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研究生:楊宇華
研究生(外文):Yu-hua Yang
論文名稱:義大利統一復興運動與義大利南方問題
論文名稱(外文):Italian Unification and Italian Southern Question
指導教授:許仟許仟引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chien Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南華大學
系所名稱:歐洲研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:97
中文關鍵詞:義大利統一復興運動振興南方基金義大利南方問題
外文關鍵詞:RisorgimentoItalian Southern QuestionCassa per Il Mezzogiorno
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  自 1860年代義大利統一復興運動促進了義大利南北統一,新生的義大利所面臨不是外在壓力,而內部其差異性所造成的問題;在多重因素之下,南部義大利逐漸成為內部的一個問題,稱為「南方問題」。
  
  本文將從統一復興時期前後,從不同的面向探討南部義大利與北部義大利之間的差異,所造成的國家認同問題;並且研究當時政府對南部義大利的態度與其政策,所造成的政治問題與南部義大利在政治上的從屬性;另外從南北兩方產業發展探討兩方之經濟落差與經濟發展之困難;最後總結各種面向說明南方問題的產生與北方對南方義大利的觀感。
  Since 1860s, Risorgimento proceed the Italian unification. The newborn Italy didn’t face the outer pressure instead of the problems of internal differences. Accompanying with complex problems and obstacles Southern Italy, which is named as “Mezzogiorno”, had been regarded as an awkwardness or “Southern Question” in Italy
  
  This article would indicate different aspects to analyze the differences between Northern and Southern Italy which composed the problem of National identity. Secondly from the attitude of authority toward to Southern Italy, the article would points out the political subalternity of Southern Italy. And from the industrial developments, the article would analyze the obstacle of economic development in Southern Italy. Finally including all the obstacles and problems, the article would explain the people’s attitude toward Southern Italy.
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究目的與動機 1
第二節 研究方法與架構 3
第三節 研究範圍與限制 5
第四節 文獻分析 5
第五節 名詞解釋 8
  
第二章 統一歷程 9
第一節 尋求古羅馬精神與革命的萌芽 9
第二節 教會的態度與皮耶蒙的主導權 13
第三節 加富爾的外交手腕與義大利的統一 18
  
第三章 認同危機 23
第一節 難解的紛亂 23
第二節 區域認同的形成 27
第三節 國家歸屬感的低落 29
  
第四章 政治危機 37
第一節 政治制度的失靈 37
第二節 侍從主義的延伸 42
第三節 消極的革命 47
  
第五章 經濟的難題 53
第一節 經濟的發展困難 53
第二節 二元化的市民社會 61
  
第六章 南方問題的呈現 71
第一節 南方的社會動亂 71
第二節 南方觀感 77
第三節 霸權的失敗 81
  
第七章 結論 87
  
參考資料 90
中文書目 91
英文書目 91
義文書目 95
網路資料 97
一、中文書目:
 
1.約翰.高奇。鄭明萱譯。義大利的統一 。台北:麥田出版社,2000年
 
2.葛蘭西。獄中札記。台北:谷風出版社,1988年
 
3.蔡百鈞。義大利史。台北:五南出版社,2002年
 

 
二、英文書目:
 
(一)英文專書
 
1.Allen, Kevin & M, MacLennan, Regional Problems and Politics in Italy and France. London : Allen and Unwin, 1970.
 
2.Anderson, Benedict, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London : Verso, 1991.
 
3.Banfiled, Edward. The Moral Basis of a Backward Society, New York : Free Press, 1958.
 
4.Bellamy, Richard, Modern Italian Social Theory : Ideology and Politics from Pareto to the Present. Cambridge : Polity Press,1987.
 
5.Bonstetten, Charles – Victor, The Man of the North, and the Man of the South : or the Influence of Climate. New York : F.W. Christern, 1864.
 
6.Churchill, Kenneth. Italy and English Literature, 1764 – 1930. London: Macmillan, 1980.
 
7.Cipolla, Carlo, “The Changing Balance of Economic Power in Europe.”In Before the Idustrial Revolution : European Society and Economy, 1000 – 1700. London : Routledge, 1993
 
8.Clark, Martin, The Italian Risorgimento. London : Longman, 1998
 
9.Cox, Robert. Production, Power and World Order: Social Forces in the Making of History. New York : Columbia University Press, 1987
 
10.Cooper, Frederick, & Laura Stoler, eds. Tensions of Empire : Colonial Cultures in a Bourgeois World. Berkeley and Los Angeles : University of California Press, 1997.
 
