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研究生:吳怡萱
研究生(外文):Yi-Xuan Wu
論文名稱:不同加熱前處理對芝麻油抗氧化物質影響之研究
論文名稱(外文):The affect of different heating pretreatments to the Antioxidant of Sesame Oil
指導教授:邱一鳴
指導教授(外文):E-Mean Chiou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:食品科學系碩士班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:143
中文關鍵詞:芝麻芝麻油抗氧化物質抗氧化力油脂穩定性
外文關鍵詞:sesamesesame oilantioxidantantioxidant activityoil stability
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摘要
芝麻油中富含多種天然抗氧化物質及其前驅物,包括: 芝麻素 (lignans)、芝麻素配醣體 (lignan glycosides)、生育酚 (tocopherol)、酚類化合物以及植物固醇,導致芝麻油為植物油中穩定性較高的食用油脂,除此之外由於芝麻油香氣濃厚並具豐富的營養價值,因此在東方國家常被運用在食療進補上。
許多研究顯示,經過適當加熱前處理所提得之芝麻油不但具有較高的抗氧化物質含量及油脂穩定性,其亦可散發出濃厚且令人喜愛的油香。目前研究所使用的加熱方式大多以市售產品所使用的傳統焙炒為主,而近年由於多種新興加熱方式,例如: 遠紅外線烘烤、微波加熱、壓力鍋蒸煮…等,其使用率趨於普及,因此本研究欲了解以不同的熱源提供方式與不同加熱條件來處理芝麻所提取出的芝麻油,其抗氧化物質含量、抗氧化力、油脂品質與其本身穩定性的變化,進而找出最適當的加熱方式以及條件。
本研究以印度進口的白芝麻作為試驗的材料,並使用遠紅外線烘烤、微波加熱、壓力鍋蒸煮和油浴鍋焙炒這四種不同的熱源提供方式以及不同加熱條件對芝麻進行處理,結果發現當芝麻經過不同熱源與加熱條件的處理抗氧化物及其前趨物組成皆會產生變化,且芝麻甲醇萃取物之抗氧化力亦會受此影響。
在這四種不同的熱源提供方式中挑選出芝麻甲醇萃取物抗氧化力較佳的加熱條件,再以hexane- isopropanol (3:1) 震盪萃取提出芝麻油,研究顯示,經微波1000瓦加熱8分鐘處理後所提得的芝麻油含有較多的梅納反應產物、酚類化合物、sesamol、tocopherol以及植物固醇,且其亦具較高的抗氧化力與油脂穩定性。當芝麻油中抗氧化物質的含量與抗氧化力以統計進行相關性的分析,結果顯示褐變指數與自由基清除力及還原能力這兩者之間的相關性最高,因此就本研究將熱源提供方式不同但褐變指數相似之芝麻油做比較,最後發現以微波加熱處理所生產之芝麻油含有較高含量的抗氧化成分與具有較佳的抗氧化力及油質穩定性。
Abstract

There are many antioxidant substances and antioxidant precursors in sesame oil, including lignans, lignan glycosides, tocopherol, phenolic compounds and phytosterols. This makes sesame oil be a much more stable edible oil among vegetable oils. Due to its rich aroma and high nutritious value, sesame oil has also been taken as something of great medicinal value.
Many research indicated that sesame oil with proper preheating process would enrich antioxidant substances and have greater oxidation stability, in addition to the wonderful aroma that comes along. The most widely used heating process in recent researches on sesame is that roasted by traditional way, which is the same procedure which the market sold sesame oil used. With the introduction and the growing popularity of a few new heating techniques such as far-infrared, microwave, pressure cooking and others, the purpose of this study is to investigate the antioxidant quantity, the antioxidant activity, oil quality and the stability of sesame oil by using different heating procedures and heating process, and to locate the heating procedure and heating process to manufacture sesame oil with the best antioxidant quantity and quality as well as the best oil quality and stability.
The sesame seeds used in this research is White Sesame seeds imported from India. By treated with four different heating procedures, the far-infrared, microwave oven, pressure cooking and oil bathed roasting, and with different heating process the sesame quality was investigated. The result show that with different heating procedures and heating process would affect its amount of antioxidants and their precursors, and the antioxidant activity of sesame was also varied.
The best heating process which yields the highest antioxidant activity and oil stability was chooses among each of the four heating procedures, then oil was extracted by hexane- isopropanol (3:1) and oil quality was also estimated. The results indicates that the sesame oil heated by microwave for 8 minutes yields greater amount of maillard reaction products, phenolic compound, sesamol, tocopherol and phytosterols and has the highest antioxidant activity and oil stability. Using statistics methods to analyze the relationship between the quantity of antioxidant substance and antioxidant activity in sesame oil, the result shows that the browning index is closely related with the DPPH free radical scavenging effect and the reduced power of sesame oil. Therefore, this research compares the antioxidation abilities among sesame oils which undergone different heating procedures yet with similar browning indexes and came to the conclusion that the sesame oil heated by microwave oven has the highest antioxidant, greater antioxidant activity and higher oil stability.
目錄

