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研究生:許全義
研究生(外文):Chuan-Yi Hsu
論文名稱:從生物剽竊到衡平的生物探勘:建構取用植物遺傳資源及其相關的民族藥學知識的法理秩序
論文名稱(外文):From Biopiracy to Equitable Bioprospecting: Constructing A Legal Regime for Medicine Research, Access, and Benefit-sharing
指導教授:倪貴榮倪貴榮引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuei-Jung Ni
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:科技法律研究所
學門:法律學門
學類:專業法律學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:196
中文關鍵詞:生物剽竊生物探勘交易成本生物多樣性文化女性主義取用體制契約智慧財產權營業秘密生物遺傳資源民族藥學知識傳統知識關懷倫理公有地悲劇反公有地悲劇保育經濟分析誘因效率契約風險平均分配契約資訊不對稱道德風險取用與利益分享醫藥研究
外文關鍵詞:biopiracybioprospectingtransaction costbiodiversitycultural feminismaccess institutioncontractintellectual property righttrade secretgenetic resourceethnobotanical knowledgetraditional knowledgecare ethicstragedy of commonstragedy of anti-commonsconservationeconomic analysisincentive-efficient contractoptimal risk-sharing contractinformation assymetrymoral hazardsaccess and benefit-sharingmedicine research
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本論文旨於理解醫藥研發脈絡下的生物探勘的特質。並透過此認識,界定醫藥研發所使用的傳統知識的法律性質,以及建構規範醫藥研究取用生物遺傳資源以及利益分享的法律體制。

醫藥業理應樂於進入生物探勘契約關係中,以取得其所亟需的「藥引」。不過,自1990年代,醫藥業反而將取用生物遺傳資源及其相關的傳統醫藥知識的初步研究工作,轉包給中小型企業進行,促成「焦點市場」交易的興起。此轉變不僅有損於生物多樣性保育的透明化,也有礙建立衡平的利益分享機制。

為解決此問題,本文重新審視規範取用遺傳資源及其相關民族藥學知識的國際法、國內法和生物探勘契約。透過理解醫學研發脈絡下的法律社會與經濟分析,本文認為在法律陰影下的生物剽竊問題非常嚴重,因為醫藥研發程序漫長,往往超過契約存續時間,而且會有許多轉化,很難監測醫藥業者締約後的道德風險。

如同文化女性主義面對漢茲難題一般,透過脈絡理解與發揮創意,漢茲可以不用偷藥、漢茲的太太也不會死。本文認為不用鎖國、或將生物探勘壓迫到法律陰影下;相反的促進契約交易環境,把生物探勘市場的餅做大,也可以解決生物剽竊的問題。

為了促進醫藥研發的契約交易,本文將傳統知識界定為「民族藥學知識」,以作為正面積極保護傳統知識的依據。就醫藥研發創新累積的脈絡看來,賦予民族藥學知識智慧財產權,可保持原住民知識庫的完整,並提供揭露有用資訊的市場誘因,而其權利型態,可採取營業秘密,或是另類的原住民社群權。不過這不意謂著,其他類型的傳統知識不值得保護,而是說其他類型也要通過社會造福的認證,如傳統農業知識在農業生物科技產業中的貢獻,傳統民俗對音樂產業的助益等等。

不過,定義良好的權利形態只是第一步,如何有效規範生物探勘,締造雙贏,還得設計出可有效運作此權利的法律體制。不管最後所選擇的智慧財產權形態為何,該體制有兩大任務:有效率的代表原住民社群,和提供適當的契約規則來解決資訊交易所帶來的難題。前任務的失敗,往往是生物探勘計畫最後以失敗告終的最主要原因;後者,則是利益分享機制不公平,將醫藥研發成本,大部分轉嫁到資源國和原住民社群身上的癥結。

取用體制在提供契約機制處理資訊不對稱和不確定性上,可扮演非常重要的角色。他們可以發展訊號系統,表明生物遺傳資源和民族藥學知識的品質,以及篩選值得與之締約的公司。研究顯示,藉著發展生物多樣性的登錄和整合資料庫,釐清民族藥學知識和現代醫藥研究之間的介面,可以提高其附加價值,促進資源國競爭力與談判實力,保護其智慧財產權。在監測利益分享機制上,可以透過國際性的認證系統,亦即專利申請時強制揭露預先告知同意,以及採用其他的契約條款,如採用風險平均分配的契約機制,取代目前慣用的低前金、高權利金的誘因效率契約。
The thesis has analysed the main issues in the design of national legal systems and institutions for bioprospecting. It focus on the economic exchange process of actors in bioprospecting and the structure of the drug industry as the main basis for conducting the analysis.

