOSS的方式,來達成減少運算量的目的。這個方式是將需要編碼的資料紀錄起來,減少對不需要的編碼的資料所浪費的檢查時間。另外,我們改變了原來編碼的順序,提供更快的運算架構。當我們對影像使用無失真編碼時,除了採用所提供的加速方法,還有使用DSP的編譯程序最佳化、及程式碼的加速技術、還有快取記憶體的重新配置等功能,在最後的在DSP系統上的實驗數據顯示,我們使用以上所有技術後,可以比最原始的效能還要快32倍,如果比較在同樣的DSP最佳化設定還有記憶體配置下,我們的快速演算法仍然可以減少45%的運算量。
Because the usage for digital imagery gets increasingly popular, to enhance the compressed image efficiency and features, a new still image coding standard called JPEG2000 was proposed. It provides an excellent subjective quality at low bit rates. It also offers fine granularity scalability in compression efficiency and transmitting compressed bit stream. However, JPEG2000 is also very complicated in computational complexity. In this thesis, we implement a JPEG2000 encoder on the TI DSP platform. We propose two speed-up methods and use the TI DSP optimization tools to accelerate the Tier1 module, which is the most complex part in the JPEG2000 standard.
We start with the ver.1.0 OpenJPEG reference software, which has adopted the 1-D lifting scheme to accelerate the DWT module. Thus we focus on the Tier1 module, which takes about 90% of total computing time. We study the previous methods first and examine their effectiveness on our DSP platform. Then, we propose two improved methods, one is called VGOSS (Variable Group Of Sample Skip), and the other is a modified VGOSS method. We eliminate the unnecessary checking cycles by recording the NBC (Need-to-Be-Coded) samples on a list. Furthermore, the sample index is reordered to facilitate fast execution. In the DSP implementation of the proposed methods, we use code acceleration techniques and DSP compiler-level optimization. We also tune the cache allocation to reduce memory access time. The experimental results show that the best performance is up to 32 times faster than the original program without any optimization on the DSP platform. If the original program is compiled with the DSP optimization tools and proper cache assignment, our fast algorithm can still reduce the computation by 45%.
摘要 i
Abstract ii
誌謝 iv
Chapter 1 Introduction 2
1.1 Introduction 2
1.2 Overview of the Thesis 3
Chapter 2 Conspectus of JPEG2000 Algorithm 4
2.1 Introduction to JPEG2000 4
2.2 Pre-Processing 8
2.2.1 Image Tiling 8
2.2.2 DC Level Shifting 8
2.2.3 Component Transformation 9
2.3 Discrete Wavelet Transform and Quantization 10
2.4 Embedded Block Coding with Optimized Truncation 14
2.4.1 Tier-1 Coding 14
2.4.2 Tier-2 Coding 19
Chapter 3 DSP Implementation Environment 21
3.1 DSP Platform Introduction 21
3.2 Major DSP Module 23
3.2.1 Central Processing Unit 24
3.2.2 Memory and Peripherals 25
3.3 Coding Development Environment 26
3.3.1 Code Composer Studio 26
3.3.2 Code Development Flow 27
3.3.3 Simulation Tools 28
3.4 Optimization on TI DSP Platform 29
3.4.1 Architecture of TI TMSC6000 Family 29
3.4.2 Compiler-Level Optimization 31
3.4.3 Program-Level Optimization 33
Chapter 4 Analysis of Embedded Block Coding and Speed-Improving Methods 36
4.1 Parameters and Software Environment 36
4.1.1 Jasper and OpenJPEG Reference Software 36
4.1.2 Parameter Configuration 39
4.2 JPEG2000 Encoder Complexity Analysis 42
4.3 Major Encumbrances 44
4.3.1 Memory System 44
4.3.2 Analysis of Bit-Plane Coding 47
4.4 A Few Known Speed-Improving Methods 52
4.4.1 CUPS and PP Methods 52
4.4.2 SS and GOCS Methods 57
4.4.3 PPP Method 62
Chapter 5 Acceleration of JPEG2000 Encoder on DSP Platform 64
5.1 Proposed Acceleration Method 64
5.1.1 Coding Procedure of VGOSS method 64
5.1.2 Modified VGOSS method 81
5.1.3 Advantages of the Proposed Methods 83
5.1.4 Software Speed-up Techniques 87
5.2 Experimental Results 89
Chapter 6 Conclusions and Future Work 100
6.1 Conclusion 100
6.2 Future Works 101
References 102
自傳 105
[1] JPEG2000 Part I Final Draft International Standard (ISO/IEC FDIS15444-1). ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 N1855, Aug. 2000.