中文摘要………………………………………………………………………I
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………III
目錄……………………………………………………………………………V
表目錄………………………………………………………………………XIII
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………XIV


壹、前言………………………………………………………………………1

貳、文獻整理…………………………………………………………………3
一、芝麻………………………………………………………………………3
(一)芝麻之簡介………………………………………………………………3
1.形態…………………………………………………………………………3
2.栽培…………………………………………………………………………3
3.品種…………………………………………………………………………4
4.營養價值……………………………………………………………………4
二、芝麻油……………………………………………………………………5
(一)芝麻油之簡介……………………………………………………………5
(二)芝麻油之提油過程………………………………………………………6
1.脫殼…………………………………………………………………………6
2.粉碎…………………………………………………………………………8
3.加熱前處理…………………………………………………………………8
3.1 傳統焙炒…………………………………………………………………8
3.2 遠紅外線加熱……………………………………………………………9
3.3 微波加熱…………………………………………………………………10
3.4 高壓加熱…………………………………………………………………12
4.提油方式……………………………………………………………………12
5.精緻法………………………………………………………………………13
(三)芝麻油之ㄧ般特性………………………………………………………13
(四)脂肪酸……………………………………………………………………14
(五)抗氧化物質………………………………………………………………15
1.植物固醇……………………………………………………………………15
2.酚類化合物…………………………………………………………………18
3.生育醇………………………………………………………………………20
4.芝麻木酚素…………………………………………………………………22
4.1 油溶性木酚素……………………………………………………………22
4.2 非油溶性木酚素…………………………………………………………27
(六)顏色………………………………………………………………………28
(七)風味………………………………………………………………………29
(八)油脂氧化安定性…………………………………………………………30
三、芝麻粕…………………………………………………………………..31
四、油脂的氧化機制………………………………………………………..32
(一)熱裂解氧化………………………………………………………………32
(二)自氧化……………………………………………………………………32
(三)光氧化……………………………………………………………………33
(四)酶氧化……………………………………………………………………33

參、研究目的與實驗流程……………………………………………………35
一、研究目的…………………………………………………………………35
二、實驗流程…………………………………………………………………36

