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研究生:趙婉琪
研究生(外文):Wan-Qi Zhao
論文名稱:寄接‘豐水’梨果肉水心症之研究
論文名稱(外文):Studies on Flesh Watercore in Top-grafted Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. ‘Hosui’)
指導教授:郭純德郭純德引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chun-Teh Kuo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:園藝學系碩士班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:91
中文關鍵詞:‘豐水’水心症
外文關鍵詞:‘Hosui’watercore
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中文摘要
以三星地區寄接‘豐水’梨(Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. ‘Hosui’ )為供試驗材料,探討果肉水心症相關形態與生理。觀察比較正常果肉組織和水心症組織顯微結構的差異。徒手切片結果顯示,與正常果實比較,發生水心症果實的果肉細胞間有空洞化現象,而且近果皮果肉中的石細胞數目較少且排列鬆散。石蠟切片結果則顯示,水心症果實表皮下單寧細胞較正常者少。此外,水心症果肉的維管束則有皺縮現象。果實縱、橫徑之累積生長都為單S曲線。分佈在梨樹冠外、冠中及冠內等3種著果部位的果實在生長初期其縱徑大於橫徑,果形指數大於1;而中期以後橫徑生長速率較縱徑為快,果形指數逐漸下降而小於1;及至採收時3者之果形指數在0.84~0.89間,果實呈扁圓形。絕對生長速率曲線呈鐘形,表現慢、快、慢的生長規律。而相對生長速率則在果實發育期間由高逐步地降低。以果實絕對生長曲線下降部分,估算生理成熟度為花後150至160天之間。為探究採收成熟度對果品及水心症發生率的影響,分別於2005年6/21、6/28、7/5、7/12、7/19採收開花後120、127、134、141、148天的果實,並分析果實形質及果肉水心症。果實之採收成熟度愈高,其水心症愈加嚴重,果實重量及可溶性固形物含量較高;相反地,果肉硬度較低。2006年試驗也有相似的結果,經線性廻歸分析,水心症發生率與採收成熟度、可溶性固形物含量間具有高的正相關性,而與果肉硬度間具有高的負相關性。著果部位對花後172天高成熟度果實水心症發生率之影響,結果顯示果肉水心症嚴重,發生率均超過50%,尤以冠內69%為最高。分別將盛花後145及159天採收的果實,貯藏在5℃中12週,並且每4週調查分析果實品質及水心症發生率及嚴重性。結果顯示果實之失重率、可溶性固形物含量及水心症發生率及嚴重性,隨貯藏期間的延長而提高,果肉硬度則呈現下降趨勢。不同套袋與著果部位對果實之縱徑、橫徑、果形指數、果重、種子數、酸度、及鉀與鈣含量,並無顯著差異之影響。果皮外觀色澤,則以2層套袋者之L值及a值較3及4層套袋者為低,且差異顯著,而b值雖略高,但差異並不顯著。著果部位不同,對於果實外觀色澤的影響不大。果肉的可溶性固形物含量,以2層套袋者顯著的高於3及4層套袋者;不論使用那一種套袋,分佈於冠外果實比冠內者為高,且差異顯著。果肉硬度,以2層套袋果實顯著的低於3及4層套袋者;在2及4層套袋,分佈於冠外果實比冠內者為高,且差異顯著。至於果肉之水心症發生比率及嚴重程度,以2層套袋者最高,顯著的高於3及4層套袋者;分佈於樹冠內部的果實,其水心症的發生比率及嚴重程度都大於樹冠外部者。來自日本新瀉和台灣梨山之不同接穗,對果實縱徑、橫徑、果形、果重、鉀含量的影響並不明顯;但台灣接穗果實之鈣含量及果肉硬度顯著較低,同時其可溶性固形物含量、水心症係數及水心症發生率則明顯較高。接穗上的留果數明顯影響果實大小及重量,以日本接穗並著果於樹冠外緣之單一果實為最大且最重。日本果穗為3果的水心症係數為0.62最高,然而平均發生率則以每袋2果為18%最高。台灣接穗以留果數為1果的水心症係數為0.69及發生率為38%明顯最高。採前施鈣對花後134天與148天成熟度的果品及水心症發生之影響,1%乳酸鈣和氯化鈣皆會增加果重。兩種鈣處理對果肉硬度有增加及維持的現象,特別是花後148天成熟度較高的果實。然而對可溶性固形物含量、鈣、鉀含量上則沒有顯著影響。採前鈣處理對花後134與148天成熟度的果肉水心症發生程度指數、水心症係數及發生率等,處理組均較對照組低。
Abstract
This study was focused on morphology and physiology of flesh watercore in pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. ‘Hosui’) grown by top-grafting at Sunshin area in Yilan County. Observation of tissue structure on normal and watercore pear fruit showed that watercore flesh tissue had cavities, the sclereid cell groups near the pericarp were few and loosely arranged, the tannin cells under the epidermis were less than normal tissue, and the vascular bundles of watercore flesh were shrinking. The growth of fruits from outer, middle, and inner canopies measured by cumulative longitudinal and transversal diameters was shown to be a single sigmoid curve. The fruit shape indexes (longitudinal diameter/ transversal diameter) were all above 1 at initial stage, and then progressively declined to under 1 in fruit faster growing period because of transversal growth exceeded longitudinal growth, and were stable and between 0.84 and 0.89 at harvesting stage. The curves of fruit absolute growth rate shown bell shape, indicating the growth speed during ontogeny of pear fruits followed by slow, fast and slow regime. Meanwhile, the relative growth rate of fruits was from high dropped to low smoothly during development. Physiological maturity of pear fruits estimated by regression line during the declining growth rate period was at 150 to 160 days after anthesis. The fruit quality and incidence of watercore of pear fruits harvested at 120, 127, 134, 141, and 148 days after anthesis had been analyzed, respectively. The results suggested the higher maturity of