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研究生:楊亞臻
研究生(外文):Ya-Chan Yang
論文名稱:棲蘭山台灣扁柏天然下種更新林木樹冠結構之研究
論文名稱(外文):Crown Structures of Naturally Regenerated Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana in Chi lan-Shan
指導教授:林世宗林世宗引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shu-Tzong Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:自然資源學系碩士班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:林業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:78
中文關鍵詞:樹冠形態枝條結構葉空間分布比葉面積適應
外文關鍵詞:crown morphologybranch structuretaiwanspatial foliage distributionspecific leaf areaadjustment
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台灣扁柏(Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb & Zucc. var. formosana (Hayata)Rehder)為台灣珍貴檜木樹種之ㄧ,天然生態群落分布於台灣中央山脈之中高海拔雲霧林。小苗可於冠層孔隙下下種更新成苗,而被視為耐蔭性樹種,然對於已更新成長為幼木階段的台灣扁柏林木,其對現有林分環境的生長調適能力的暸解尚有限。本研究以棲蘭山地區天然更新已屆45年之扁柏林分,就其林分中不同冠級之台灣扁柏林木為研究對象,測量分析其樹冠形態及結構,探討林分內不同大小的林木生長調適能力。
研究結果顯示不同冠級林木的冠長、冠幅及冠長比隨樹高而增加,冠形比則隨樹高的增加而下降。即大林木以增加樹冠長來擴大生長空間;小林木則以延伸樹冠幅的方式增加光截取面積。然頂芽優勢參數在冠級林木間不具顯著差異,表示台灣扁柏樹冠形的調適幅度較小。
樹冠結構分析上,其枝條口徑、體積及密度除尺度上的差異外,三個冠級林木均具相同的垂直分布。枝條口徑分布,從樹冠上層多數的小徑枝條至樹冠中層轉變為含不同口徑枝條且變異較大,在樹冠下層僅由少數大口徑枝條組成;枝條體積則由樹冠上層向下層增加,至樹冠基部達最大值;而枝條密度則從樹冠上層向下層逐漸遞減。三個冠級林木由於在樹冠上層所能接收的光源分佈均勻,致使枝條能均勻分布在各方位上,而在樹冠中、下層因來自鄰近遮蔭的增加,致使枝條朝向較多光區域發展。不同冠級扁柏之樹冠以枝條的大小差異構成樹冠形上的改變,優勢木與中勢木具尖細圓錐的樹冠形態,被壓木則呈平頂之傘形樹冠。
由林木累積葉量的變化可知,僅優勢木的樹冠具陽樹冠及陰樹冠之分,而中勢木及被壓木無此之分,樹冠均屬陰樹冠,即受鄰近優勢木相當程度上的遮蔭。尤其造成被壓木葉量密度的向上偏移,亦限制其水平分布範圍。
比葉面積的變化,以被壓木之下層樹冠內部具最大的比葉面積值,台灣扁柏林木受遮蔭時,以增加葉及樹冠光合面積來維持生長。中勢木及被壓木在樹冠上層及中層的比葉面積值以外部大於內部的現象,指出林分內樹冠重疊的存在。
综合言之,台灣扁柏林內不同冠級林木在樹冠形態的調整,以葉形態反應較冠形態強烈,即以葉層級為主要調整方式,提高光截取利用之效率。
Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana is one of precious cypress species distributed in cloud forest of high-middle elevation area of Taiwan. The seedlings could be regenerated naturally under forest canopy and are considered as shade-tolerance species. For exploration the adaptability strategy of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana saplings in the cypress stand, the 45-yr-old natural regenerated cypress stand in chi lan-shan area northeastern Taiwan was selected as the research site. The study focuses on the variation of crown morphology and structure pattern of different crown class trees to explore the ability of growth adaptation.