[2] JPEG2000 Requirements and Profiles, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG1 N1271, Mar.1999
[3] Information technology, JPEG2000 image coding system Part 2 : Extensions (ISO/IEC 15444-2), 2002.
[4] Information technology, JPEG2000 image coding system Part 3 : Motion JPEG2000 (ISO/IEC 15444-3), 2002.
[5] Information technology, JPEG2000 image coding system Part 4 : Compliance testing (ISO/IEC 15444-4), 2002.
[6] Information technology, JPEG2000 image coding system Part 5 : Reference software (ISO/IEC 15444-5), 2002.
[7] C. Christopoulos, A. Skodras, and T. Ebrahimi, “The JPEG2000 Still Image Coding System: An Overview”, IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol.46, No. 4, pp. 1103-1127, Nov. 2000.
[8] M.J. Nadenau and J. Reichel, “Opponent Color, Human Vision and Wavelets for Image Compression”, in Proc. 7th Color Image Conf., Scottsdale, AZ, 16-19 Nov. 1999, pp.237-242.
[9] D. Taubman and et al, ”Embedded Block Coding in JPEG2000”, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, vol. 2, Vancouver, Canada, Sept. 2000, pp.33-36.
[10] J.L. Mitchell and W.B. Pennebaker, “Software Implementation of the Q-coder”, IBM J. of Res. Develop., Vol.32, No.6, pp.753-774, Nov. 1988.
[11] D. Taubman, “High Performance Scalable Image Compression with EBCOT”, IEEE Transaction on Image Processing, Vol. 9, No. 7, pp. 1158-1170, July 2000.
[12] Sundance home page : http://www.sundance.com
[13] Texas Instruments, “TMS320C6414T, TMS320C6415T, TMS320C6416T fixed-point Digital Signal Processors”, Literature number SPRS226, NOV. 2003.
[14] Texas Instruments, “TMS320C6000 Code Composer Studio Tutorial”, Literature number SPRU301CI, Feb. 2000.
[15] Texas Instruments, “TMS320C6000 Programmer’s Guide”, Literature number SPRU198I, Mar. 2006.
[16] Texas Instruments, “TMS320C64x Technical Overview”, Literature number SPRU395B, Jan. 2001.
[17] Texas Instruments, “TMS320C64x DSP Two-Level Internal Memory Reference Guide”, Literature number SPRU610B, Aug. 2004.
[18] Texas Instruments, “TMS320C6000 Optimizing Compiler User’s Guide”, Literature number SPRU187L, May. 2004.
[19] Texas Instruments, “TMS320C6000 CPU and Instruction Set Reference Guide”, Literature number SPRU189F, Jan. 2000.
[20] The JasPer Project Home Page : http://www.ece.uvic.ca/~mdadams/jasper/
[21] The OpenJPEG Home Page : http://www.openjpeg.org/index.php?menu=main
[22] The JPEG2000 still image compression standard, ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1 N 2412 (ITU-T SG 16), Dec. 2002
[23] K.L. Lin, “Analysis and Architecture Design for JPEG2000 Still Image Encoding System”, M.S. thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan, ROC, 2002.
[24] T.H. Tsai and L.T. Tsai, “JPEG2000 Encoder Architecture Design with Fast EBCOT Algorithm”, IEEE VLSI-TSA International Symposium, page 279-282, April 2005.
[25] C.J. Lian and et al, “Analysis and Architecture Design of Block-coding Engine for EBCOT in JPEG2000”, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 13, No. 3, March 2003.
[26] B.D. Choi, and et al, “DSP Implementation of Real-time JPEG2000 Encoder Using Overlapped Block Transferring and Pipelined Processing”, International Conference on High Performance Computing (HiPC) 2004, Vol. 3296, page 333-341.
[27] J.K. Cho and et al, “Fast DSP implementation of JPEG2000”, TENCON 2004, Vol. A, page 231-234 Vol. 1, Nov. 2004.
[28] B. Valentine and O. Sohm, “Optimizing the JPEG2000 Binary Arithmetic Encoder for VLIW Architectures”, IEEE International Conference on International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP), Vol. 5, P.5, May 2004.
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