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研究生:江佩錚
研究生(外文):Chiang-pei-cheng
論文名稱:不同成熟度金柑抗氧化活性及其有效成分之研究
論文名稱(外文):Studies on Antioxidant Activities and Functional Constituents of Kumquat with Different Maturities.
指導教授:駱錫能駱錫能引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shyi-Neng Lou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:食品科學系碩士班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:長實金柑圓金柑成熟度抗氧化活性類黃酮
外文關鍵詞:Fortunella margarita SwingleFortunella japonica SwingleMaturityantioxidative activityFlavonoids.
相關次數:
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摘要
本研究以宜蘭縣員山鄉地區所產之不同成熟度的長實金柑(Fortunella margarita Swingle , FMS) 與圓金柑(Fortunella japonica Swingle, FJS)為原料,將新鮮果實區分成果皮與果肉兩部份,分別探討其抗氧化能力及相關物質含量之變化,藉以了解抗氧化活性物質在金柑抗氧化力上所扮演之角色與其在加工過程中可能之變化。
實驗結果顯示,金柑果皮及果肉清除DPPH自由基能力為甲醇萃取物>水萃取物>乙酸乙酯萃取物。圓金柑果皮與果肉甲醇萃取物之還原力、DPPH自由基清除能力與亞鐵離子螯合能力,均較長實金柑為佳。長實金柑果皮萃取物之DPPH自由基清除力隨著成熟度的增加明顯下降,而以成熟度30%的圓金柑效果最好,其能力達92.2%。果皮萃取物的螯合亞鐵離子能力明顯大於果肉3至7倍之多,顯然,圓金柑果皮具有較佳之抗氧化能力。
而不同成熟度的金柑成分分析結果顯示,總多酚含量介於653.91-2132.42 mg/ 100g,總類黃酮為82.53-1351.40 mg /100g,及總類胡蘿蔔素含量介於2.45–72.03 mg/100g之間,均為圓金柑含量高於長實金柑,果皮含量高於果肉。花青素含量則在15.97mg/100g以下,亦以圓金柑果皮為最高。總多酚含量隨成熟度增加而減少,圓金柑果皮總類黃酮則隨成熟度增加而大幅增加。而圓金柑果皮花青素在50%成熟度時最高,而成熟度70%之後,果肉則中未檢出。總類胡蘿蔔素含量以成熟度30%的圓金柑果皮含量為最高,含量隨成熟度增加而先減再增至完熟之65.36 mg/100g。
此外,金柑之醣類組成為葡萄糖、果糖與蔗糖,其含量分別介於0.02-0.18 mg/mg、0.02-0.20 mg/mg、0.00-0.26 mg/mg之間,長實金柑含量高於圓金柑,果皮高於果肉。圓金柑含量隨成熟度增加而增加。金柑中含微量之酒石酸與蘋果酸,果皮之有機酸組成主要為草酸與抗壞血酸,其含量分別介於267.14-511.46 mg/100g及221.08-1013.88 mg/100g之間,隨果實之發育,果皮中抗壞血酸的的含量逐漸減少。果肉的有機酸組成主要為草酸、抗壞血酸與檸檬酸,其含量分別為259.12-438.87 mg/100g、86.23-407.93 mg/100g 以及1034.01-3409.17 mg/100g,抗壞血酸與檸檬酸的含量隨金柑成熟的增加而逐漸減少。
長實金柑中類黃酮含量以Diosmin含量最高,其次為Quercertin,其含量分別介於40.31-70.93 mg/100g和32.97-42.40 mg/100g之間,以成熟度50%的果皮中含量最高。而圓金柑則以Hesperidin含量最高,其次為Neohesperidin與Quercertin,其含量分別為2.57-65.51 mg/100g、4.29-49.80 mg/100g以及14.33-42.35 mg/100g之間,以成熟度30 %之果皮所含Hesperidin含量為最高。不同成熟度長實金柑之總多酚、總類黃酮與總類胡蘿蔔素等與其DPPH自由基清除能力之相關性密切。而圓金柑果皮之DPPH自由基清除能力與其有機酸與總類胡蘿蔔素含量有較密切的關係(P < 0.05)。
此外,長實金柑在製成蜜餞的過程中,其清除DPPH自由基之能力由生鮮產品之90.32%持續下降至成品的48.95%,總類黃酮含量亦由294.89 mg/100g減少至138.45mg/100g,兩者間呈現正相關,相關係數r = 0.9094。分析結果顯示糖漬加工過程是造成類黃酮流失的主要步驟,主要流失的成分為Diosmin及Quercetin。
綜合以上可知,長實金柑與圓金柑果皮甲醇萃取物具有良好的抗氧化能力,可能與其類黃酮含量有關,此外,就自由基清除能力而言,生鮮金柑較加工產品為佳,此點可提供業者加工製程改良之參考。
Abstract
The purpose of this study were to determine the levels of bioactive compounds and the antioxidative ability of (Fortunella margarita Swingle and Fortunella japonica Swingle with different maturities. The results showed that the order of DPPH radical scavenging activity were methanol extract >water extract >ethyl acetate extract, the following experiments, therefore, were carried out by methanol extract.