In order to promoting optimal contracting for drug R&D, it has defined the right of the traditional knowledge. Using the theory of cumulative innovation and evidence listed in investigations of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology, it argues for a narrower definition for traditional knowledge, in the sense of ethnobotanical knowledge in the case of drug research. It shows that when traditional knowledge is defined in this way, two main incentive effects accrue: to keep the knowledge pool in its entirety and the incentive to reveal valuable information. Thus defined, the right can take the form of either a trade secret or a community intellectual property right. This does not mean, however, that knowledge which falls outside the purview of ethnobotanical knowledge should not be protected. In fact, the thrust should be on conducting similar excercises in the case of traditional agricultural knowledge vis-��-vis agricultural biotechnology, traditional folklore vis-��-vis the music industry, and so on.

However, a well-defined right with an easily segregable set of benificiaries is only the first step. A large onus rests on the design of institutions that will put this right into an enforceable framework. Whatever mode of intellectual property option is chosen for the right, the institutions have two major tasks: that of representing the communities effectively and of providing for rules of contract that take into account the difficulties of dealing with information as a resource. In other words, they should minimize principle-agent problems between communities and the access authority, and try to eradicate many of the market imperfections, especially related to information asymmetries and uncertainty.

Access institutions could play a critical role in providing contractual mechanisms to deal with information asymmetries and uncertainty. They can help signal the quality of genetic resources and ethnobotanical knowledge, and can also screen for contract-worthy firms. It has been shown that when access institutions add value to in situ genetic diversity by way of creating inventories of genetic resources, and sort out the interface between ethnobotanical knowledge and modern drug research by investing in ethnobotanical databases, they can facilitate better bargaining conditions amongst parties. The problem of monitoring profits to ensure that the firm then still shares profits with the communities and the access authorities can be enforced through mechanisms such as the international certification systems and other contractual provisions, for example, adopting the contract mechanism of the optimal risk-sharing rather than the incentive-efficient one.
論文目次

第一章 緒論 1
1.1前言:問題意識 2
1.2研究背景一:保育生物多樣性的複雜性 5
1.3研究背景二:保護傳統知識的複雜性 19
1.4研究範圍與方法 23
1.5國內文獻回顧 28
1.6論文架構 31

第二章 醫藥研發程序與產業結構 34
2.1前言 35
2.2 生物遺傳資源與醫藥產業 35
2.3 醫藥研究與產業結構 37
2.4醫藥與草本醫藥的研究發展程序 41
2.5生物探勘與醫藥研究 46
2.6醫藥研究的生物探勘契約 48
2.7 小結 55

第三章 TRIPs 和CBD之互動與調和 57
3.1 引言 58
3.2 1992年的生物多樣性公約 58
3.3 1995年的TRIPs協定 64
3.4 使用者和提供者的角色設定 78
3.5傳統知識權利的限制 82
3.6 小結 86

第四章 生物探勘市場中的交易成本 88
4.1 引言 89
4.2 交易成本分析在生物探勘契約上的應用 91
4.3生物探勘市場上的搜尋與資訊成本 96
4.4協商與決策成本 101
4.5監測與執行成本 105
4.6小結 110




第五章 傳統醫藥知識的智慧財產權 111
5.1 引言 112
5.2 傳統知識的釐清 113
5.3 傳統知識作為智慧財產權的合理性 114
5.4 醫藥的研發程序與傳統知識 120
5.5 將傳統知識視為智慧財產權所產生的誘因效應 125
5.6 小結 126

第六章 規範生物探勘 129
6.1 前言 130
6.2 規範生物探勘:條件 130
6.3 將外部性內化 139
6.4 創造取用傳統知識的市場 144
6.5 促進契約交易的環境 150
6.6 小結 156

第七章 結論與建議 158
7.1 研究成果 159
7.2 立法建議 162

參考文獻及附錄 166
參考文獻

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Zechkhauser, Richard, The Challenge of Contracting for Technological Information, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 93 ( November ): 12743-12748( 1996 ).

中文論文:(依姓氏羅馬拼音字母順序排列)

