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研究生:黃志雄
研究生(外文):Chih-Hsiung Huang
論文名稱:重度及多重障礙學生個別化課程擬定與執行之研究
指導教授:葉瓊華葉瓊華引用關係莊妙芬莊妙芬引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:特殊教育學系所
學門:教育學門
學類:特殊教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:335
中文關鍵詞:合作性團隊個別化課程擬定與執行家長參與重度及多重障礙
外文關鍵詞:collaborative teamworkdesing and implementing of individualized curriculumparental involvementsevere and multiple disabilities
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從文獻和實務經驗中得知,目前重度及多重障礙學生的學習需求,尚未能獲得充分的滿足,其中存在著許多個別化課程擬定與執行方面的限制和問題。因此,本研究以參與的行動研究為主軸,採用半結構深度訪談方式,訪談25特教教師和31位學生家長,以瞭解教師與家長參與重度及多重障礙學生,個別化課程擬定與執行之現況。此外,組織兩組以親師為核心之行動團隊,經由行動研究的歷程,探討親師共同參與個別化課程擬定與執行的可行性和成效,以解決重度及多重障礙學生在課程與教學上的問題。
本研究之主要發現如下:
1. 教師與家長參與個別化課程擬定與執行之現況為:
(1)教師受限於學校的課程規定,在個別化課程的擬定上,難以有效地滿足學生的個別需求。
(2)家長參與IEP會議的比率高,但較少與老師討論個別化課程的內容。
(3)教師對於親師共同參與的態度中立,和家長的積極態度有落差。
(4)教師在個別化課程擬定與執行方面的需求,以專業知能為主,家長的需求則是以獲得教養知能和心理支持為主。
2. 親師共同參與個別化課程擬定與執行的行動歷程包括:(1)形成行動團隊、(2)瞭解團隊現況與需求、(3)共同擬定行動計畫、(4)實施生態評量、(5)共同擬定個別化課程、(6)發展個別化課程的執行與調整策略、(7)共同執行個別化課程與教學、(8)檢討與調整IEP、(9)評量學生學習成果、(10)共同檢核行動成效。
3. 親師共同參與對學生的影響有(1)增加課堂參與表現、(2)增加自我控制能力、(3)增加使用輔具溝通表達的能力。
4. 親師共同參與對家長的影響為(1)增進親師關係和互動、(2)增加對孩子學習需求的瞭解、和(3)增加家長的參與程度。
5. 親師共同參與對教師的影響為(1)增進親師間的溝通與合作、(2)增進教師的教學成長與支持、(3)增進教師尋求資源的策略。
6. 親師共同參與個別化課程擬定與執行之可行性作法包括:(1)合作性的團隊運作方式、(2)系統性行動策略的調整與應用、(3)建立親師溝通的平台、以及(4)生態課程的發展與應用。
According to the special education literature review and practical experience, the needs of education of students with severe and multiple disabilities have not been satisfied yet. Especially, there are a lot of questions on the designing and implementing of individualized curricu- lum and teaching strategies. Therefore, the semistructured in-depth in- terview were adopted in the research. In order to understand the present situation in designing and implementing of individualized curriculum of the students with severe and multiple disabilities, 25 special education teachers and 31 parents were interviewed. Besides, the two collaborative teams were organized in the core of teachers and parents. From the pro- gress of the action research, the teams want to know the feasibility and effects on the designing and implementing of individualized curriculum. As a result , the problems of students with severe and multiple disabili- ties on curriculum and teaching strategies will be solved.
The major findings include:
1. The present situations in the teachers' and parents' participation in designing and implementing of individualized curriculum were as follows:
(1)Because of the restricts of the school's curriculum, teachers can't meet the needs of students with severe and multiple disabilities.
(2)Parents participate in the IEP meeting frequently, but they have fewer discussion with teacher about the content of the IEP.
(3)The attitudes of teachers toward parents' participation were neutral, however, parents toward parents' participation were positive.
(4)For teachers, the needs in designing and implementing of indivi- dualized curriculum were professional knowledge, but for parents, the needs were acquiring bring-up knowledge and psychosocial supports.

2. The action research process of parents and teachers to participate the designing and implementing of individualized curriculum includes: (1)forming the action team, (2)understanding the present situation and needs of the team, (3)designing the action program together, (4) practicing the ecological assessment, (5)designing the individualized curriculum together, (6)developing adaptation strategies of indivi- dualized curriculum, (7)implementing the individualized curriculum and teaching strategies, (8)reviewing and adapting the IEP, (9) asse- ssing the learning outcomes of student, (10)proceeding the examina- tion collectively.
3. The effects on students were: (1) the performance increased in class- room participation, (2)the ability of self-control raised, (3)the ability of expression communication enhanced in using assistant technology.
4. The effects on parents were: (1)the improvement of the relationship and interaction of parents and teachers, (2)the understanding of the children' needs of learning, (3)the enhancement of the degree of pa- rent's involvement.
5. The effects on teachers were: (1)the enhancement of the communica- tion and collaboration between parents and teachers, (2)the acquire- ment of the growth and support of teaching, (3)getting more strateg- ies to look for resources.
6. The probable methods for parents and teachers planning together on the designing and implementing of individualized curriculum include: (1)the operation of collaborative teamwork, (2)adapting and imple- menting of systematic strategies, (3)the establishment of the com- munication between parents and teachers, (4)developing and imple- menting of ecological curriculum.
目 次

