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研究生:邱垂銨
研究生(外文):Chui-An Chiu
論文名稱:探空火箭酬載回收艙結構之設計
論文名稱(外文):Structural Design of Reentry Capsule for Sounding Rocket Mission
指導教授:蔡錫錚
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:機械工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:134
中文關鍵詞:結構驗證探空六號火箭酬載回收艙設計需求結構設計
外文關鍵詞:structure verificationstructural designdesign requirementreentry capsule for Sounding Rocket VI Mission
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本論文旨在探討我國探空六號火箭之酬載回收艙結構設計。回收艙結構設計是為了確保搭載的精密貴重儀器能回收重複使用與探勘資料的擷取。回收艙結構要能承受在高空再入段的氣動摩擦熱,回收艙與火箭彈體分離和落水等衝擊力。同時回收艙在飛行過程中必須保持姿態的靜穩定,即不能讓回收艙翻轉滾動,使降落傘抵達設定位置後順利開傘。回收艙另一設計要求為必須使艙內電控模組與儀器等的電子設備在任務執行階段皆能穩定運作。
回收艙設計流程從整體結構需求定義到設計定案,以至於最後的地面測試為止,採用比較法,找出過去文獻中指出有關載人返回艙的實體設計結構,權衡比較各種不同設計的差異性,最後決定出回收艙的構型。再針對電路功能需求,設計電子零件的固定方式與配置。最後利用商業軟體輔助結構強度計算分析,選擇適合的結構尺寸。
設計成品為回收艙整體結構。包含配重與強度需求的抗熱盾、負責回收艙上下連接的主結構密封艙、執行火工爆炸的密封蓋板與降落傘保護殼結構,輔以其它電子零件固定結構。
回收艙實體由中科院進行地面試驗,驗證各項結構是否滿足最初的設計需求,以確保回收艙各結構、模組能經歷類似飛行環境的外力負荷。經過部份之設計變更和反覆驗證、試驗後,回收艙實體已通過地面試驗,並完成一切正式飛試前的操作手續。
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the design approach for the mechanical structurre of reentry capsule for Sounding Rocket VI Mission in Taiwan. The design of the reentry capsule must ensure the re-use of the carried precise instruments and the retrieve-back of valuable data. The reentry capsule must also resist high reentry heat and suffer the impact forces when separating from the rocket and falling into the water. Meanwhile, during reentrying into the erath, the reentry capsule must keep a steady fly and a stable posture to let the parachute open smoothly. The other requirement for the design task is that the control system and the instruments must be operated steadily in Sounding Rocket VI Mission.
During the design process, from defining the structural requirements to the final ground tests, a comparative method was used to realize the difference between the various existing designs and their mechanical structures. The outline of the mechanical structure was made based on the comparison. Finally, the strength of the structure and the optimal dimensions were also analyzed by using COSMOSWorks software.
The reentry capsule’s structure, developed in the study, includes the heatproof-shield with the requirements of counterweight and strength, the main part of the capsule, the top cover with sealing and the parachute-protected shell structure for protecting and opening the parachute, and the othe accessories for fixing the electronic components.
A serie of ground tests for the body of the reentry capsule were conducted by Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology to verify whether the structure design fulfills the requirements of the reentry mission. After design changes and the corresponding validation, the reentry capsule has been verified from the necessary ground tests and is available for the launch of the sounding rocket mission.
摘要................................................................................................................................I
Abstract.......................................................................................................................III
目錄.............................................................................................................................IV
圖目錄..........................................................................................................................X
表目錄......................................................................................................................XIV
第1 章 緒論.................................................................................................................1
1.1 研究動機與目的.....................................................................................1
1.2 探六回收艙整體設計與分系統設計.....................................................2
1.2.1 整體設計.......................................................................................2
1.2.2 分系統設計...................................................................................4
1.3 論文架構與流程.....................................................................................4
第2 章 回收艙基本設計.............................................................................................5
2.1 研究架構與文獻回顧.............................................................................5
2.1.1 回收艙結構強度問題...................................................................5
2.1.2 回收艙氣動力問題.......................................................................5
2.1.3 熱環境、熱防護、溫度分部和熱應力問題.............................12
2.1.4 通信中斷問題.............................................................................13
2.2 回收艙的飛行穩定性研究...................................................................14
2.2.1 返回過程及其運動特點.............................................................16
2.3 回收艙的再入熱環境...........................................................................17
2.3.1 概述.............................................................................................17
2.3.2 回收艙的外型和熱環境.............................................................18
2.4 回收艙的熱防護...................................................................................20
2.4.1 概述.............................................................................................20
2.4.2 碳化材料的燒蝕處理.................................................................23
2.4.3 結論.............................................................................................25
第3 章 回收艙結構設計需求...................................................................................26
3.1 概述.......................................................................................................26
3.2 回收艙結構的工作環境.......................................................................26
3.2.1 地面環境.....................................................................................27
3.2.2 發射環境.....................................................................................31
3.2.3 軌道環境.....................................................................................33
3.2.4 再入環境.....................................................................................35
3.3 回收艙結構的負荷分析.......................................................................36
3.3.1 負荷來源.....................................................................................36
3.3.2 負荷分類.....................................................................................38
3.3.3 結構靜態負荷分析.....................................................................38
3.3.4 結構動態負荷分析.....................................................................39
3.3.5 負荷分析循環和負荷驗證.........................................................39
3.4 回收艙結構的設計要求.......................................................................40
3.4.1 概述.............................................................................................40
3.4.2 基本要求.....................................................................................42
3.5 回收艙結構決策設計...........................................................................45
3.5.1 結構決策的步驟.........................................................................45
3.5.2 回收艙外型和結構設計的確定.................................................46
3.5.3 結構形式、材料和連接方式選擇.............................................49
3.5.4 結構件的初步設計和分析.........................................................53
3.5.5 結構設計方案的比較.................................................................53
3.6 回收艙結構的詳細設計.......................................................................54
3.6.1 結構詳細設計步驟.....................................................................54