11.Culler, Jonathan, Saussure. Glasgow : Fontana/Collins, 1976.
 
12.Davidson, Alastair. Antonio Gramsci : Towards an Intellectual Biography. London – New Jersey : Merlin – Humanity Press, 1977.
 
13.Davis, John, Gramsci and Italy''s Passive Revolution, London: Croon Helm, 1979.
 
14.Davis, John,“Changing Perspectives on Italy’Southern Problem”In Italian Regionalism : History, Identity, and Politics. Ed. Carl Levy. Oxford : Berg, 1996.
 
15.Davis, John, “The South, the Risorgimento, and the Origins of the Southern Problem”. In Gramsci and Italy’s Passive Revolution. Ed. John Davis, London : Croom Helm, 1979
 
16.Dickie, John, Darkest Italy : The Nation and Stereotypes of the Mezzogiorno, 1860 – 1900. New York : St. Martin’s Press, 1999
 
17.Di Scala, Spencer, Italy from Revolution to Republic, 1700 to the Present. Boulder, Colorado : Westview Press, 1995.
 
18.Dombroski, Robert. Properties of Writing : Ideological Discourse in Modern Italian Fiction. Baltimore : Johns Hopskins University Press, 1994.
 
19.Duggan, Christopher, A Concise History of Italy. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1994.
 
20.Duggan, Christopher, Fascism and the Mafia. New Haven : Yale University Press, 1989.
 
21.Eisenstadt, Shmuel & Roniger, Luis, “The Study of Patron – Client Relations and Recent Developments in Sociological Theory“, In Political Clientelism. Patronage and Development. Beverly Hill : Sage, 1981
 
22.Fabian, Johannes, Time and the Other : How Anthropology Makes Its Object. New York : Columbia University Press, 1983.
 
23.Forgacs, David & Lumley, Robert, Italian Cultural Studies, An Introduction. Oxford and New York : Oxford University Press 1996
 
24.Forgacs, David, Italian Culture in the Iindustrial Era, 1880-1980 : Cultural Industries, Politics, and the Public. Manchester : Manchester University Press,1990.
 
25.Frederic Spotts, & Theodor Wieser. Italy, a difficult democracy : a survey of Italian politics. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1986
 
26.Frei, Matt, Getting the Boot:Italy’s Unfinished Revolution. New York:Times Books, 1996
 
27.Jemolo, Arturo Carlo, Church and State in Italy, 1850 – 1950. trans. David Moore, New York: Oxford University Press and Oxford: Basil Blackwell Publisher, Ltd., 1960.
 
28.Gramsci, Antonio, Selections from the Prison Notebooks. Ed. and trans. Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith, New York: International and London: Lawrence & Wishart, Ltd., 1971.
 
29.Gramsci, Antonio, Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci. Eds. and trans. Quintin Hoare & Geoffrey Nowell Smith. London : Lawrence & Wishart, 1973
 
30.Graziano, Luigi, Patron – Client Relationships in Southern Italy. Bologna : Zanichlle, 1982.
 
31.Hearder, Harry, Italy in the age of the Risorgimento 1790 – 1870. New York : Longman, 1983.
 
32.LaPalombara, Joseph, "Italy: Fragmentation, Isolation, and Alienation," in Lucian W. Pye and Sidney Verba. eds., Political Culture and Political Development, Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press, 1965.
 
33.Keating, Michael, The New Regionalism in Western Europe, Cheltenham. UK : Edward Elgar, 1998.
 
34.Moe, Nelson, The view from Vesuvius : Italian Culture and the Southern Question. London : Oxford University Press, 1973, Los Angeles : University of California Press, 2002.
 
35.Morrogh, Michael, The unification of Italy. London: Macmillan Education LTD. 1991.
 
36.Pratt, Jeff, Italy : Political Unity and Cultural Diversita, in “The Politics of Recognizing Differente : Multiculturalism Italian Style”. London : Ashgate, 2002.
 