The results showed crown length, crown width and crown ratio increased positively with height of different crown classes, in contrast, crown shape ratio expressed negatively. The dominant trees increased crown length to expand growth space and small trees extended crown width to increase light intercept area. But apical dominance among crown classes was not different significantly. That indicated litter adjustment of crown form for Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana saplings.
Except branch size, the diameter, volume and density of branch for the crown classes have same vertical distribution pattern. Branch diameter distributions changed from an abundance of small-diameter branches in the upper-crown, and in the middle-crown, composed with differential branch diameter, but only a few large-diameter branches in the lower-crown. Branch volume generally increased from upper- to lower-crown, and reached a maximum around the crown base. Branch density decreased from upper- to lower-crown. In branch position, branches distribution equally on each position for uniform light distribution in the upper-crown, and branches below the middle-crown have light tendency as that increased shade from neighboring trees for three crown classes trees. The changes of crown form comprise difference branch size for different crown regimes. Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana dominant trees and intermediate trees had a tapering and conical crown form, whereas suppressed trees were flat umbrella crown.
From the variation of cumulative mass, only the crown of dominant trees could be divided into sun-crown and shaded-crown, and the other belong to shaded-crown because shading effect of neighboring dominant trees the cause particularly foliage density skewed upward, and limited range of horizontal distribution for suppressed trees.
Lower-crown of suppressed trees had greatest specific leaf area values that increased photosynthetic area when Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana trees were shaded. As for intermediate trees and suppressed trees, specific leaf area values of outside parts were greater than inside parts in upper- and lower- crown that means there have crown overlap phenomenon within stand.
In conclusion, adjustability of leaf morphology were stronger than crown form within Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana forest for different crown classes. Take leaf level as main adaptation strategy to catch light resources efficiently under canopy.
摘要 .............................................................. i
Abstract ........................................................ iii
誌謝 .............................................................. v
目錄 .............................................................. vi
表目錄 .......................................................... viii
圖目錄 ............................................................ ix
壹、前言 ........................................................... 1
貳、前人研究 ........................................................ 3
ㄧ、樹冠形態 .................................................... 3
二、樹冠結構 .................................................... 5
(一)枝條結構之分佈 .......................................... 5
(二)葉量及葉面積之分佈 ...................................... 6
三、影響樹冠結構之因子 ........................................... 9
四、棲蘭山台灣扁柏天然更新林之相關研究 ............................ 10
参、材料與方法 ................................................................ 13
一、研究區域概況 ............................................... 13
(一)研究區位置 ................................................... 13
(二)氣候概況 ............................................... 16
二、研究方法 ................................................................ 16
(一)樣木之選取 ............................................. 16
(二)樹冠結構測量 ............................................ 17
(三)樹冠內光度測量 .......................................... 21
三、資料分析 ................................................... 21
肆、結果 .......................................................... 23
ㄧ、樣木各項性狀值 ............................................. 23
二、模式分析比較 ............................................... 27
三、單木樹冠形態與結構 .......................................... 29
(一)樹冠形態 ............................................... 29
(二)枝條結構 ............................................... 29
(三)葉空間分佈 ............................................. 31
四、不同冠級林木之樹冠形態及枝條結構 .............................. 37
(一)樹冠形態 ............................................... 37
(二)枝條結構 ............................................... 37
五、不同冠級林木之葉空間分布 ..................................... 45
(一)葉量垂直及水平分布 ...................................... 45
(二)總投影葉面積 ........................................... 52
(三)比葉面積 ............................................... 53
六、樹冠內光分布 ................................................... 55
伍、討論 .......................................................... 56
一、樹冠特性 ................................................... 56
二、樹冠形態 ................................................... 59
三、樹冠結構 ................................................... 61
(一)枝條結構 ............................................... 61
(二)葉空間分佈 ............................................. 64
四、葉形態表現 ................................................. 67
五、林木在遮蔭環境下的表現 ....................................... 70
陸、結論 .......................................................... 71
參考文獻 .......................................................... 73
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