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研究生:賴彥均
研究生(外文):Yen-Chuan Lai
論文名稱:紀念品:旅遊回憶的保存與觸發
論文名稱(外文):The Souvenir as a Travel Memories Keeper and Trigger
指導教授:鄧怡莘鄧怡莘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-Shin Deng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:應用藝術研究所
學門:藝術學門
學類:應用藝術學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:英文
論文頁數:61
中文關鍵詞:旅遊紀念品回憶
外文關鍵詞:travelsouvenirmemoriesdesign implication
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紀念品一直以來都被視為是深具意義的物品,亦為許多學者所探討。在旅程中,人們會蒐集紀念品來保存回憶,而在旅程結束後,這些紀念品轉而成為旅遊經歷的象徵並觸動回憶。像這樣的紀念品,對人們而言,意義最為深重。

旅人以物保存回憶,該物又因為有了回憶而變得珍貴有意義。簡而言之,物保存了回憶,而回憶也使物得以保存。這種物與回憶間的微妙連結使得人與物以及人與回憶的關係都持續地更長久。本研究即欲藉由研究人們對紀念品所抱持的情感以及紀念品、回憶與旅人間的關聯,來了解如何強化甚或建立這樣的連結。

研究內容主要分為兩部分:紀念品如何保存旅遊回憶;旅程結束後,旅遊回憶又是如何被觸動。資料蒐集採脈絡訪查法(Contextual Inquiry)與訪談來進行,其後以關聯圖表(Affinity Diagram)整理資料,透過質性分析與討論,對保存回憶與觸發回憶兩個層面分別提出了設計提示。在保存回憶方面,紀念品可以是實用物品、旅伴、旅遊經歷的收據、場景中的片段、回憶創造者或是旅人所見的另一種版本;而在觸發回憶方面,則提出了四點:可抗拒適應機制(adaptation)的立體裝飾、不時被使用的實用物品、重新體驗旅程的設定以及社交場合中引發好奇心的物品。期望兩個層面的設計提示能供設計師交錯整合運用,從中汲取想法,提出深具意義之紀念品的設計構想。
Souvenirs have been regarded as highly significant material objects. In a journey, tourists tend to collect souvenirs to keep memories. After the journey, these souvenirs serve as symbols of travel experience and evoke memories. A souvenir like this is considered to be most meaningful.

A souvenir keeps memories. The memories kept then make the souvenir cherished by people. That is to say, the object keeps the memories and meanwhile the memories keep the object. The subtle connection linking objects and memories makes both association between people and objects, people and memories last longer. By studying the emotions that people hold toward souvenirs and the relation between souvenirs, memories and tourists, it is possible to find out how to strengthen, or further, build this connection.

In this research, two main parts are investigated; namely: how a souvenir is being a memories keeper and being a memories trigger. Contextual inquiries and interviews are conducted to collect data. Through qualitative analysis and discussion, implications for memories keepers and triggers are respectively delivered. For keeping memories in the journey, it is implied that souvenirs can be useful things, partners of traveler, receipts of travel experience, fragments of the whole scene, memories creators, or other versions. As memories triggers, the souvenirs are proposed to be three-dimensional decorations against human adaptation, practical things used once in a while, setting for re-experiencing the journey, or curiosity triggers in social occasions. Implications of two aspects are suggested to be interlaced and integrated for application. The results are referable for designers to derive ideas concerning meaningful souvenirs.
摘要-------------------------------------------i
Abstract---------------------------------------ii
誌謝-------------------------------------------iii
Contents---------------------------------------iv
Figures----------------------------------------vii
Tables-----------------------------------------viii

-Chapter 1-
Introduction------------------------------------------------------------------1
1.1 Background----------------------------------------------------------------1
1.2 Motivation----------------------------------------------------------------2
1.3 Objectives----------------------------------------------------------------2
1.4 Scope---------------------------------------------------------------------2
1-5 Outline of Thesis---------------------------------------------------------3

-Chapter 2-
Literature Review-------------------------------------------------------------4
2.1 Souvenir------------------------------------------------------------------4
2.1.1 Souvenir Definition-----------------------------------------------------4
2.1.2 The Meaning of Souvenir-------------------------------------------------5
2.1.3 Souvenir & Memory-------------------------------------------------------7
2.2 Memory--------------------------------------------------------------------9
2.2.1 Memory Process----------------------------------------------------------9
2.2.2 Types of Memory Systems-------------------------------------------------9
2.2.3 Memory Cue-------------------------------------------------------------10
2.2.4 Autobiographical Memory------------------------------------------------11