37.Preston, Peter, Political/Cultural Identity Citizen and Nations in a Global Era. London: Sage Publication, 1997
 
38.Richard, Charles, The New Italians. New York : Penguin Books, 1995.
 
39.Said, Edward, “The methodology of Imperialism. In After Colonialism”. ed. Gyan Prakash, pp.21-40. Princeton, N.J : Princeton University Press, 1995
 
40.Salomone, William, Italy from the Risorgimento to Fascism. ed. A. Garden
 
41.Salvatorelli, Luigi, The Risorgimento: Thought and Action. New York: Harper & Row, 1970.
 
42.Sassoon, Anne Showstac, Gramsci and Contemporary Politics. London : Routlege 2000.
 
43.Silone, Ignazio, The God That Failed. ed. Richard Crossman, New York : Bantam. 1965.
 
44.Schneider, Jane, Italy’s “Southern Question” – Orientalism in One Country. Oxford : Berg, 1998
 
45.Scott, Brian, transl. “Liutprand of Cremona”, Relatio de legatione Constantinopolitana / The Mission to Constantinople. London : Bristol Classical Press, 1993.
 
46.Seton-Watson, Christopher, Italy from liberalism to fascism. New York:Methuen & Co., 1993.
 
47.Smith, Mack, Italy, A modern history. Michigan : University of Michigan Press, 1969.
 
48.Smith, Mack, The Making of Italy, 1796-1870. London: Macmillan, 1968.
 
49.Woolf, Stuart, A History of Italy 1700-1860. London: Routledge, 1979.
 

 
(二) 英文期刊
 
1.Clough, Shepard B, & Livi, Carlo, "Economic Growth in Italy. An Analysis of the Uneven Development of North and South", Journal of Economic History Vol.16, Cambridge: Cambridge University,1956, pp. 334-349.
 
2.Davis, John,“Remapping Italy’s Path to the Twentieth Century”, Journal of Modern History Vol. 66, Chicago: University of Chicago,1994, pp. 291 – 320.
 
3.Dickie, John, “A World at War : the Italian Army and Brigandage”, History Workshop Journal Vol.33, Oxford : Oxford University, 1992, pp. 1 – 24.
 
4.Farrell, Joseph, “Patrick Brydone : Enlightenment Traveller” In Eds Emanuele Kanceff “Viaggio nel Sud”Vol.1, Viaggiatori Stranieri in Sicilia. and Roberta Ramponed. Geneva : Slatkine, 1992, pp.92 – 93.
 
5.Granovetter, Mark, “The Strength of Weak Ties”, American Journal of Sociology,vol.78, Chicago: University of Chiacago, 1978, pp.1360 – 1380.
 
6.Shepard B, Clough & Livi, Carlo, "Economic Growth in Italy. An Analysis of the Uneven Development of North and South" Journal of Economic History, Vol. 16, Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1956, pp.334 – 349.
 

 
三、義文書目:
 
1.Arduino, Atonio, Il Molise dall''Unita d''Italia all Repubblica. Italy : Minichetti-Guglielmi, 1975.
 
2.Balbo, Cesare. Le Speranze d’Italia. Turin: UTET, 1920.
 
3.Bocca, Giorgio, L’Inferno. Profondo Sud, Male Oscuro. Milan: Mandador, 1992.
 
4.Bodio, Luigi, Di Alcuni Misuratori del Movimento Economico in Italia. Rome, 1991.
 
5.Bowring, Giovanni, Statistica della Toscana, di Lucca, degli Stati Pontifici e Lombardo – Veneti. London : G. Clowes and Sons, 1998.
 
6.Cafagna, Luciano, “Grandi Problemi della Storiografia del Risorgimento”, Sviluppo Economico e Movimento Nazionale , in Istituto per la Storia del Risorgimento Italiano. Rome : Congresso di Storia del Risorgimento Italiano, 1978.
 
7.Cancila, Orazio, Baroni e Popolo nella Sicilia del Grano, Palermo. Italy : University of Palermo, 1983.
 
8.Caracciolo, Alberto, Stato e Societa` Civile : Problemi dell’Unificazione Italiana. Torino : Einaudi, 1977.
 
9.Carano–Dovito, Giovanni, L’Economia Meridionale Prima e Dopo Il Risorgimento. Florence : Vallecchi, stampa, 1928.
 