中文摘要 i
英文摘要 iii
目 次 v
表 次 ix
圖 次 xi

第一章 緒 論 1
第一節 研究背景及動機 1
第二節 研究目的與待答問題 8
第三節 名詞釋義 10
第四節 研究限制 13

第二章 文獻探討 15
第一節 重度及多重障礙學生之學習需求 15
第二節 重度及多重障礙學生課程之發展與模式 28
第三節 重度及多重障礙學生個別化課程之擬定與執行 49
第四節 家長參與之重要性與現況 63

第三章 研究方法 83
第一節 研究設計 83
第二節 研究步驟 87
第三節 研究情境及參與者 98
第四節 研究工具 108
第五節 資料處理 109

第四章 研究結果與討論 119
第一節 教師與家長參與重度及多重障礙學生個別化課程擬定與執行之現況 120
第二節 國小團隊之行動過程、問題和因應策略 145
第三節 國中團隊之行動過程、問題和因應策略 190
第四節 行動之省思與可行性 229

第五章 結論與建議 243
第一節 結 論 243
第二節 建 議 250

參考文獻 259
中文部分 259
英文部分 267

附 錄 297
附錄一 教師邀請函 297
附錄二 家長邀請函 299
附錄三 教師版深度訪談大綱 301
附錄四 家長版深度訪談大綱 302
附錄五 逐字稿轉錄原則 303
附錄六 教師訪談紀錄表 304
附錄七 家長訪談紀錄表 305
附錄八 個別生態評量表 306
附錄九 教室觀察記錄表 309
附錄十 團隊檢核表 310
附錄十一 行動劄記 311
附錄十二 社會效度訪談大綱 312
附錄十三 團隊檢核會議紀錄範例 314
附錄十四 教室觀察紀錄範例 318
附錄十五 參與者驗證結果一覽表 319
附錄十六 同儕驗證結果一覽表 320
附錄十七 生活核心單元目標 321
附錄十八 家庭功課檢核表 325
附錄十九 個別學習紀錄表 326
附錄二十 學習契約書 327
附錄二十一 學校活動行為紀錄表 328
附錄二十二 家庭活動行為紀錄表 329
附錄二十三 個別化課程調整策略檢核表 330
附錄二十四 溝通互動檢核表 333
附錄二十五 學校溝通行為檢核表 334
附錄二十六 家庭溝通行為檢核表 335


表 次

表2-1 課程調整策略一覽表 61
表2-2 早期障礙學生家長參與研究一覽表 80
表2-3 近五年障礙學生家長參與研究一覽表 81
表3-1 接受訪談特教教師背景資料一覽表 101
表3-2 接受訪談家長背景資料一覽表 102
表3-3 國小行動團隊背景資料表 103
表3-4 國中行動團隊背景資料表 104
表3-5 深度訪談轉錄員背景資料一覽表 105
表3-6 資料分析範例 114
表4-1 國小團隊準備行動階段歷程表 147
表4-2 國小團隊執行行動階段歷程表 156
表4-3 阿明的學期例行活動生態評量結果 160
表4-4 阿明的假日例行活動生態評量結果 161
表4-5 阿明學習需求分析表 162
表4-6 阿明的IEP評量結果一覽表 181
表4-7 國小團隊檢核結果一覽表 183
表4-8 國小團隊社會效度受訪者一覽表 185
表4-9 國中團隊準備行動階段歷程表 191
表4-10 國中團隊執行行動階段歷程表 197
表4-11 小靜的學期例行活動生態評量結果 201
表4-12 小靜的假日例行活動生態評量結果 202
表4-13 小靜學習需求分析表 203
表4-14 小靜之個別化學習目標調整一覽表 204
表4-15 個別化課程調整策略檢核結果 208
表4-16 小靜溝通簿的溝通項目 214
表4-17 調整後的溝通項目 217
表4-18 小靜IEP評量結果一覽表 222
表4-19 國中團隊檢核結果一覽表 223
表4-20 國中團隊社會效度受訪者一覽表 225


圖 次

圖2-1 重度障礙學生課程決定過程 52
圖2-2 環境參照個別化調整模式流程圖 58
圖2-3 課程調整模式 59
圖2-4 課程與教學調整的模式 62
圖3-1 研究架構圖 86
圖3-2 研究步驟流程圖 88
圖3-3 質的資料分析步驟圖 111
圖4-1 國小團隊個別化課程擬定與執行之現況 150
圖4-2 國小團隊個別化課程實施計畫 153
圖4-3 阿明輔具學習的歷程 168
圖4-4 「Picture Master Language」溝通版面 169
圖4-5 右手按壓單鍵開關表現紀錄 172
圖4-6 左手按壓單鍵開關表現紀錄 173
圖4-7 使用單鍵開關功能情形 174
圖4-8 簡易圖片語音系統使用情況 176
圖4-9 國中團隊之個別化課程實施計畫 196
圖4-10 小靜的課堂行為表現情況 212
圖4-11 主動表達溝通行為次數曲線圖 218
圖4-12 被動反應溝通行為次數曲線圖 218
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