跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(34.204.169.230) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/02/21 22:07
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:莊哲綸
研究生(外文):Che-Lun Chuang
論文名稱:基於改良式肌肉模型之表情動畫
論文名稱(外文):Expression Animation based on Improved Muscle Model
指導教授:林昇甫林昇甫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Sheng-Fuu Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:電機與控制工程系所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:103
中文關鍵詞:人臉塑形表情動畫肌肉模型
外文關鍵詞:facial modelingexpression animationmuscle model
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:178
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
在計算機圖學領域裡,製作逼真的人臉模型及利用它們產生臉部表情動畫是一個熱門的研究領域,目前也還沒有一個好的解決方法。傳統上臉部塑形必須大費周章的以人力製作,並且在模型上加入特別的參數控制機制以便製作動畫。近年來,越來越多的研究開始使用三維掃描器來得到數位化的人臉模型,並且藉由人臉組織跟肌肉運動學特性的模擬,也得到了更真實的臉部表情動畫。然而,三維掃描器到目前為止,仍有一些實際應用上的缺點,需要以人工輔助修改模型,因此還需要一些改良的方法來建立適合合成臉部表情動畫的個人化模型。
在本論文中,我們提出一個基於解剖學結構的臉部模型建構及變形的方法,使之適合合成臉部表情動畫。在我們的臉部模型裡,頭骨結構具有頭顱重建上常用的標記資料及其表皮厚度資料,表皮上也有相對應的標記資料,我們利用這些資料作模型上的變形,這讓表皮與骨頭的位置有解剖學上的依據。頭骨及表皮上具有肌肉在其上的位置資訊,因此我們可以快速並自動在臉部模型上建立肌肉。而我們利用表皮上的MPEG4特徵點來獲得肌肉收縮值。我們可以藉由控制肌肉收縮來合成臉部表情。 再者將肌肉模型加於其他物體上,使得更多物體能產生表情動畫。
本論文的主要貢獻為下列兩點:第一,提出一個改良式肌肉模型來模擬真實人臉的細微表情變化;第二,我們將肌肉模型應用於卡通人物、動物以及物體,使得他們也會產生表情動畫。
Traditionally, facial models have been build painstakingly by manual digitization and animated by adding controlled facial mesh deformations. More recently, the 3D scanner has been used to digitize facial models and they have achieved more realistic animation through the dynamic simulation of facial tissues and muscles. We present a construction and deformation method for head models with anatomical structure, suitable for facial animation. Based on our facial modeling method, the skull is equipped with landmarks and skin thickness data. We also have the muscle attachment points on skull and insertion points on skin, which allows us to automatically construct muscles. Some feature points of MPEG4 on skin are used to get muscle contraction parameters. Our model is animated by using muscle contraction parameters. More objects achieve the expression animation by using our muscle model. The major contribution may be summarized as follow. First, we use an improved muscle model to achieve the subtle expression animation. Second, we also use these muscles to achieve the expression animation in cartoon characters, animals, and objects.
目錄

中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 xi

第一章 緒論 1-1
1.1 研究動機 1-1
1.2 相關論文研究 1-3
1.2.1 臉部動畫機制 1-3
1.2.2 人臉表情轉換 1-6
1.3 論文架構 1-8
第二章 3D圖學以及臉部動畫技巧介紹 2-1
2.1 3D圖學技術 2-1
2.1.1 彩色模型 2-2
2.1.2 光線模型 2-4
2.1.3 表面法向量 2-5
2.2 虛擬人類相關標準發展 2-7
2.2.1 MPEG 4-SNHC(Synthetic/Natural Hybrid Coding) 2-7
2.2.2 臉部動作編碼系統 2-8
2.3 解剖學 2-8
2.4 臉部動畫技巧 2-14
2.4.1 內插法 2-14
2.4.2 肌肉法 2-15
第三章 基於肌肉之人臉與非人臉表情合成系統 3-1
3.1 系統概述 3-2
3.2 臉部模型 3-3
3.2.1 中性人臉的構造 3-3
3.2.2 建立中性人臉的方法 3-5
3.2.3 人臉貼圖 3-8
3.3 改良式肌肉模型 3-9
3.3.1 改良式線性肌肉模型 3-9
3.3.2 改良式括約肌肉模型 3-12
3.3.3 臉部肌肉的位置與建立 3-15
3.4 臉部表情的合成 3-16
3.4.1 表情資料的來源 3-16
3.4.2 表情資料的轉換 3-18
3.5 非人臉表情動畫系統 3-22
3.5.1 卡通人物臉部表情 3-22
3.5.2 特殊臉型動物臉部表情 3-25
3.5.3 物體類臉部表情 3-27
3.6 模擬主播播報新聞的方法 3-29
第四章 實驗結果與分析 4-1
4.1 實驗機制 4-1
4.1.1 實驗設備 4-1
4.1.2 真實感評估 4-2
4.2 實驗結果 4-3
4.3 實驗分析 4-25
第五章 結論與未來發展 5-1
參考文獻 I
附錄A 臉部表情肌 V
附錄B 皮膚厚度資料 VII
參考文獻

