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研究生:趙毓謙
研究生(外文):Chao, Yu-Chien
論文名稱:油炸裹麵漿重組魚排之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study of the Fried Restructured Fish Steaks Coated with Different Batters
指導教授:陳淑德林榮信
指導教授(外文):Su-Der Chen,Rong-Shinn Lin,
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:食品科學系碩士班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:重組肉裹麵漿麩醯基轉移酶微波油炸裹麵率
外文關鍵詞:restructured meatbattertransglutaminasemicrowave fryingpick-up
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本研究目的是利用重組肉技術,提升碎魚肉之附加價值,並探討裹麵漿配方和油炸方式對麵皮品質之影響,以建立低油的油炸裹麵漿重組魚排製程。實驗材料以鬼頭刀魚(Coryphaena hippurus)碎肉,添加1~3%食鹽和0.1~0.5%麩醯基轉移酶(TGase),分別於4℃、25℃和50℃下進行魚肉重組,並以質地剖面分析其組織,探討重組魚排的製備條件。將製備之重組魚排進行裹麵漿處理,麵漿配方以麵粉和玉米粉為主,分別添加小麥蛋白、大豆蛋白、直鏈澱粉、修飾澱粉、羧甲基纖維素(CMC)和羥丙基甲基纖維素(HPMC),分析麵漿的流變性質和裹麵率,並探討180℃傳統油炸5分鐘和180℃微波油炸3.5分鐘後,對麵皮顏色、質地、水分和油脂含量的影響。結果顯示,添加2%食鹽和0.3%TGase,成型後於25℃下靜置60分鐘,即可製成重組魚排。裹麵漿含1%CMC或1%HPMC的儲存模值(G’)和損失模值(G”)較高,使其裹麵率顯著的高於其他配方(P<0.05)。無論是傳統油炸或是微波油炸,相較於預油炸半成品,皆有較低的明亮度(L*)及較高的黃色度(b*)(P<0.05),油炸麵皮含1% CMC或1% HPMC者,有較高的水分含量及較低的油脂含量(P<0.05),而含1%黃豆蛋白或1%小麥蛋白會有較高油脂含量。
The aims of this research were (1) to improve the value and quality of fragmental fishes by the restructured meat technology, (2) to study the effects of the batter formula and frying methods on qualities of the crust in order to set up a low fat restructured fish steak process. The experiment materials were Coryphaena hippurus with 1~3% salt and 0.1~0.5% TGase under 4℃, 25℃and 50℃ to obtain restructured fish steaks, that were analyzed by the texture profile analysis. The restructured fish steaks were battered with the basic batter formula containing flour and corn flour. The reheological properties and pick-up of batters, with addition of wheat protein, soy protein, amylomaize, modified starch, CMC and HPMC where analyzed, respectively. The color, texture, water and oil contents of the crusts by 180℃ conventional frying 5min and 180℃ microwave frying 5min were analyzed, respectively. The results showed it took 60min at 25℃ in fish meat with 2% salt and 0.3% TGase to accomplish the restructured fish steak. The batter with 1% CMC or 1% HPMC significantly obtained higher pick-up, G' and G" values than the other batter formula (P<0.05). Both 180℃ conventional frying and microwave frying caused lower L* and higher b* values of the crusts than the pre-fried crust (P<0.05). The crusts with 1% CMC or 1% HPMC had higher moisture content and lower oil content, but the crusts with 1% SP or 1% WP had higher oil content.