fruit harvested the more serious watercore of fruit was, and the higher fruit weight and soluble solids content were also found; however, the flesh firmness of pear was lower. The investigation results of 2006 were similar to 2005. The relationships between watercore percentage and fruit maturity and soluble solid content were highly positive, while highly negative with the flesh firmness of pear. Influences of canopy position on fruit percentage of flesh watercore at high fruit maturity of 172 days after anthesis.the data shown the incidences of watercore were exceeded 50% in any canopy position, particularly the inner canopy fruits were 69%, the highest. Separate fruit 145 and 159 days after anthesis fruits stores in 5 ℃ at 12 weeks, analysis the fruit quality and incidence index and coefficient every 4 weeks. The result showed that, the soluble solid content, water loss rate and the watercore percentage and the seriousness along with stored the period increases as increases. The influences of preharvest bagging covered with 2, 3 and 4 layers paper bags and different canopy positions on fruit quality and incidence of flesh watercore in top-grafted ‘Hosui’ pear were investigated. The results showed that fruit characters including fruit length, width, weight, fruit shape index, seed numbers, titratable acidity, potassium and calcium contents of pear with different layer number bags and canopy positions were not significantly different among 2005 and 2006. The indexes of peel color detected by the Hunter Lab scale L, a and b values, the 2 layers bag were lower than 3 and 4 layers bags in L and a values, and showed significant difference, although the b value was slightly higher, the difference was not significant. Meanwhile, the influence of position at inner or outer canopies to the peel color was not significant. The soluble solids content of fruit pulp of the 2 layers bag was higher than 3 and 4 layers bags; No matter what kind of wrap bag was used, pulp SSC from outer canopy was higher than inner canopy, and revealed significant difference. The firmness of fruit flesh revealed by the 2 layers bag was lower than 3 and 4 layers bags; Among the 2 and 4 layers bags, outer canopies were higher than inner canopies, and also revealed significant differences. However, the incidence and severity of pear flesh watercore were highest in 2 layers bag, and revealed significant difference with 3 and 4 layers bags. No matter what kind of wrap bag was used, the percentage and degree of flesh watercore in pear posited at inner canopy were higher than outer canopy, and revealed significant difference. Different scion from Li Mountain Taiwan and Niigata Japan, had no significant effects on longitudinal diameter, transversal diameter, shape index, fresh weight, potassium content of fruit. But the calcium content and flesh firmness of the scion from Taiwan were significantly lower, and soluble solids content, watercore coefficient and watercore incidence were significantly higher. The leave fruit number per scion had obvious effect on fruit size and weight. Influence of pre-harvest calcium treatment on fruit quality and watercore in fruit maturety of 134 and 148 days after anthesis, both calcium lactate and calcium chloride treatment increased fruit weight. Both of treatments increased and maintained the flesh firmness, especially the higher maturity fruit (148 days after anthesis). Compared to the control, preharvest calcium treatments had lower watercore index, watercore coefficient and watercore incidence at fruit maturety of 134 and 148 days after anthesis.