The reducing power, scavenging activity of DPPH radical and Fe2+ chelating power of FJS were higher than those of FMSThe scavenging effects on DPPH radical of extract from peel decreased during the increasing maturity degree of FMSMethanol extract of FJS with 30% maturity had the highest radical-scavenging activity(92.2%). Chelating effects on Fe2+ of extracts from peel was 3 to 7 times of that from pulp. Collectively, the peel from FJS extracts showed higher antioxidant activities than pulp.
The contents of total polyphenol, total flavonoids and total caroteneoids were distributed from 653.91-2132.42 mg/ 100g, 20.02-450.47 mg /100g, and 2.45–72.03 mg/100g, respectively.The levels of these three components of FJS were higher than those of FMS, while those of peel were higher than those of pulp. The contents of total anthocyanin were lower than 15.97mg/100g. The total polyphenol contents decreased and the total flavonoids increased along with the increasing of maturity of kumquat. The peel of FJS with 50% maturity had the highest contents of total anthocyanin, however, no anthocyanin was with maturity above 70%. The peel of FJS with 30% maturity had the highest contents of the caroteneoids contents and which reduce and than increase along with the increasing of mature degree of kumquat.
In addition, glucose, fructose and sucrose were investigated kumquat. The contents distributed from 0.02-0.18 mg/mg, 0.02-0.20 mg/mg and 0.00-0.26 mg/mg, respectively. The levels of total sugar of FMS were more than which of FJS, and the contents of peel were higher than that of pulp, which increase along with the increasing of Maturity of FJS The main organic acids in peel of kumquat were oxalic acid and ascorbic acid, which contents distributed from 267.14-511.46 mg/100g and221.08-1013.88 mg/100g, respectively. The tartaric acid and malic acid were also found in kumquat with low magnitude. The ascorbic acid contents of peel reduce along with the increasing maturivity of kumquat. Oxalic acid, ascorbic acid and Citric Acid were the main organic acids in the pulp of kumquat , witch contents distributed from 259.12-438.87 mg/100g, 86.23-407.93 mg/100g and 1034.01-3409.17 mg/100g , respectively. Ascorbic acid and citric acid contents of peel reduce along with the increasing maturity of kumquat.