陳文吟,〈探討修改「進步性」專利要件以因應生物科技發展的必要性—以美國法為主〉,華岡法粹,Vol. 27(1999)。
───〈由美國楝樹發明專利探討新穎性相關規定之合理性〉,台大法學論叢,31卷1期(2002)。
陳怡臻,<植物育種家權利法規的比較>,台灣大學農藝學研究所碩士論文(1997)。
陳俊銘,<原住民族傳統資源之智慧財產權保護與管理>,政治大學科技管理研究所碩士論文(2001)。
何建志,<生物技術專利之最適範圍:產業政策與法律分析>,《國立台灣大學法學論叢》,33卷5期(2004)。
黃鈺婷,<植物品種之專利保護>,台灣大學農藝學研究所碩士論文(2002)。
徐源泰、曾文聖,<生物多樣性、生物技術與生物產業>,《智慧財產權月刊》,75期(2005)。
蕭柊瓊,<WTO架構下農業智慧財產權問題之研究>,東吳大學法律學系研究所(2003)。
郭華仁、嚴新富、陳昭華、鴻義章<台灣民族藥學知識及其保護>,《科技法學評論》,2卷,頁63-95(2005)。
李崇禧,<農業生物技術之智財權與管制體系研究-以政治經濟分析為出發點>,國立台灣大學國家發展研究所博士論文(2002)。
李彥群,<哥斯大黎加生物多樣性法簡介>,《生物科技與法律研究通訊》,19期(2005)。
───,<生物剽竊與遺傳資源取得法制之研究>,交通大學科技法律研究所碩士論文(2006)。
林麗文,<生物技術產業之智慧財產權管理>,東吳大學法律研究所 ( 2001)。
林佳瑩,<植物之智慧財產權保護及其限制>,台灣大學法律學研究所碩士論文(2003)。
羅紀宇,<菲律賓生物與遺傳資源探勘法簡介>,《生物科技與法律研究通訊》,19期(2005)。
廖文孜,<生物遺傳資源之智慧財產權保護>,臺灣大學法律學研究所碩士論文(2000)。
孟繁蓉,<遺傳資源取得和利益分享之管制原則>,東華大學環境政策研究所碩士論文(2005)。
倪貴榮,<與貿易有關之智慧財產權協定與生物多樣性公約之衝突與調和:以生物遺傳資源之取得及利益分享為探討中心>,《生物科技與法律研究通訊》,17卷,18期(2003)。
───,<生物科技發展與超國界法律>,收錄於《認識超國界法律專文集》,陳長文、馬英九主編(2004)。
倪貴榮、張宏節、李彥群、張詠惠、吳慈佩、陳致浤,<生物遺傳資源之取得與利益分享之國際法發展趨勢>,《科技法學評論》,2卷,2期(2005)。
翁雅欣,<生物多樣性公約發展與台灣因應之研究>,台灣大學法律學研究所碩士論文(1996)。
吳任偉,<在WTO架構下兩岸關於地理標示保護之研究>,輔仁大學財經法律學系碩士論文(2003)。
顏婌烊,<植物品種權與植物專利之研究>,輔仁大學法律學研究所碩士論文(2004)。


其它(研究報告、研討會論文、網路文章與官方文獻等等)