肆、材料與方法………………………………………………………………38
一、實驗材料…………………………………………………………………38
二、藥品………………………………………………………………………38
(一)標準品……………………………………………………………………38
(二)試劑………………………………………………………………………38
(三)溶劑………………………………………………………………………38
三、儀器設備…………………………………………………………………39
(一)分光光度計………………………………………………………………39
(二)減壓濃縮機………………………………………………………………39
(三)高效能液相層析儀………………………………………………………39
(四)氣相色層分析儀…………………………………………………………39
(五)高速攪拌均質機…………………………………………………………39
(六)恆溫震盪器:……………………………………………………………39
一、實驗方法…………………………………………………………………40
(一)不同加熱處理方式之條件………………………………………………40
1.傳統炒焙……………………………………………………………………40
2.遠紅外線烘烤………………………………………………………………40
3.壓力鍋蒸煮…………………………………………………………………40
4.微波加熱……………………………………………………………………40
(二)芝麻種子甲醇粹出物樣本製備…………………………………………41
(三)芝麻油的製備……………………………………………………………41
(四)芝麻油甲醇粹出物樣本製備……………………………………………41
(五)抗氧化活性之分析………………………………………………………41
1. DPPH ( 2,2-diphenyl- 1- picrylhydrazyl ) 自由基清除能力
之測定…………………………………………………………………………41
2.還原力測定…………………………………………………………………42
(六)抗氧化成分之定量分析…………………………………………………43
1.芝麻種子萃取物褐變指數之測定…………………………………………43
2.芝麻油褐變指數之測定……………………………………………………43
3.總酚類化合物含量之測定…………………………………………………43
4.分析定量芝麻油中的lignans之高效液相層析…………………………43
5.分析定量芝麻種子中的lignans之高效液相層析………………………44
6.分析定量芝麻油中tocopherol之高效液相層析………………………44
7.分析定量芝麻種子中tocopherol之高效液相層析……………………44
8.分析定量芝麻油非皂化物中植物固醇之氣相層析………………………45
(七)油之品質之鑑定…………………………………………………………45
1.脂肪酸之組成………………………………………………………………45
2.酸價…………………………………………………………………………46
3.過氧化價……………………………………………………………………46
4.TBA值之測定………………………………………………………………47
5.芝麻油脂官能品評…………………………………………………………47
6.儲存試驗……………………………………………………………………47
(八)統計分析…………………………………………………………………47
伍、結果與討論………………………………………………………………49
一、芝麻在經過不同加熱條件處理,其甲醇萃取物之抗氧化物質含量以及
抗氧化力的變化………………………………………………………………49
1.不同加熱條件對芝麻粗萃取物褐變指數之影響…………………………49
(1)油浴鍋焙炒對芝麻粗萃取物褐變指數之影響……………………………50
(2)遠紅外線烘烤對芝麻粗萃取物褐變指數之影響…………………………50
(3)壓力鍋蒸煮對芝麻粗萃取物褐變指數之影響……………………………50
(4)微波加熱對芝麻粗萃取物褐變指數之影響………………………………51
(5)不同熱源對芝麻粗萃取物褐變指數之影響………………………………51
2.不同加熱條件對芝麻中酚類化合物含量之影響……………………………53
(1)油浴鍋焙炒對芝麻中酚類化合物含量之影響……………………………53
(2)遠紅外線烘烤對芝麻中酚類化合物含量之影響…………………………53
(3)壓力鍋蒸煮對芝麻中酚類化合物含量之影響……………………………53
(4)微波加熱對芝麻中酚類化合物含量之影響………………………………54
3.不同加熱條件對芝麻中芝麻素含量之影響…………………………………55
(1)不同加熱條件對芝麻中 sesamin 含量之影響…………………………56
(2)不同加熱條件對芝麻中 sesamolin 含量之影響………………………56
(3)不同加熱條件對芝麻中sesamol含量之影響……………………………56
4.不同加熱條件對芝麻中生育醇含量之影響…………………………………57
5.不同加熱條件對芝麻粗萃取物DPPH自由基清除力之影響…………………59
(1)油浴鍋焙炒對芝麻粗萃取物 DPPH 自由基清除力之影響………………60
(2)遠紅外線烘烤對芝麻粗萃取物 DPPH 自由基清除力之影響……………60
(3)壓力鍋蒸煮對芝麻粗萃取物DPPH自由基清除力之影響…………………60
(4)微波加熱對芝麻粗萃取物 DPPH 自由基清除力之影響…………………61
6.不同加熱條件對芝麻粗萃取物還原力之影響………………………………62
(1)油浴鍋焙炒對芝麻粗萃取物還原力之影響…………………………………62
(2)遠紅外線烘烤對芝麻粗萃取物還原力之影響………………………………62
(3)壓力鍋蒸煮對芝麻粗萃取物還原力之影響…………………………………63
(4)微波加熱對芝麻粗萃取物還原力之影響……………………………………63
二、提取芝麻油之方式……………………………………………………………64
三、經過不同加熱條件處理所提得的芝麻油,其油脂品質、抗氧化物質含量…66
1.不同加熱條件對芝麻油品質之影響……………………………………………66
(1)不同加熱條件對芝麻油提油率之影響…………………………………………66
(2)不同加熱條件對芝麻油褐變指數之影響………………………………………67
(3)不同加熱條件對芝麻油劣變之影響……………………………………………68
(4)不同加熱條件對芝麻油脂肪酸組成之影響將不同加熱前處理後提取出……69
(5)不同加熱條件對芝麻油風味之影響……………………………………………70
2. 不同加熱條件對芝麻油中抗氧化物質含量之影響……………………………71
(1)不同加熱條件對芝麻油中酚類物質含量之影響………………………………71
(2)不同加熱條件對芝麻油中芝麻素含量之影響…………………………………72
(3)不同加熱條件對芝麻油中生育醇含量之影響…………………………………73
(4)不同加熱條件對芝麻油中植物固醇組成之影響………………………………74
3.不同加熱條件對芝麻油中抗氧化力之影響………………………………………76
(1)不同加熱條件對芝麻油甲醇萃取物自由基清除力之影響……………………76
(2)芝麻油中不同抗氧化物質對自由基清除力之影響……………………………76
(3)不同加熱條件對芝麻油甲醇萃取物還原力之影響……………………………77
(4)芝麻油中不同抗氧化物質對還原力之影響……………………………………78
4. 經不同加熱前處理對芝麻油氧化穩定性之影響………………………………79
四、褐變指數相同時,以不同熱源提供方式進行前處理所提得的芝麻油之油脂品
質、抗氧化物質含量以及抗氧化力的變化…………………………………………81
1.不同熱源提供方式對褐變指數相同之芝麻油品質影響…………………………81
2.不同熱源提供方式對褐變指數相同之芝麻油抗氧化物質含量的影響…………82
3.不同熱源提供方式對褐變指數相同之芝麻油抗氧化力的影響…………………83
4.不同熱源提供方式對褐變指數相同之芝麻油油脂穩定性的影響………………83

