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研究生:林廷祐
研究生(外文):Ting-Yu Lin
論文名稱:以液晶熱像法探討微小管內之熱傳特性
論文名稱(外文):Experimental Analysis on Forced Convective Heat Transfer Characteristics in Micro Tubes by the Method of Liquid Crystal Thermography
指導教授:楊建裕楊建裕引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:機械工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:英文
論文頁數:120
中文關鍵詞:熱分流液晶熱像法熱對流熱傳係數微小管
外文關鍵詞:micro tubesconvective heat transferthermal shuntliquid crystal thermography
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本研究利用液晶熱像法來量測微小管溫度以求得水流經微小管的對流熱傳係數,這個方法可以有效的避免用熱偶計等接觸式溫度量測方法所產生的熱分流問題,本研究中微小管的管徑大小分佈從123到962微米,實驗結果顯示完全發展流的摩擦係數及熱傳係數與傳統理論十分吻合。不同管徑下轉換流皆發生在雷諾數從2,300到3,000,與傳統大管徑下轉換流發生的雷諾數一樣。隨著管徑越小層流的熱完全發展長度有較傳統預測式更長的趨勢,在熱發展區管徑962微米所測得的紐賽數與Shah and Bhatti [1987]預測結果十分吻合。在本研究中液晶熱像法的準確度可以高達0.4 oC,這個方法可以更進一步應用到管徑更微小,熱分流更嚴重微小管的溫度量測。
This study proposes a non-contacted Liquid Crystal Thermography (LCT) method for micro tube surface temperature measurement. It avoids the thermal shunt error caused while using the direct contact thermocouples. Forced convective heat transfer performance of water flowing through six micro tubes with inner diameters ranging from 123 to 962 μm were tested. The test results show that the conventional heat transfer and flow resistance correlations for laminar and turbulent flow can well be applied for predicting the fully developed heat transfer performance and friction factor in micro tubes. The transition occurs at Reynolds number from 2,300 to 3,000. This is also the same range as that for conventional larger tubes. The laminar thermal entrance length for micro tubes is longer than that estimated by the conventional correlation. The developing Nusselt numbers for 962 μm tube agrees well with those correlations predicted by the Shah and Bhatti [1987]. The uncertainty applied to measure the micro tube surface temperature is lower than 0.4 oC. It can be further applied for measuring smaller tube surface temperature that the thermal shunt may be more significant by using direct contact temperature measurements methods.
中文摘要...............................................................................................i
ABSTRACT..........................................................................................ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS.....................................................................iv
LIST OF FIGURES.............................................................................vi
LIST OF TABLES...............................................................................ix
NOMENCLATURE..............................................................................x
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION.........................................................1
1.1 Background..................................................................................1
1.2 Purpose of Study..........................................................................3
1.3 Thesis Outline..............................................................................4
CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW...............................................6
2.1 Conventional Correlations...........................................................6
2.1.1 Friction Factor.......................................................................6
2.1.2 Heat Transfer.........................................................................7
2.2 Micro Channel Flows..................................................................9
2.2.1 Friction Factor.....................................................................10
2.2.2 Heat Transfer Coefficient....................................................13
2.3 Entrance Region in Micro Channels..........................................18
2.4 Liquid Crystal Thermography....................................................19
2.5 Comments..................................................................................20
CHAPTER 3. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS...................................34
3.1 Experimental Apparatus.............................................................34
3.1.1 Fluid Flow and Pressure Measurement................................34
3.1.2 Temperature Measurement..................................................35
3.1.3 Heating Power and Mass Flow Rate Measurement.............35

3.1.4 Thermostat Box...................................................................36
3.1.5 Heat Loss Estimation...........................................................36
3.2 Test Section................................................................................37
3.3 Liquid Crystal Thermography (TLC)........................................38
3.3.1 Thermochromic Liquid Crystal...........................................39
3.3.2 Image Processing System....................................................40
3.3.3 Calibration System..............................................................41
3.3.4 Hue versus Temperature......................................................41
3.3.5 Lighting System..................................................................43
3.4 Data Reduction..........................................................................44
3.4.1 Friction Factors....................................................................44
3.4.2 Nusselt Number...................................................................46
3.4.3 Uncertainty Analysis...........................................................48
3.4.4 Axial Conduction in the Wall...............................................50
CHAPTER 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS.................................70
4.1 LCT Viewing Angle Effect........................................................70
4.2 Friction Factors..........................................................................71
4.3 Fully Developed Heat Transfer..................................................73
4.4 Effect of Heat Loss....................................................................75
4.5 Effect of Viscous Heating..........................................................76
4.6 Surface Temperature on Tube Wall............................................77
4.7 Thermal Developing Heat Transfer............................................78
CHAPTER 5. CONCLUSIONS.........................................................101
CHAPTER 6. FUTURE WORKS......................................................103
REFERENCES..................................................................................104
APPENDIX........................................................................................113
A. Internal Wall Temperature Calculation......................................113
B. Uncertainty of Nusselt number..................................................115
C. Fluid Temperature Increases due to Viscous Heating.................120
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