10.Carlo, Alianello, Il risorgimento nell''Italia Meridionale. Milan : Rusconi, 1998.
 
11.Cavour, Carteggi di Camillo, La Liberazione del Mezzogionor vols 3. Bologna: Zanicheli, 1949.
 
12.Croce, Benedetto, Storia d’Italia. Bari: Laterza and Sons, 1928.
 
13.Croce, Benedetto. Una Famiglia di Patrioti. Bari : 1962.
 
14.Cutrufelli, Maria, L’Unita` d’Italia. Guerra Contadina e Nascita dello Sottosviluppo de Sud. Verona : Italy, 1974.
 
15.De Martino, Enersto, LaTerra del Rimorso. Contributo a Una Storia Religiosa de Sud. Milan : Il Saggiatore, 1981.
 
16.De Mauro, Tullio, Storia Linguistica dell’Italia Unita. Bari: Laterza, 1986.
 
17.Dolza, Delfina, Essere figlie di Lombroso : Due Donne Intellettuali tra 1800 e 1900. Milan : Franco Angeli, 1985.
 
18.Doria, Manlio Rossi, Dieci Anni di Politica Agraria nel Mezzogiorno. Bari : Laterza, 1988.
 
19.Ellena, Vittorio, La Statistica di Alcune Industrie Italiane. Roma: Tip. Elzeviriana, 1879.
 
20.Farini, Domenico, Diario di Fine Secolo. Rome, 1961.
 
21.Ferri, Enrico, L’Omicidio nell’Antropologia Criminale. Turin : Bocca, 1985.
 
22.Fortunato, Giustino, Il Mezzogiorno e lo Stato Italiano. Bari: Laterza, 1911
 
23.Gallino, Luciano, Dizionario di Sociologia. Turin: Utet, 1993.
 
24.Giarrizzo. Giuseppe, La Modernizzazione Difficile : Citta` e Campagne nel Mezzogiorno dall’eta` Giolittiana al Fascismo. Bari : De Donato, 1983.
 
25.Hobsbawam, Eric, I Baanditi. Il Banditismo Sociale nell’Eta`. Moderna: Turin, Italy, 1971.
 
26.Jovine, Francesco, Saggi e Studi sul Brigantaggio Meridionale, Collana, Italy : Enne; Data di Pubblicazione,1984.
 
27.Leoni, Francesco, Brigantaggio e Societa` in Storia della Sicilia. Napoli, Italy,1978.
 
28.Lombroso, Cesare, L’Uomo Bianco e l’Uomo di Colore : Lettere sull’Origine e le Varieta` delle Raze Umane. Padua : F. Sacchetto, 1998.
 
29.Michels, Roberto, Il Proletariato e la Borghesia nel Movimento Socialista Italiano. Torino: Società Tipografico Editrice Nazionale 1908
 
30.Nitti, Francesco, “Nord e Sud dopo L’Unita.” In Il Mezzogiorno in una Democrazia Industriale. Roma: Laterza, 1987.
 
31.Rodolico, Niccolò, Il popolo agli inizi del Risorgimento nell’Italia meridionale. 1798-1801. Firenze : Le Monnier, 1926.
 
32.SVIMEZ, Statistiche sul Mezzogiorno d’Italia 1861-1953. Roma: SVIMEZ, 1954.
 
33.Turiello, Pasquale, Governo e Governati in Italia. Bologna : Zanichlli, 1982.
 
34.Venturi, Franco, Settecento Riformatore : Da Muratori a Beccarla, Vol. 1. Turin : Einaudi, 1969,
 
35.Villari, Pasquale, Le Lettere Meridionali e altri scritti sulla questione sociale in Italia. Florence: Successori Le Monnier, 1978.
 
36.Zarrilli, Giovanni, Dagli Albori del Risorgimento all''Unita d''Italia. Bologna, Italy,1993.
 

 
四、網路資料:
 
1.大英百科知識網 wordpedia.britannica.com
 
2.皮耶蒙區域政府官方網頁 www.regione.piemonte.it
 
3.政治引言網 www.politicalquotations.co.uk
 
4.義大利文學網 www.classicitaliani.it
 
5.義大利當代歷史研究會 www.sissco.it
 
6.義大利歷史網 www.cronologia.it
 
7.歐洲移民研究中心 www.emz-berlin.de
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