-Chapter 3-
Methodology------------------------------------------------------------------12
3.1 Research Structure-------------------------------------------------------12
3.2 Contextual Inquiry and Interview-----------------------------------------14
3.2.1 Introduction of Contextual Inquiry-------------------------------------14
3.2.2 Contextual Inquiry and Interview Plan----------------------------------14
3.3 Research Questions-------------------------------------------------------15
3.4 Recruiting---------------------------------------------------------------17
3.4.1 Demographic Characteristics--------------------------------------------17
3.4.2 Screening Interview----------------------------------------------------17

-Chapter 4-
Findings---------------------------------------------------------------------20
4.1 Tourists' Behavior-------------------------------------------------------20
4.1.1 Collecting The Same Item From Different Places-------------------------21
4.1.2 Picking up Piece-of-the-Rock-------------------------------------------21
4.1.3 Taking Artifact--------------------------------------------------------22
4.1.4 Purchasing Merchandise-------------------------------------------------22
4.1.5 Passively Receiving Things which is Got due to Other Reasons-----------23
4.2 The Factors for Souvenirs be Meaningful----------------------------------23
4.2.1 Importance and Using Frequency in the Trip-----------------------------23
4.2.2 Reminding Explicit Travel Events---------------------------------------23
4.2.3 Efforts having been Paid for Acquiring---------------------------------24
4.2.4 Unimportant Factor: Aesthetics-----------------------------------------25
4.3 The Contents of Memories Evoked------------------------------------------25
4.3.1 Place-related: Destinations--------------------------------------------26
4.3.2 Place-related: the General Impression of the Destination---------------26
4.3.3 Place-related: the Episodes in the Journey-----------------------------27
4.3.4 Person-related: Personal Feelings--------------------------------------30
4.3.5 Person-related: Interpersonal Interaction------------------------------30
4.4 Existence of Souvenir in Daily Life--------------------------------------30
4.4.1 Display----------------------------------------------------------------31
4.4.2 Storage----------------------------------------------------------------31
4.4.3 Usage------------------------------------------------------------------33
4.5 The Timing and Occasion for Memories to be Evoked------------------------34

-Chapter 5-
Discussions------------------------------------------------------------------36
5.1 The Modes of Memories being Encoded-involved in the journey--------------36
5.1.1 Memories around time and place of obtaining souvenirs are encoded------37
5.1.2 Experiences corresponding to the receipts are encoded------------------38
5.1.3 The journey that souvenirs joined is encoded---------------------------39
5.1.4 The memories created by the souvenirs are encoded----------------------39
5.2 The Modes of Memories being Encoded-features of souvenirs----------------40
5.2.1 Encoded on Visual Information-Images and Miniatures--------------------40
5.2.2 Encoded on Metonym -- Piece-of-the-Whole and The Same Items------------41
5.3 Activities Contributing to Evoking Memories------------------------------43
5.3.1 Arranging Souvenirs----------------------------------------------------43
5.3.2 Seeing Souvenirs-------------------------------------------------------44
5.3.3 Reading Souvenirs------------------------------------------------------44
5.3.4 Using Souvenirs--------------------------------------------------------44
5.3.5 Introducing Souvenirs--------------------------------------------------45
5.4 Current Problems of Souvenir Design and Suggestions----------------------47

-Chapter 6-
Design Implications----------------------------------------------------------49
6.1 Implications for Memories Keepers----------------------------------------49
6.1.1 Making souvenir a useful thing in the journey--------------------------49
6.1.2 Making souvenir a partner of traveler in the journey-------------------49
6.1.3 Making souvenir a receipt of experience--------------------------------50
6.1.4 Letting tourists take away a part of the whole from the scene----------50
6.1.5 Making souvenir with various versions----------------------------------50
6.1.6 Making souvenir a memories creator-------------------------------------50
6.2 Implications for Memories Triggers---------------------------------------51
6.2.1 Making souvenir a three-dimensional decoration against adaptation------51
6.2.2 Designing a setting for re-experiencing the journey by filing souvenirs51
6.2.3 Making souvenir a practical object used once in a while----------------51
6.2.4 Making souvenir a curiosity trigger showing up in social occasions-----51
6.3 Examples-----------------------------------------------------------------52
6.3.1 Wearing the useful tube map--------------------------------------------52
6.3.2 Carrying the travel partner on the back--------------------------------52
6.3.3 Taking away a part of the afternoon tea--------------------------------53
6.3.4 Collecting different versions------------------------------------------53
6.3.5 Creating memories together---------------------------------------------54
6.3.6 Re-experiencing the journey--------------------------------------------54
6.3.7 Collecting receipts of experiences-------------------------------------55

-Chapter 7-
Conclusions------------------------------------------------------------------56
7.1 Conclusion of Findings---------------------------------------------------56
7.2 Contribution-------------------------------------------------------------57
7.3 Related Research---------------------------------------------------------57

Reference--------------------------------------------------------------------59
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