中文摘要 I
Abstract II
圖表目次…………………………………………………………...……….…VII
壹、文獻整理……………………………………………………………… 1
一、重組肉…………………………………………………………………… 1
(一)重組肉背景……………………………………………………………. 1
(二)麩醯基轉移酶…… ………………………………………………………...2
1.麩醯基轉移酶來源…………………..………………………………………..2
2.麩醯基轉移酶催化和抑制反應………………………………………………3
(三)影響重組肉品質之因素………………………………………….........4
1.食鹽及磷酸鹽………………………………………………………..………..4
2.蛋白質……………………………………………………………………..…..8
3.膠……………………………………………………………………………..11
4.壓力…………………………………………………………………………..12
二、裹麵漿………………………………………………………….................12
(一)裹麵漿背景和分類………………………………………………………..12
1.傳統製程……………………………………………………………………..13
1.1.界面/附著(Interface/Adhesion) ………...…………….……………………13
1.2.膨脹/天婦羅(Puff/Tempura) ……………..………...……………………...14
2.創新製程…………………………………………………………………..…14
(二)一般裹麵漿主要成分……………………………………………………..14
1.麵粉…………………………………………………………………………..15
2.玉米粉………………………………………………………………………..15
3.米粉…………………………………………………………………………..16
4.澱粉…………………………………………………………………………..16
5.膨脹劑………………………………………………………………………..16
6.膠……………………………………………………………………………..17
6.1.冷凝膠和熱凝膠…………………………………………………………...17
6.2.可逆熱凝膠………………………………………………………………...17
(三)影響裹麵漿品質之因素…………………………………………………..18
1.麵漿成分對流變性質之影響………………………………………………..19
1.1.蔗糖、食鹽、麵粉、玉米粉和米粉對麵漿流變性質之影響…………..19
1.2.可逆熱凝膠對裹麵漿流變性質之影響…………………………………..20
2.粉水比和膨發劑含量………………………………………………………..22
3.澱粉……………………………………………………….………………….23
4.蛋白質種類及含量…………………………………………………………..24
5.膠的種類及含量……………………………………………………………..25
6.貯存條件……………………………………………………………………..26
三、微波和微波油炸………………………………………………………….27
(一)微波技術背景…………………………………………….……………….27
(二)微波複合能源……………………………………………….…………….28
貳、TGase (麩醯基轉移酶)濃度、靜置溫度和食鹽對重組魚排組織之影響……………………………………………………………………………….32
一、摘要…………………………………………………………………..……32
二、前言…………………………………………………………..……………33
三、材料與方法………………………………………………..………………35
四、結果與討論………………………………………..………………………37
五、結論…………………………………………………………...……………42
参、油炸方法對冷凍雞塊裹麵皮品質之影響……………...…………………50
一、摘要……………………………………………………….………………50
二、前言………………………………………………….……………………51
三、材料與方法…………………………….…………………………………53
四、結果與討論……………………………………….………………………54
五、結論………………………………………………….……………….……59
肆、裹麵漿成分和油炸方法對魚排麵皮品質之影響…………..……………68
一、摘要……………………………………………………..…………………68
二、前言……………………………………………………..…………………69
三、材料與方法…………………………………………………...……………71
四、結果與討論……………………………………………..…………………74
五、結論…………………………………………………..……………………80
伍、參考文獻……………………………………………..……………………92

圖次
圖一 TGase催化反應………………………………………...………………...3
圖二 以電泳分析食鹽和TGase對肌凝蛋白的影響………….…...……….10
圖三 實驗設計PART I…………………………………………….………….30
圖四 實驗設計PART II…………………………….………………………....31
圖1-1 TGase添加濃度對4℃下靜置魚排內聚力的影響..…………… 43
圖1-2 TGase添加濃度對25℃下靜置魚排內聚力的影響……… 44
圖1-3 TGase添加濃度對50℃下靜置魚排內聚力的影響……… 45
圖1-4食鹽濃度對重組魚排保水力的影響…………………………….. 48
圖2-1 180℃傳統油炸和微波油炸對雞塊麵皮總色差的影響…... 67
圖3-1 25℃裹麵漿配方對G’(儲存模值)的影響…………………... 81
圖3-2 25℃裹麵漿配方對G”(損失模值)的影響……………………………..82
圖3-3 25℃裹麵漿配方對損耗正切值的影響…………………………..……83
表次
表1-1溫度和TGase濃度對魚排質地剖面分析的影響…………… 46
表1-2 食鹽添加量對魚排質地剖面分析之影響…………………. 47
表1-3 食鹽添加量對重組魚排顏色之影響………………………………….49
表2-1冷凍雞塊重量和裹麵率的分析………………………………….. 60
表2-2 180℃傳統油炸和微波油炸對雞塊麵皮水分含量的影響……… 61
表2-3 180℃傳統油炸和微波油炸對雞塊麵皮油脂含量的影響……… 62
表2-4 180℃傳統和微波油炸對雞塊麵皮剪切力和變形量影響.…………...63
表2-5 180℃傳統油炸和微波油炸對雞塊麵皮明亮度的影響………….…...64
表2-6 180℃傳統油炸和微波油炸對雞塊麵皮紅色度的影響............………65
表2-7 180℃傳統油炸和微波油炸對雞塊麵皮黃色度的影響…….…...……66
表3-1不同裹粉取代物之麵漿黏度對魚排裹麵率的影響…………….. 84
表3-2 180℃傳統油炸和微波油炸對魚排麵皮水分含量的影響……… 85
表3-3 180℃傳統油炸和微波油炸對魚排麵皮油脂含量的影響……… 86
表3-4 180℃傳統和微波油炸對魚排麵皮剪切力和變形量的影響………....87
表3-5 180℃傳統油炸和微波油炸對魚排麵皮明亮度的影響………..……..88
表3-6 180℃傳統油炸和微波油炸對魚排麵皮紅色度的影響……….……...89
表3-7 180℃傳統油炸和微波油炸對魚排麵皮黃色度的影響………….…...90
表3-8 180℃傳統油炸和微波油炸對魚排麵皮總色差的影響…..…………..91
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