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研究生:郭軒愷
論文名稱:以非線性訊號處理延伸頻寬及其應用
論文名稱(外文):Audio Bandwidth Extension using Nonlinear Processing with three applications
指導教授:白明憲白明憲引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:機械工程系所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:英文
論文頁數:53
中文關鍵詞:非線性頻寬
外文關鍵詞:nonlinearbandwidth
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:216
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音樂在於人類的生活上早已隨處可見,然而近年來電腦發展日新月異加上行動電話及i-pod的普及,消費者對音樂品質的要求似乎也與日俱增,因此許多人開始利用電腦的便利性,開始創造所要產生的音樂來開創更多的聽覺享受。以往或許需要搭配一些樂器的硬體才能產生的音效,如今可能只需要靠演算法的處理即能達成,因此電腦音樂的處理對現代的音樂創作可說是扮演重要的地位。
在這篇論文主要分成三個段落,主要都是利用原本的頻寬經過Nonlinear Process之後產生我們所需要的新的頻寬來彌補原來音樂訊號的不足。第一個段落為vitual bass,敘述的是往低頻的部份拓展頻寬;相反的,第二跟第三個段落敘述的是音訊往高頻拓展頻寬,分別是voice clarity和SBR。
Music takes an important rool in human life. Recently, computers develope quickly as cellphone, i-pod and walkman are very common, comsumers gradually aren’t satisfied with quality of old musical sound. Music composers nowadays can easily take advantages of powerful and user-friendly personal computers to produce more and more audio effects which would be created by some electric instruments, and now they maybe realized easily by writing some algorithms on computers.
This paper is divided into three main parts, they both modulate information of original bandwidth to the other bandwidth. We use the new information to repair or enhance the original signal. First section, called “virtual bass”, describes the bandwidth expansion toward the low-frequency bandwidth; second and three sections, oppositely, decribe the bandwidth expansion toward the high-frequency bandwidth, there are respectively “voice clarity” and “SBR”.
摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
致謝 iii
Table of Contents iv
List of Tables vi
List of Figures vii
0. INTRODUCTION 1
1. NONLINEAR PROCESSING 4
1.1 Multiplier 4
1.2 Rectifier 5
1.3 Clipper 6
1.4 Hyperbolic tangent 6
2. VIRTUAL BASS 8
2.1 Psychoacoustic bandwidth extension for low frequencies 8
2.2 Realization of virtual bass 8
2.2.1 Up and down sampling and filter design 8
2.2.2 Timbre loudness contour 10
2.3 Subjective listening test 11
3. VOICE CLARITY 14
3.1 Algorithm description 14
3.2 Subjective listening test 15
4. SBR (Spectral Band Replication) 17
4.1 Time-frequency processing 17
4.2 Algorithm description 19
4.3 Subjective listening test 20
5. Conclusions 21
REFERENCES 22
[1] E. Larsen and R. M. Aarts, and O.Ouweltjes. “A unified approach to low- and high-frequency bandwidth.” the 115th AES convention, New York, Audio Engineering Society, 2003.
[2] E. Larsen, R. M. Aarts and M. Danessis, “Efficient high frequency bandwidth extension of music high frequency bandwidth extension of music and speech,” the 112th AES convention, Munich, Germany, May 2002, 10-13.
[3] M. R. Bai and W. C. Lin, “Synthesis and Implementation of Virtual Bass System with a Phase-Vocoder Approach,” J. Audio Eng. Soc. vol. 54, pp.1077-1091, 2006.
[4] T. H. Andersen and K. Jensen, “Importance and Representation of Phase in the Sinusoidal Model,” J. Audio Eng. Soc., vol. 52, no.11, pp.1157-1169, 2004.
[5] R. E. Crochiere and L. R. Rabiner, Multirate Digital Signal Processing. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1983.
[6] D. Homm, T. Ziegler, R. Weidner, and R. Bohm. Bandwidth extension of audio signals by spectral band replication. In Proceedings of 1st IEEE Benelux Workshop on MPCA, Louvain, Belgium. IEEE, 2002.
[7] M. Schug, A. Groshel, M. Beer, and F. Henn. Enhancing audio coding efficiency of MPEG layer-2 with spectral band replication (SBR) for digital radio in a backwards compatible way. In Processings of AES 114th Convention, Paper 5850, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Audio Engineering Society, 2003.
[8] M. Arora, J. Lee, and S. Park, “High Quality Blind Bandwidth Extension of Audio for Portable Player Applications,” Audio Eng. Soc. Convention Paper 6761, 2006.
[9] J. Laroche and M. Dolson, “New Phase-Vocoder Techniques for Real-Time Pitch Shifting, Chorusing, Harmonizing, and Other Exotic Audio Modifications,” J. Audio Eng. Soc., vol. 47, pp.928-936,1999.
[10] ITU-R BS. 1116, “Methods for the Subjective Assessment of Small Impairments in Audio System Including Multichannel Sound Systems,” Geneva, Switzerland, 1994.
[11] ITU-R Recommendation BS.1534-1, “Method for the Subjective Assessment of Intermediate Sound Quality (MUSHRA),” International Telecommunications Union, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001.
[12] G. Keppel and S. Zedeck, Data Analysis for Research Designs. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, 1989.
[13] E. Larsen and R. M. Aarts, Audio Bandwidth Extension, John Wiley, West Sussex, England, 2004.
[14] P. P. Vaidyanathan, Multirate Systems and Filter Banks, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1993.
[15] A. V. Oppenheim and R.W. Schafer, Discrete-Time Signal Processing. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1999.
[16] J. Tomarakos, D. Ledger, Using The Low-Const, High Performance ADSP-21065L Digital Signal Processor For Digital Audio Applications, 1998.
[17] C. M. Liu, W. C. Lee and H. W. Hsu, “High frequency reconstruction by linear extrapolation,” presented at the 115th AES convention, New York, USA, 2003, October 10-13.
[18] M. Diez, L. Liljeryd, K. Kjorling and O. Kunz, “Spectral Band Replication, a novel approach in audio coding,” presented at the 112th AES convention, Munich, Germany, 2002, May 10-13.
[19] U. Zolzer (ed.), DAFX: Digital Audio Effects, John Wiley, New York, 2002.
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