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研究生:楊國祥
研究生(外文):Kuo-Hsiang Yang
論文名稱:太平山區温帶針闊葉樹混合林下疏伐處理對土壤溶液化學之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Thinning on the Soil Solution Chemistry in the Temperate Conifer-Broadleaf Mixed Forest in Taiping Mountain Area
指導教授:蔡呈奇蔡呈奇引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen-Chi Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:自然資源學系碩士班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:林業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:106
中文關鍵詞:疏伐土壤溶液化學土壤養分陽離子陰離子
外文關鍵詞:Thinningsoil solution chemistrycationsanionssoil nutrients
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中文摘要
為瞭解疏伐對於土壤溶液中養分含量的影響,並且評估疏伐的效益,本研究於2006/3~2007/3期間在太平山和平事業區第61林班地內,分別在八種疏伐處理樣區(未疏伐對照組(0%)×3、25%、28%、30%、33%、37%、38%與53%疏伐度,共計10個樣區)採取穿落水及雨水測量pH值與養分含量等,並於樣區內隨機選取地點利用土鑽分別採取0-10 cm、10-20cm與20-30㎝的土壤,抽取土壤溶液測定陰離子(Cl、NO3、SO4、PO4)及陽離子(NH4、K、Na、Ca、Mg、Fe、Al、Mn、Si)含量。本研究主要研究目的為:(1)以一年短期而密集的監測雨水與穿落水的變化,探討不同疏伐度處理下養分的輸入量變化,與(2)養分在土壤溶液中的變化,藉以評估疏伐的效益,以提供作為未來林業經營的參考。研究結果指出:在雨水方面由於受到大氣沉降酸輸入的影響,pH值會低於八個疏伐處理的樣區,土壤溶液的化學組成,隨著土壤深度的增加而陽離子的濃度會降低,其原因為隨著土壤深度的增加,伴隨著生物因子的影響增加(包括根的吸收及微生物的固定作用),使得陽離子的濃度會漸漸減低,而疏伐所引起的土壤溶液化學組成的改變會因疏伐度不同而有不同。但可確認的是,疏伐作業能改變土壤養分的量及變化,而變化的方向是趨於有利於樹木生長。因此,為能確認林木疏伐後長期的變化,建議應再做長期監測,以瞭解疏伐對森林土壤中水分與養分改變影響的週期性變化。

關鍵字:疏伐、土壤溶液化學、土壤養分、陽離子、陰離子
Abstract
In order to recognize the effect of forest thinning on the nutrient contents in soil solution and evaluating the benefit of forest thinning, eight thinning treatments were examined in this study, including control (0%, 3 plots) and thinning intensity of 25%, 28%, 30%, 33%, 37%, 38% and 53% (one plot for each treatment). The study area was located at the 61 forest compartment of Hoping Working Circle in Taipingshan area. Throughfall and rain water were collected monthly for measuring pH and nutrient content. Three soil samples for each experimental plot were also collected monthly by soil auger, including 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30cm. Soil solution was extracted and prepared for measuring anions (Cl, NO3, SO4, PO4) and cations (NH4, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Mn, Si). The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the variation of nutrient input under different thinning treatments by monitoring the changes of rain water and throughfall in one-year shortened and intensive monitoring period, and (2) to investigate the variation of nutrients in soil solution and discuss the benefit of forest thinning for propose the consultation to the forestry management in the future. The results of this study indicated that the pH value of rain water was lower than throughfall, which was attributed to the effect of acid deposition from atmosphere. The chemical compositions of soil solution suggested that the cation concentration decreased with the soil depth increased. We examined that the gradually decreased of cation with soil depth was due to the increasing effect of bio-factor (for example, nutrient absorption by roots and microbial fixation, etc.). The effect of forest thinning on the variation of soil solution chemical composition was changed with different thinning intensity. From the results of this study, we concluded that the operations of forest thinning could alter the soil nutrients content, and the changes were beneficial to the growth of remaining trees. Furthermore, in order to understand the chronic variation of forest thinning, the long-term monitoring was suggested to find out the periodic changes of forest thinning influence on the variation of forest soil moisture and nutrients content.

Key words: Thinning, soil solution chemistry, soil nutrients, cations, anions
目錄
摘要 …………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
Abstract………………………………………………………………Ⅱ
目錄……………………………………………………………………Ⅴ
表目錄…………………………………………………………………Ⅶ
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………Ⅸ
壹、前言………………………………………………………………1
貳、前人研究…………………………………………………………3
參、材料與方法………………………………………………………6
一、研究區環境概述………………………………………………...6
(一)研究區地理位置………………………………………….....6
(二)研究區疏伐處理………………………………………….....7
二、研究區地質概況…………………………………………………..9
三、研究區氣候概況…………………………………………………..10
四、研究區主要植被種類……………………………………………..11
五、疏伐試驗樣區內土壤樣本的採集……………………………....11
(一)土壤樣品的前處理………………………………………......12
(二)穿落水及雨水的採集……………………………………......12
六、土壤分析…………………………………………………………...13
(一)土壤物理性質分析………………………………………......13
(二)土壤化學分析……………………………………………......13
七、統計分析………………………………………….……………14
肆、結果與討論…………………………………………………………15
一、不同處理pH值的變化…………………………………………....15
(一)不同處理穿落水及雨水pH值的變化……………………......15
(二)不同深度及不同處理中土壤水pH值的比較………………....17
(三)土壤pH(H2O)及pH值的變化………………………………....18
二、不同疏伐度下雨水、穿落水及土壤水中養分含量之變化……...20
(一)鹽基陽離子(K, Na ,Ca ,Mg )養分元素的含量…………….20
(二)微量陽離子(Fe ,Al ,Mn ,Si )養分元素的含量….……….34
(三)無機態氮(NH4)與陰離子(Cl ,NO3 ,SO4 ,PO4 )的含量.…44
(四)總陽離子(ΣCations)的含量…………………………………..58
(五)總陰離子(ΣAnions)的含量……………………………...……62
(六)鹽基陽離子(Basic cations)的含量……………………...…67
(七)酸中和能力(Acid neutralizing capacity,ANC)…………70
(八)價數平衡(Charge balance,CB)……………………………….77
三、不同疏伐處理下顯著性分析……………………………………....81
四、相關性分析………………………………………………………....86
(一)相同處理不同土壤深度之相關性分析…………………...…..86
(二)不同土壤深度中氣候因子與土壤性質之相關性分析………...88
五、疏伐效益的評估……………………………………………………….96
(一)穿落水元素在疏伐效益上比較…………………………………..96
(二)不同土壤深度中對疏伐效益比較………………………………....96
伍、結論………………………………………………………………..….99
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