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研究生:連秀鸞
研究生(外文):Hsiu-Luan Lien
論文名稱:焦點解決短期諮商歷程之分析研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study on Solution-Focused Brief Counseling Process
指導教授:蕭文蕭文引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen Hsiao
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:輔導與諮商學系所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:320
中文關鍵詞:焦點解決短期諮商諮商歷程諮商師意圖當事人諮商經驗
外文關鍵詞:Solution-Focused Brief Counseling (SFBC)counseling processcounselors’ intentionsclients’ counseling experiences
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  本研究之主要目的在於瞭解焦點解決短期諮商之改變歷程,包括諮商師意圖內涵、諮商師與當事人分別知覺到的當事人諮商經驗、及諮商師看到的改變與當事人自覺的改變。本研究針對四位主動求助之當事人與四位以焦點解決短期諮商模式進行諮商的諮商師,進行配對,分別進行二至五次的諮商,且於每一次諮商結束後的四十八小時內進行人際歷程回憶法(IPR)深度訪談,共蒐集到二十四次諮商後訪談文字稿,以現象學方法進行資料分析,研究結果如下:
一、諮商師諮商介入意圖內涵:包括「關係導向」、「目標導向」及「問題解決導向」意圖類別。其中「關係導向」意圖類別,有「尊重」、「同理」、「因勢利導」、「安心」、「信任」等五類意圖要素群;「目標導向」意圖類別,則有「設定目標」、「聚焦」、「注入希望」、「擴大知覺」等四纇要素群;「問題解決導向」意圖類別包含有「行動」、「解決」等兩類意圖要素群。
二、諮商師知覺當事人的諮商經驗:包含認知、情緒、行為與關係等四大向度。 其中,「認知向度」有「聚焦」、「擴大知覺」、「注入希望」、「諮商期待」等四類;「情緒向度」有「正向情緒」、「負向情緒」兩類;「行為向度」有「改變前的準備」、「促進改變」、「建構解決之道」等三類;「關係向度」有「建立合作關係」、「主導權」、「諮商師角色」、「不同步的諮商關係」、「連鎖反應」等五類。
三、當事人知覺的諮商經驗:包含認知、情緒、行為與關係等四大向度。其中,「認知向度」有「聚焦」、「擴大知覺」、「注入希望」、「諮商期待」等四類;「情緒向度」有「正向情緒」、「負向情緒」兩類;「行為向度」有「連結任務與目標」、「促進改變」、「增強改變」、「建構解決之道」、「追蹤改變」等五類;「關係向度」有「建立合作關係」、「主導權」、「諮商師角色」、「諮商師人格特質」、「不同步的諮商關係」、「回饋時機」等六類。
四、當事人接受焦點解決短期諮商之改變:包括諮商師看到的改變與當事人自覺的改變,包括擴大知覺、設定目標、注入希望、建構解決、情緒轉變與諮商進展等六纇。
本研究依據研究結果提出具體建議,供諮商實務工作者與未來研究之參考。
 
 
The main purpose of the study was to explore change process in Solution-Focused Brief Counseling (SFBC). Those factors include counselors’ intentions of interventions, counselors’ perception of clients’ counseling experiences, clients’ perception of counseling experiences, counselors’ perception of clients’ change, and clients’ perception of change. For this study, the researcher has recruited four voluntary clients and invited four professionally trained and qualified counselors as study participants. Four clients received 2-5 sessions of SFBC. An IPR (Interpersonal Process Recall) in-depth interview was given to counselors and clients after each session within 48 hours. Twenty-four transcripts from the interview data were collected and analyzed in phenomenological approach. The main findings are as follow:
1. Three types of counselors’ intentions are found. They are relationship-oriented intentions, goal-oriented intentions and problem-solving- oriented intentions.
The relationship-oriented intentions include respect, empathy, accurate guidance, reassurance and trust. The goal-oriented intentions include goal-setting, focusing, infusing hope and expansion of perception. The problem-solving-oriented intentions include action and solution.
2. Four dimensions are identified as the SFBC counselors’ perceived clients’ counseling experiences. They are the cognition, emotion, behavior, and relationship dimensions.
The cognition dimension includes focus, expansion of perception, infusion hope and expectations of counseling. The emotion dimension includes positive and negative types. The behavior dimension includes preparation for counseling, promotion for change, construction of problem-solution. The relationship dimension includes cooperation, predomination, role of the counselor, asynchronous communication and chain reactions.
3. Four dimensions are identified as the SFBC clients’ perception of counseling experiences. They are the cognition, emotion, behavior, and relationship dimensions.
The cognition dimension includes focus, expansion of perception, infusion hope and expectations of counseling. The emotion dimensions are positive and negative types. The behavior dimension is connecting homework with goal, promoting change, enhancing change, constructing problem-solution and following up. The relationship dimension includes cooperation, predomination, role of the counselor, personality of the counselor, asynchronous communication and timing of feedback.
4. Six types of change are found (including the clients’ and counselors’ perceptions of change) after the clients receive counseling. They are expansion of perception, goal-setting, infusion hope, construction of problem-solution , emotional change and counseling progress.
According to the basis of these results, the researcher propose concrete discussions and recommendations for the counseling practitioners and future research .
第一章 緒論-------------------------------------------------1
第一節 研究動機與目的----------------------------------------1
第二節 研究問題--------------------------------------------10
第三節 名詞釋義--------------------------------------------11
第二章 文獻探討--------------------------------------------13
第一節 焦點解決短期諮商之基本概念----------------------------13
第二節 諮商歷程之相關研究-----------------------------------31
第三節 焦點解決短期諮商在歷程研究之應用-----------------------52
第三章 研究方法--------------------------------------------56
第一節 研究設計--------------------------------------------56
第二節 研究參與者------------------------------------------57
第三節 研究工具--------------------------------------------60
第四節 研究過程--------------------------------------------63
第五節 資料整理與分析---------------------------------------68
第四章 研究結果與討論---------------------------------------75
第一節 焦點解決短期諮商師諮商介入之意圖內涵--------------------75
第二節 焦點解決短期諮商師所知覺之當事人諮商經驗---------------119
第三節 接受焦點解決短期諮商當事人知覺到的諮商經驗--------------149
第四節 當事人接受焦點解決短期諮商的改變----------------------197
第五節 綜合討論-------------------------------------------251
第五章 結論與建議-----------------------------------------279
第一節 研究發現與結論--------------------------------------279
第二節 建議-----------------------------------------------284