3.6.2 強度驗證.....................................................................................56
3.6.3 故障模式影響分析.....................................................................57
第4 章 回收艙主結構設計.......................................................................................60
4.1 系統組成...............................................................................................60
4.2 密封艙結構設計...................................................................................61
4.2.1 密封艙設計概念.........................................................................61
4.2.2 密封艙的功能.............................................................................61
4.2.3 密封艙的設計要求.....................................................................64
4.3 密封艙結構方案選擇...........................................................................66
4.3.1 結構形式.....................................................................................66
4.3.2 結構材料.....................................................................................67
4.3.3 結構方案確定.............................................................................67
4.3.4 密封艙下方接合面受力設計.....................................................68
4.3.5 密封艙上方接合面受力設計.....................................................70
4.4 密封艙輔助件的設計...........................................................................71
4.4.1 窗戶結構設計.............................................................................72
4.4.2 電源窗戶結構設計.....................................................................75
4.4.3 燒錄接頭窗戶設計.....................................................................76
4.4.4 燒蝕防護層的設計.....................................................................77
4.4.5 連接裝配順序.............................................................................81
4.5 降落傘艙內部結構...............................................................................82
4.5.1 降落傘艙設計概念.....................................................................82
4.5.2 降落傘艙的組成與設計要求.....................................................83
4.5.3 降落傘的功能.............................................................................84
4.5.4 降落傘結構方案選擇.................................................................84
4.5.5 降落傘控制裝置.........................................................................86
4.5.6 降落傘艙的設計.........................................................................86
4.5.7 傘艙預裂孔結構設計.................................................................87
4.5.8 傘艙接合面受力設計.................................................................88
4.5.9 傘艙連接裝配順序.....................................................................88
4.6 抗熱盾頭設計.......................................................................................89
4.6.1 抗熱盾設計概念.........................................................................89
4.6.2 抗熱盾的功能.............................................................................90
4.6.3 抗熱盾的設計要求.....................................................................92
4.7 抗熱盾結構方案選擇...........................................................................95
4.7.1 結構形式.....................................................................................95
4.7.2 結構材料.....................................................................................95
4.7.3 結構方案確定.............................................................................96
4.8 抗熱盾輔助件的設計...........................................................................96
4.8.1 防震結構設計.............................................................................96
4.8.2 燒蝕防護層的設計.....................................................................97
4.8.3 接合面受力設計.........................................................................98
4.8.4 連接裝配順序.............................................................................99
4.9 密封蓋設計.........................................................................................100
4.9.1 密封蓋設計概念.......................................................................100
4.9.2 密封蓋的功能...........................................................................101
4.9.3 密封蓋的設計要求...................................................................102
4.9.4 密封蓋結構方案選擇...............................................................104
4.9.5 密封蓋結構材料.......................................................................105
4.9.6 密封蓋結構方案確定...............................................................105
4.10 密封蓋輔助件的設計.......................................................................106
4.10.1 火工推板設計.........................................................................106
4.10.2 GPS天線座設計.......................................................................107
4.10.3 RF天線座設計.........................................................................108
4.10.4 功率放大器基座設計.............................................................109
4.10.5 連接裝配順序.........................................................................110
第5 章 回收艙結構力學分析與試驗..................................................................... 112
5.1 結構靜力分析..................................................................................... 112
5.2 結構靜力分析實例............................................................................. 113
5.2.1 密封艙結構受力分析...............................................................115
5.2.2 降落傘艙結構受力分析...........................................................118
5.2.3 抗熱盾結構受力分析...............................................................123
5.3 地面試驗.............................................................................................125
5.3.1 水密試驗...................................................................................125
5.3.2 真空試驗...................................................................................125
5.3.3 溫度交變試驗...........................................................................125
5.3.4 振動試驗...................................................................................126
5.3.5 衝擊試驗...................................................................................126
5.3.6 直升機運載空投.......................................................................127
第6 章 結論與未來展望.........................................................................................128
6.1 結論.....................................................................................................128
6.2 未來展望.............................................................................................130
6.2.1 回收艙結構技術.......................................................................131
6.2.2 回收艙機構技術.......................................................................132
6.2.3 回收艙結構和機構的相關技術...............................................133
參考文獻...................................................................................................................134
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http://www.nspo.org.tw/2005c/projects/projectrocket/property.htm
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3.「探六回收艙氣動力及彈道分析報告」,中山科學研究院氣動力飛行力學組內部報告文件,2006.7
4.Moseley W C, Martino J C., Apollo Wind Tunnel Testing Programm. NASA TND-3748, 1966
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6.N.A., Structural Design and Test Factors of Safety for Spacecraft Hardware. NASA-STD-5001, June 1996
7.Holman, J.P., Heat Transfer, 6th ed., New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1986
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11.戚啟勳,大氣科學,大中國圖書公司,2001.3
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