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研究生:許佳雯
研究生(外文):Hsu Chia Wen
論文名稱:太平山區溫帶針闊葉混合林下疏伐處理對於枯落物分解動態變化之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Thinning on the Dynamic of Litterfall Decomposition in the Temperate Conifer-Broadleaf Mixed Forest in Taiping Mountain Area, Taiwan
指導教授:蔡呈奇蔡呈奇引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen-Chi Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:自然資源學系碩士班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:林業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:121
中文關鍵詞:疏伐柳杉枯落物分解作用土壤養分土壤溶液化學
外文關鍵詞:ThinningJapanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica (L. f.) D. Don)litter decompositionsoil nutrientsoil solution chemistry
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本研究以太平山區51年生柳杉人工林作為疏伐試驗監測樣區,探討不同疏伐度(分為對照組0%、25%、28%、30%、33%、37%、38%及53%疏伐度)對枯落物分解及土壤養分釋放的影響。經過一年的監測與分析的結果,研究期間的枯落物重量分解常數為0.713-1.029 yr-1,分解作用呈現重度疏伐>輕度疏伐>中度疏伐的趨勢。分解袋內枯落物的碳及鈣留存率在研究期間有中度疏伐>輕度疏伐>重度疏伐的趨勢;磷留存率有重度疏伐>輕度疏伐>中度疏伐的趨勢;鎂留存率有中度疏伐>重度疏伐>輕度疏伐的趨勢;氮的留存率以輕度疏伐最高,鉀的留存率以重度疏伐區最高,其它疏伐區的變化則沒有一致的趨勢。土壤有效氮含量在0-5 cm土層及5-15 cm土層具重度疏伐較高,且疏伐後含量較未疏伐處理高的趨勢;土壤有效鉀含量在0-5 cm土層具疏伐處理後含量較未疏伐處理低的趨勢;土壤有效磷含量在0-5 cm土層具未疏伐較疏伐後含量高的趨勢,在5-15 cm土層具重度疏伐>輕度疏伐>中度疏伐含量的趨勢。土壤溶液化學的監測方面,陽離子含量較高的前四種離子為NH4、K、Na與Si,陰離子含量多為SO4 > Cl > NO3;包括陽離子總量、陰離子總量、酸中和能力及價數平衡在兩土層中都顯示出未疏伐區較疏伐區為高的趨勢,疏伐後較為開闊的林冠可允許較多的雨水直接降落地面,可能造成土壤(或土壤表層)較強烈的淋洗作用,減低疏伐區土壤溶液中養分元素的含量。此外,本研究對於枯落物的分解作用僅進行一年的研究,監測的時間尺度較短,且由目前的結果尚無法推算出不同疏伐度下碳及氮養分的流通量變化,因此有必要再持續的監測與觀察分解作用,並且推算與分析碳氮的流通量,做為臺灣地區疏伐處理作業效益的評估參考。
The 51-yr-old Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica (L. f.) D. Don) plantation forest in Taiping mountain area was selected as the monitoring site for forest thinning experiment. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of different thinning treatment (including control (0%), 25%, 28%, 30%, 33%, 37%, 38%, and 53% thinning treatment) on litter decomposition and soil nutrient release. After one year monitoring and analysis, the results showed that the litter mass decomposition constant was about 0.71-1.03 yr-1 during the study, and the order of decomposition intensity was heavy > light > medium thinning. The trends of C and Ca remaining mass (%) of the litter in litterbags were medium > light > heavy thinning. On the other hand, the trend of P remaining mass (%) was heavy > light > medium thinning. The trend of Mg was medium > heavy > light thinning. The trends of N was highest in light thinning region and K and Mg was highest in heavy thinning region, but have no consistent change between other thinning regions. Soil available N contents at 0-5 cm and 5-15 cm soil layers in heavy thinning are the highest, and suggested that the available N content after thinning was higher than that before thinning. The tendency of soil available K content in control region was higher than thinning treated regions at 0-5 cm soil depth. After thinning, the soil available P content was showed lower than control region at 0-5 cm depth, and has the tendency as heavy > light > medium thinning at 5-15 cm soil layer. The results of soil solution chemistry showed that the content of NH4, K, Na, and Si were higher than other cations, and the order of anions was SO4 > Cl > NO3. The tendency, including the total amounts of cations and anions, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and charge balance (CB) of soil solution, was showed that the control region was higher than thinning treated regions at both 0-5 cm and 5-15 cm soil layers. We examined that much more rain water were allowed for directly falling into soil surface after the canopy opening by forest thinning, and were resulted in strongly soil (or surface soil) leaching and reduced the nutrient elements content of soil solution in the thinning treated region. Besides, the study of litterfall decomposition was only one-year short term monitoring period, and we can not estimated the C and N fluxes under different forest thinning treatment from the results of the first year. For the consultation of evaluating the benefit of forest thinning management in Taiwan, it needs further researches for continually monitoring decomposition effects and estimating the C and N fluxes under different forest thinning treatment.
中文摘要.............................................................i
Abstract...........................................................ii
目錄................................................................iv
表目錄.............................................................vii
圖目錄............................................................viii

壹、前言.............................................................1
貳、前人研究..........................................................3
一、枯落物的分解......................................................3
二、疏伐的效應........................................................4
(一)疏伐對林木生長與養分含量的影響......................................4
(二)疏伐對林分結構與更新的影響..........................................5
(三)疏伐對土壤、枯落物、分解作用及養分動態變化的影響.......................6
三、養分釋放與循環.....................................................7
叁、材料與方法........................................................8
一、研究地區概述......................................................8
(一)地理位置及疏伐處理.................................................8
(二)林分平均鬱閉度....................................................8
(三)研究地區代表性土壤樣體生成環境特徵及形態特徵..........................9
(四)研究地區氣候概況..................................................12
(五) 研究地區主要植被種類.............................................14
二、分解作用試驗.....................................................15
(一)分解袋製作及設置..................................................15
(二)枯落物分析及測定..................................................15
三、土壤及土壤溶液的物理化學特性分析....................................17
(一)鮮土............................................................17
(二)土壤溶液.........................................................17
(三)土壤............................................................18
四、統計分析.........................................................20
肆、結果與討論.......................................................21
一、枯落物分解作用....................................................21
(一)不同疏伐度下枯落物重量的變化及留存率................................21
(二)不同疏伐度下枯落物養分濃度及留存率的變化.............................26
二、不同疏伐度下土壤物理化學性質的變化..................................37
(一)鮮土............................................................37
1.水分含量..........................................................37
2.有效氮............................................................40
(二)土壤............................................................44
1.pH值..............................................................44
2.有機碳............................................................47
3.交換性鹽基陽離子...................................................50
4.有效性鉀..........................................................56
5.有效性磷..........................................................58
(三)土壤溶液.........................................................60
1.pH值..............................................................60
2.可溶性有機碳.......................................................63
3.陽離子(Σ cations)含量..............................................65
4.陰離子(Σ anions)含量...............................................78
5.酸中和能力(Acid neutralizing capacity, ANC) .......................84
6.價數平衡(Charge balance, CB) .....................................86
三、斷面積、生長量及鬱閉度對疏伐效益之評估與建議.........................88
伍、結論............................................................90
參考文獻............................................................92
附錄...............................................................100
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