參考文獻 ------------------------------------------------296

附錄一 研究邀請函(諮商師) ---------------------------------308
附錄二 研究邀請函(當事人) ---------------------------------309
附錄三 當事人基本資料表------------------------------------310
附錄四 諮商過程觀察紀錄表----------------------------------311
附錄五 研究說明與研究同意書(諮商師) ------------------------312
附錄六 研究說明與研究同意書(當事人) ------------------------313
附錄七 訪談大綱(諮商師)(預備性研究)------------------------ 314
附錄八 訪談大綱(當事人)(預備性研究) ------------------------315
附錄九 訪談大綱(諮商師)(正式研究) --------------------------316
附錄十 訪談大綱(當事人)(正式研究) --------------------------317
附錄十一 謄寫訪談逐字稿須知---------------------------------318
附錄十二 訪談日誌------------------------------------------319
附錄十三 訪談逐字稿檢核表-----------------------------------320


表 次

表2-1 焦點解決短期諮商介入----------------------------------29
表3-1 諮商師的基本資料(正式研究)-----------------------------59
表3-2 當事人的基本資料(正式研究)-----------------------------60
表3-3 諮商師的基本資料(預備性研究)-------------------------- 65
表3-4 當事人的基本資料(預備性研究)---------------------------65
表3-5 訪談逐字稿效度檢核之評定結果(諮商師)--------------------73
表3-6 訪談逐字稿效度檢核之評定結果(當事人) -------------------73
表4-1 SFBC諮商師諮商介入之意圖內涵分析摘要表----------------117
表4-2 SFBC諮商師所知覺之當事人諮商經驗分析摘要表-------------146
表4-3 接受SFBC當事人知覺到的諮商經驗分析摘要表---------------195
表4-4 當事人接受焦點解決短期諮商之改變分析摘要表--------------249

圖 次


圖2-1 建構問題解決途徑--------------------------------------17
圖2-2 傳統「歷程—結果」模式---------------------------------35
圖2-3 認知中介模式-----------------------------------------36
圖 2-4 諮商師與當事人行為與認知的交互作用---------------------36
圖 2-5 影響助人歷程的因素-----------------------------------40
圖 4-1 諮商師諮商介入意圖、知覺當事人諮商經驗與當事人改變歷程之脈絡270
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蕭 文(民93a)。正向心理學及其在輔導上的涵意。向生命微笑—憂鬱與自殺防治主題研討會,彰化師大。
蕭 文(民93b)。個案為什麼沒有按照劇本演出—後現代思考與諮商典範的轉移。輔導季刊,40(3),1-5。
謝蕙春(民92)。焦點解決短期諮商對低自尊個案之影響研究。暨南國際大學輔導與諮商研究所碩士論文,未出版。
鍾思嘉(民93)。個案為什麼沒有按照劇本演出—遲到和爽約的行為與處理。輔導季刊,40(3),6-8。
簡正鎰(民93)。諮商師使用焦點解決短期諮商經驗之改變歷程研究。彰化師範大學輔導與諮商研究所博士論文,未出版。
羅華倩、黃正鵠、連廷嘉( 民93)。焦點解決取向團體方案對高職學生諮商效果之研究。諮商與輔導文粹,10,51-81。


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5. 林世莉、張德聰 (民92)。運用焦點解決法於國小學童家長親職教育方案效果之研究。生活科學學報,8,1-48。
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9. 林旖旎 (民94)。淺談諮商師於心理諮商歷程中的社會影響力。輔導季刊,41(3),11-17。
10. 段昌明、王麗斐 (民82)。諮商過程研究的內容與研究方法分析:美國諮商過程研究的回顧、現況與展望。輔導季刊,29(3),1-13。
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