Berlin, Elois A. and Berlin, Brent, Whose Knowledge? Whose Property? The Case of OMIECH, RAFI and the Maya ICBG, 13 December, available at: http://guallart.dac.uga.edu/ICBGreply.html(1999)
Etkin, Nina L., Benefit-Sharing: Hype or Hope?, International Conference on Medicinal Plants, Access Use and Benefit-Sharing in Light of the CBD, Oslo: University of Oslo, 3 April( 2003 ).
European Commission(EC), Review of the Provisions of Article 27 (3)(b) of the TRIPs Agreement, Communication by the European Communities and their Member States on the Relationship Between the Convention on Biological Diversity and the TRIPs the Agreement, a Submission to the WIPO Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore, First Session, Geneva, 30 April to 3 May(2001).
Gehl Sampath, Padmashree and Tarasofsky, Richard G., Study on the Inter-Relations between Intellectual Property Rights Regimes and the Conservation of Genetic Resources, paper presented to European Commission Directorate-General Environment, Final Report, Berlin, 31 December (2002).
Jaffe, Adam B., The US Patent System in Transition: Policy Innovation and the Innovation Process ( http://www.nber.org/papers/w7280) ( 1999 ).
Laird, Sarah A. and Lisinge, Esterine, Benefit-Sharing Case Studies: Aristocladus korupensis and Prunus Africana, UNEP/CBD/COP/4/Inf.25, available at http://www.biodiv.org/doc/case-studies/abs/cs-abs-aristo.pdf (1998)
Laird, Sarah A. and Pierce, Alan R., Promoting Sustainable and Ethical Botanicals: Strategies to Improve Commercial Raw Materials Sourcing, result from the Sustainable Botanicals Pilot Project Industry Industry Surveys, Case Studies and Standards Collection, Final Report, New York, May( 2002 ).
Mann, Howard J., Intellectual Property Rights, Biotechnology and the Protection of Biological Diversity: Literature Review, prepared for Industry Canada, Ottawa: Intellectual Property Policy Directorate( 1996 ).
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Deveopment (OECD), Saving Biological Diversity: Economic Incentive, Paris: OECD(1995)
---------------- Handbook of Incentive Measures for Diversity: Design and Implementation, Paris, OECD(1999a).
---------------- Saving Biological Diversity: The Role of Incentive, Paris: OECD(1999b).
Office of Technological Assessment ( OTA ), Biotechnology in a Global Economy, OTA-BA-494, Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, October, p. 87( 1991).
Pharmaceutical Research and Manufactures of America ( PhRMA ), Pharmaceutical Industry Profile 2003, Washington DC: PhRMA( 2003 )
Rosenthal, J. P., Equitable Sharing of Biodiversity Groups (ICBG) Program, in Case Studies on Benefit-Sharing Arrangements, Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, 4th Meeting, Bratislava, May (1997).
Ruiz Muller, M, Regulating bioprospecting and protecting indigenous people knowledge in the Andean community: Decision 391 and its overall impacts in the region, Paper presented at the UNCTAD Expert Meeting on Traditional Knowledge, Innovations and Practices, 30 October-1 November, Geneva(2000)
Straus, Joseph, Biodiversity and Intellectual Property, 35th Congress of the Workshop of the International Association for the Protection of Intellectual Property, Workshops I-VII, Rio de Janeiro, International Association for the Protection of Industrial Property, 24-19 May(1998).
Tansey, Geoff and Queen Mary Intellectual Property Research Institute, Study on the Relationship between the Agreement on TRIPS and Biodiversity Related Issues: Final Report for DC Trade European Commission, September 2000( 2000 ).
Ten Kate, K, Botanic garden policy on access and benefit-sharing: introduction to information document in Secretariat to the Convention on Biological Diversity, Submissions by the UK Government: common policy guidelines for participating botanic gardens on access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing, UNEP/CBD/ISOC/Inf 2, Intersessional Meeting on the Operations of the Convention, June, Montreal(1999).
Ten Kate, K and S A Laird, Preparing a National Strategy on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing, a pilot study, Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK(2001).
Ten Kate, Kerry and Wells, Adrian, The Access and Benefit-Sharing Policies of the United States National Cancer Institute: a Comparative Account of the Discovery and Development of the Drugs Calanolide and Topotecan, Benefit-Sharing Case Study, Submission to the Executive Secretary of the Convention on Biological Diversity by Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK(1998).
--------------- Preparing a National Strategy on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing, a pilot study, Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens( 2001).
Watal, Jayashree, Workshop on Differential Pricing and Financing of Essential Drugs, background note prepared by J. Watal, Consultant to WTO Secertariat, Geneva: World Trade Organization( 2001 ).
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), Intellectual Property Needs and Expectations of Traditional Knowledge Holders, Geneva: WIPO Report on Fact-Finding Missions on Intellectual Property and Traditional Knowledge(1998-1999).
---------------- Progress Report on the Status of Traditional Knowledge as Prior Art, Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore, Second Session, WIPO/ GRTKF/IC/2/6, Geneva: WIPO(2001).
World Resources Institute (WRI), IUCN, UNEP, et al., Global Biodiversity Strategy: Guideline for Action to Save, Study and Use Earth’s Wealth Sustainably and Suitably, Washington DC: World Resources Institute (WRI) (1992).
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1. 陳文吟,〈探討修改「進步性」專利要件以因應生物科技發展的必要性—以美國法為主〉,華岡法粹,Vol. 27(1999)。
2. 陳文吟,〈探討修改「進步性」專利要件以因應生物科技發展的必要性—以美國法為主〉,華岡法粹,Vol. 27(1999)。
3. 徐源泰、曾文聖,<生物多樣性、生物技術與生物產業>,《智慧財產權月刊》,75期(2005)。
4. 徐源泰、曾文聖,<生物多樣性、生物技術與生物產業>,《智慧財產權月刊》,75期(2005)。
5. 郭華仁、嚴新富、陳昭華、鴻義章<台灣民族藥學知識及其保護>,《科技法學評論》,2卷,頁63-95(2005)。
6. 郭華仁、嚴新富、陳昭華、鴻義章<台灣民族藥學知識及其保護>,《科技法學評論》,2卷,頁63-95(2005)。
7. 倪貴榮,<與貿易有關之智慧財產權協定與生物多樣性公約之衝突與調和:以生物遺傳資源之取得及利益分享為探討中心>,《生物科技與法律研究通訊》,17卷,18期(2003)。
8. 倪貴榮,<與貿易有關之智慧財產權協定與生物多樣性公約之衝突與調和:以生物遺傳資源之取得及利益分享為探討中心>,《生物科技與法律研究通訊》,17卷,18期(2003)。
9. 倪貴榮、張宏節、李彥群、張詠惠、吳慈佩、陳致浤,<生物遺傳資源之取得與利益分享之國際法發展趨勢>,《科技法學評論》,2卷,2期(2005)。
10. 倪貴榮、張宏節、李彥群、張詠惠、吳慈佩、陳致浤,<生物遺傳資源之取得與利益分享之國際法發展趨勢>,《科技法學評論》,2卷,2期(2005)。