[1]F. I. Parke,“Parameterized models for facial animation,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 2, pp. 61–68, Nov. 1982.
[2]K. Waters,“A muscle model for animating three-dimensional facial expressions,” Proc. 14th ACM International Conf. Computer Graphics, vol. 21, pp. 17–24, July 1987.
[3]N. M. Thalmann, N. E. Primeau, and D. Thalmann,“Abstract muscle actions procedures for human face animation,” The Visual Computer, vol. 3, pp. 290–297, Mar. 1988.
[4]Y. Lee, D. Terzopoulos, and K. Waters, “Realistic modeling for facial animation,” Proc. 22nd ACM International Conf. Computer Graphics, vol. 29, pp. 55-62, Aug. 1995.
[5]T. W. Sederberg and S. R. Parry, “Free-form deformation of solid geometric models,” Proc. 13th ACM International Conf. Computer Graphics, pp. 151-160, Aug. 1986.
[6]F. Pighin, J. Hecker, D. Lischinski, R. Szeliski, and D. H. Salesin, “Synthesizing realistic facial expressions from photographs,” Proc. 25th ACM International Conf. Computer Graphics, pp. 75-84, July 1998.
[7]T. Beier and S. Neely, “Feature-based image metamorphosis,” Proc. 19th ACM International Conf. Computer Graphics, pp. 35-42, July 1992.
[8]D. Cohen-Or, D. Levin, and A. Solomovici,“Three-dimensional distance field metamorphosis,”ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 17, Issue 2, pp. 116–141, April 1998.
[9]D. Ruprecht and H. Muller, “Image warping with scattered data interpolation,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 15, pp. 37–43, March 1995.
[10]Y. Shan, Z. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “Image-based surface detail transfer,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, vol. 2, pp. 794-799, Dec. 2001.
[11]Z. Liu, Y. Shan, and Z. Zhang, “Expressive expression mapping with ratio Images,” Proc. 28th ACM International Conf. Computer Graphics, pp. 271-276, Aug. 2001.
[12]F. I. Parke and K. Waters, Computer Facial Animation, A K Peters, Wellesley, MA, 1996.
[13]D. Feiden and R. Tetzlaff, “A step toward universal facial animation via volume morphing,” Proc. 6th IEEE International Conf. Robot and Human Communication, pp. 358-363, 1997.
[14]G. Sannier and N. M. Thalmann,“A user-friendly texture-fitting methodology for virtual humans,” Proc. ACM International Conf. Computer Graphics, pp. 167, 1997.
[15]W. Martin and J. Aggarwal, Motion Understanding Robot and Human Vision, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA, 1988.
[16]R. Labayrade and D. Aubert,“Analysis and synthesis of facial expressions with hand-generated muscle actuation basis,” Proc. Computer Animation 2001, Seoul, Korea, pp. 12–19, Nov. 2001.
[17]Y. Zhang, E. Sung, and E. Prakash, “A physically-based model for real-time facial expression animation,” Proc. IEEE International Conf. 3-D Digital Imaging and Modeling, Quebec, Canada, pp. 399-406, June 2001.
[18]D. Terzopoulos and K. Waters, “Physical-based facial modeling, analysis, and animation,” Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation, vol. 1, pp. 73-80, March 1990.
[19]S. S. Tang, H. Yan, and W. C. Liew, “A NURBS-based vector muscle model for generating human facial expressions,” Proc. IEEE International Conf. Information, Communications and Signal Processing, vol. 2, pp. 758-762, Dec. 2003.
[20]Y. Lee, D. Terzopoulos, and K. Waters, “Constructing physics-based facial models of individuals,” Proc. Graphics Interface, pp. 1-8, May 1993.
[21]L. Piegl and W. Tiller, The NURBS Book, 2nd Ed., Springer, Berlin, 1997.
[22]Y. Zhang, E. C. Prakash and E. Sung,“A physically-based model with adaptive refinement for facial animation,” Proc. Computer Animation 2001, pp. 28–39, Nov. 2001.
[23]P. Kalra, A. Mangili, N. M. Thalmann, and D. Thalmann, “Simulation of facial muscle action based on rational free form deformations,” Proc. EUROGRAPHICS’92, pp. 59–69, 1992.
[24]S. Platt and N. Badler, “Animating facial expressions,” Proc. 8th ACM International Conf. Computer Graphics, vol. 15, pp. 245-252, Aug. 1981.
[25]D. Decarlos, D. Metaxas, and M. Stone, “An anthropometric face model using variational techniques,” Proc. 25th ACM International Conf. Computer Graphics, pp. 67-74, Aug. 1998.
[26]V. Blanz and T. Vetter, “A morphable model for the synthesis of 3D faces ,” Proc. 26th ACM International Conf. Computer Graphics, pp. 187-194, 1999.
[27]F. Lavagetto and R. Pockaj, “An efficient use of MPEG-4 FAP interpolation for facial animation at 70 bits/Frame,” IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 11, pp. 1085–1097, Oct. 2001.
[28]D. Terzopoulos and K. Waters, “Analysis and synthesis of facial image sequences using physical and anatomical models,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 15, pp. 569–579, June 1993.
[29]R. S. Wright and Jr. M. Sweet, OpenGL SuperBible, Waite Group Press, Indianapolis, 2000.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top