Diosmin and quercertin were the higher level of flavonoids in FMS Both of its contents distributed from 40.31-70.93 mg/100g and 32.97-42.40 mg/100g, respectively. The peel of FMS with 50% maturity had the highest contents of these two flavonoids. And then hesperidin was the highest concentration of flavonoids in FJS, and next were neohesperidin and quercertin. All of its contents distributed from 2.57-65.51, 4.29-49.80 and 14.33-42.35 mg/100g, respectively. The peel of FJS with 30% maturity had the highest contents of hesperidin. There was a strong correlation between Scavenging effects on DPPH radical and total polyphenol contents, Total flavonoids contents, the caroteneoids contents of the extracts from FMS with different maturities. And the correlation between Scavenging effects on DPPH radical and organic acid contents and Total caroteneoids contents of the extracts from FJS with different maturities wrew also significance.
In addition, DPPH radical scavenging effects decrease from 90.32% in fresh FMS fruit to 48.95% in final product during the process of candied fruit, and total flavonoids contents decrease from 294.89 mg/100g to 138.45mg/100g. In this result, a positive correlation (r=0.9094) was found between DPPH radical scavenging effects and total flavonoids contents. It wsa found that sugaring is the major step of resulted in the loss of flavonoids, especially Diosmin and Quercetin.
Collectively, the results of present study indicated that the extracts from peel and pulp of kumquat contained large amounts of flavonoids and exhibited a strong antioxidant activity. The extracts from fresh fruit had higher DPPH free radical scavenging activities than processing product from kumquat.
摘要 II
Abstract IV
目錄 VII
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 X
壹、 前言 1
貳、 文獻整理 3
ㄧ、金柑 3
(一)金柑品種 3
(二)產量及其分布 4
(三)開花習性及果實成熟情形 7
(四)藥理特性與食療 8
(五)相關研究 9
二、抗氧化機制與相關物質 12
(一)抗氧化機制 12
(二)植物抗氧化相關物質 13
三、柑橘類之類黃酮 21
(一)Flavonoids 的基本結構 21
(二)類黃酮之分類與飲食來源 22
(三)柑橘類類黃酮之生理活性 27
叁、 材料與方法 32
ㄧ、實驗架構 32
二、材料 33
(一)金柑 33
三、藥品及器材 35
(ㄧ)藥品 35
(二)器材 35
四、實驗方法 36
(一)不同萃取條件之影響 36
(二)抗氧化活性測定 36
(三)一般成分測定 38
(四)抗氧化相關成分分析 39
五、抗氧化有效類黃酮之分析 42
(ㄧ)類黃酮組成分之分析 42
(二)以DPPH自由基檢測類黃酮之抗氧化活性 43
六、金柑蜜餞加工過程的類黃酮與抗氧化性變化 44
肆、 結果與討論 46
一、 不同萃取條件對金柑萃取物清除DPPH能力之影響 46
(ㄧ)不同萃取溶劑之影響 46
(二)萃取方式之影響 47
二、不同成熟度金柑抗氧化特性之比較 47
(ㄧ)清除DPPH自由基能力 47
(二)還原力 48
(三)螯合亞鐵離子能力 49
三、不同成熟度金柑之成分變化 50
(ㄧ)一般成分 50
(二)總酚類化合物 51
(三)總類黃酮含量 52
(四)總花青素含量 53
(五)類胡蘿蔔素 54
(六)醣類 55
(七)有機酸 56
四、不同成熟度金柑成分變化與抗氧化活性之相關性 58
(ㄧ)長實金柑果皮 58
(二)長實金柑果肉 59
(三)圓金柑果皮 60
(四)圓金柑果肉 60
五、不同成熟度金柑類黃酮組成變化與抗氧化活性之關係 61
(ㄧ)類黃酮組成變化 61
(二)類黃酮組成與抗氧化性之相關性 64
(三)以DPPH自由基檢測類黃酮之抗氧化活性 65
六、金柑蜜餞加工過程中類黃酮含量與抗氧化活性之變化 67
(ㄧ)總類黃酮含量之變化 67
(二)類黃酮組成之變化 68
(三)DPPH自由基清除能力之變化 68
伍、 結論 70
陸、參考文獻 72
柒、表 84
捌、圖 104
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