目 錄
中文摘要............................................................i
英文摘要............................................................ii
誌謝................................................................iv目錄................................................................v
表目錄.............................................................vii
圖目錄............................................................viii
附錄目錄............................................................ix
壹、前言.............................................................1
貳、前人研究..........................................................3
一、果實水心症的發生及顯微結構變化.....................................3
二、果實之生長分析與生理成熟度........................................4
三、採收成熟度對果實品質與生理障礙之影響...............................4
四、著果部位對果實品質與生理障礙之影響.................................5
五、貯藏對果實生理障礙之影響..........................................6
六、採前套袋對果實品質之影響..........................................6
七、接穗來源及留果數對寄接‘豐水’梨果實品質及水心症之影響................7
八、鈣處理對預防果實生理障礙之影響 ....................................8
參、材料與方法..................................................................10
一、寄接‘豐水’梨水心症果肉組織之顯微結構觀察.........................10
二、寄接‘豐水’梨果實生長分析與生理成熟度.............................10
三、採收成熟度對果實品質及水心症發生之影響.............................11
四、著果部位對寄接‘豐水’梨果實品質及水心症之影響......................12
五、貯藏期對寄接‘豐水’梨果實品質及水心症之影響.......................13
六、採前套袋對寄接‘豐水’梨果實品質及水心症之影響......................13
七、接穗來源及留果數對寄接‘豐水’梨果實品質及水心症之影響...............15
八、 採前施鈣對寄接‘豐水’梨果實品質及水心症之影響.....................16
九、統計分析.........................................................17
肆、結果............................................................18
一、寄接‘豐水’梨水心症果肉組織顯微結構之觀察... .....................18
二、寄接‘豐水’梨果實生長分析與生理成熟度.............................18
三、採收成熟度對果實品質及水心症發生之影響.............................20
四、著果部位對寄接‘豐水’梨果實品質及水心症之影響......................21
五、貯藏期對寄接‘豐水’梨果實品質及水心症之影響.......................21
六、採前套袋對寄接‘豐水’梨果實品質及水心症之影響......................22
七、接穗來源及留果數對寄接‘豐水’梨果實品質及水心症之影響...............24
八、採前施鈣對寄接‘豐水’梨果實品質及水心症之影響......................25
伍、討論..................................................................28
一、寄接‘豐水’梨水心症果肉組織之顯微結構觀察.........................28
二、寄接‘豐水’梨果實生長分析與生理成熟度.............................28
三、採收成熟度對果實品質及水心症發生之影響.............................31
四、著果部位對寄接‘豐水’梨果實品質及水心症之影響......................32
五、貯藏期對寄接‘豐水’梨果實品質及水心症之影響.......................33
六、採前套袋對寄接‘豐水’梨果實品質及水心症之影響......................35
七、接穗來源及留果數對寄接‘豐水’梨果實品質及水心症之影響...............39
八、採前施鈣對寄接‘豐水’梨果實品質及水心症之影響......................41
附錄................................................................76
參考文獻............................................................84
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