陸、結論………………………………………………………………………………84

柒、參考文獻…………………………………………………………………………85

表目錄

表5-1、不同的提油方式對芝麻油之提油率、酸價、過氧化價、酚類化合物含量以
及DPPH自由基清除率之影響…………………………………………………………96
表5-2、不同加熱條件對溶劑萃取芝麻油脂肪酸組成之影響………………………97
表5-3、不同加熱條件對溶劑萃取芝麻油植物固醇組成之影響……………………98
表5-4、芝麻油萃出物之DPPH自由基清除率、還原力、sesamol含量、酚類化合物
含量、tocopherol含量以及褐變指數的相關性……………………………………99
表5-5、在相同褐變指數下芝麻油之品質……………………………………………100
表5-6、在相同褐變指數下芝麻油中抗氧化物質的含量……………………………101
表5-7、在相同褐變指數下芝麻油中植物固醇的含量………………………………102



圖目錄

圖2-1、芝麻油之提製流程………………………………………………………………7
圖2-2、植物固醇之化學結構……………………………………………………………17
圖2-3、酚酸類化合物之化學結構………………………………………………………19
圖2-4、維生素E之化學結構……………………………………………………………21
圖2-5、芝麻木酚素之化學式……………………………………………………………23
圖2-6、芝麻木酚素配醣體之化學結構…………………………………………………24
圖2-7、芝麻油中芝麻素間的轉換………………………………………………………26

圖5-1、不同加熱條件對芝麻褐變指數之影響…………………………………………103
圖5-2、不同加熱條件對芝麻中酚類化合物含量之影響………………………………104
圖5-3、不同加熱條件對芝麻中sesamin含量之影響…………………………………105
圖5-4、不同加熱條件對芝麻粗萃取物中sesamolin含量之影響……………………106
圖5-5、不同加熱條件對芝麻中sesamol含量之影響…………………………………107
圖5-6、不同加熱條件對芝麻中tocopherol含量之影響……………………………108
圖5-7、不同加熱條件對芝麻粗萃取物DPPH自由基清除力之影響……………………109
圖5-8、不同加熱條件對芝麻粗萃取物還原力之影響…………………………………110
圖5-9、不同加熱條件對溶劑萃取芝麻油提油率之影響………………………………111
圖5-10、不同加熱條件對芝麻油褐變指數之影響………………………………………112
圖5-11、不同加熱條件對溶劑萃取芝麻油脂品質之影響………………………………113
圖5-12、不同加熱條件對芝麻油風味之影響……………………………………………114
圖5-13、不同加熱條件對芝麻油中酚類化合物含量之影響……………………………115
圖5-14、不同加熱條件對芝麻油中芝麻素 ( sesamin、sesamolin以及sesamol)含
量之影響……………………………………………………………………………………117
圖5-15、不同加熱條件對芝麻油中生育酚含量之影響…………………………………118
圖5-16、不同加熱條件對芝麻油自由基清除率之影響…………………………………119
圖5-17、芝麻油中不同抗氧化物質之自由基清除力……………………………………120
圖5-18、不同加熱條件對芝麻油還原力之影響…………………………………………121
圖5-19、芝麻油中不同抗氧化物質之還原力……………………………………………122
圖5-20、不同加熱條件對芝麻油於65℃儲存其過氧化價變化之影響…………………123
圖5-21、不同加熱條件對芝麻油於65℃儲存其TBA值變化之影響……………………124
圖5-22、在相同褐變指數下芝麻油之抗氧化力…………………………………………125
圖5-23、在相同褐變指數下芝麻油之穩定性……………………………………………126
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