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研究生:蔡崇憲
研究生(外文):Chong-Xian Cai
論文名稱:風飛沙的景觀解析與對策
論文名稱(外文):Landscape analysis and responsive strategy of riverbed dust storm
指導教授:黃志偉黃志偉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ji-Wei Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:園藝學系碩士班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:303
中文關鍵詞:濱溪地區乾枯河道沙塵暴風蝕乾旱地區植被復育風蝕現象河流花蓮環境問題
外文關鍵詞:RiparianRiverbedWadiDust stormblown sandWind erosionArid environmentVegetation restorationAeolianFluvialHua-LienEnvironmental problem
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:4
  • 點閱點閱:419
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:56
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
風吹沙在花蓮有逐年嚴重的趨勢,儘管如此,國內的相關研究卻是微乎極微,缺乏基礎背景數據,導致問題無從下手解決。本研究首先對於風飛沙發生的時間與空間上的特點予以確認釐清,在時間上先回顧河灘地季節變遷,並探討不同年代變化趨勢。空間部份則分析發生地點沙源的分佈模式,再評估推斷主要受影響的範圍。第二階段為為探討風飛沙氣象、水文與地面各項形成條件,以供預測發生模型、釐清裸露河灘地風蝕特性、起沙機制及提供防治風飛沙的背景資訊。本研究最後,調查裸露河灘地的植物社會作為基礎資料以及從各種逆境條件下選拔出逆境忍受力強的種類評估河灘地自我復育的潛力,並研擬裸露河灘地人工復育的技術並評估其抑制飛沙效果。
Riverbed dust storm (RBDS) in Hua-Lien shows the trend of getting serious in recent year, however the issue keeps in suspension, due to deficiency of baseline data and thus scarce relative studies. This study is firstly to define the characteristics of RBDS in time and space. In terms of time, satellite photos retrieved from various years and site digital photos taken in different time in one year were compared and analyzed. In terms of space, distribution patterns of blown sand/dust and suffered areas were analyzed and assessed. Relationship among meteorology, hydrology, landscape types, sand blown and RBDS were studied. Conditions favored occurrence of dust storm was analyzed in the second stage of research. Those data were further used to build various regression models for clarification of wind erosion of dry river bed, understanding of RBDS mechanism, prediction and controlling of RBDS. To confirm the involved factors, simulation of dust storms was carried out both in the field and lab. This study also undertook a survey of riparian vegetation society. Scenarios of stress were designed to assess the tolerance of each individual among 6 dominant wild species and 3 commercial species. Potential of volunteer restoration of them were compared and assessed. Technology to improve plant survival rate, establishment and development efficiency were developed. The effects of plant coverage on sand gathering or sand blown were assessed as well.
圖目錄..............................................4
表目錄 8
摘要 10
Abstract 11
第一章 緒論 11
1-1研究背景與動機 12
1-1-1研究背景 12
1-1-2研究動機 13
1-2研究目的 14
1-3研究流程 15
第二章 文獻回顧 17
2-1.花蓮風飛沙與大陸沙塵暴比較 17
2-2.風飛沙發生的時間及空間特性探討 21
2-3.風飛沙形成條件探討 27
2-3.河灘地生態與植被復育探討 31
第三章 風飛沙時間空間特性 37
3-1.河灘地變遷過程 37
3-1-1起沙地點季節性變化與人為干擾 38
3-1-2不同年代衛星影像分析 43
3-2.發生時間 46
3-2-1.花蓮地區各時段風速 46
3-2-2.花蓮地區乾燥及無降雨時段 51
3-3.沙源分佈模式 55
3-3-1.起沙地點衛星地圖監督式分類 55
3-3-2.河灘地含水量與表土粒徑分佈 63
3.4河灘地微氣候的變化 69
3-4-1.河灘地的風速、風向季節性變化 69
3.4.2河灘地溫度、溼度季節性變化 75
3-5受災範圍的監測與驗證 81
3-5-1風飛沙影響範圍 81
3-5-2.花蓮縣市落塵量分佈模式 88
3-6風飛沙時間及空間特性結論 96
第四章 風飛沙形成條件 97
4-1.氣象條件 97
4-1-1.歷史記錄 97
4-1-2氣象資料與能見度關聯性分析 100
4-1-3風飛沙發生前的氣象徵兆 106
4-1-4風飛沙的起因與預測 111
4-2水文條件 115
4-2-1.花蓮溪流量、水位與當地風飛沙之關係 115
4-3地面條件 119
4-3-1.河灘各類地表微氣候 119
4-3-2.河灘地沙源傳動 127
4-3-2-1.地表沙源傳動 127
4-3-2-2空中沙源傳動 132
4-3-2-3發生當日不同地表低空沙源傳動比較 141
4-3-3.裸露河床的消長 148
4-3-3-1.河床橫斷面沙源堆積與搬運 148
4-3-4.起沙模擬與分析 162
4-3-4-1.實驗室飛沙模擬 162
4-3-4-2.現場飛沙模擬 177
4-4風飛沙形成條件結論 182
第五章 河灘地生態復育 184
5-1.優勢草種固沙能力 184
5-1-1.植叢大小與固沙能力 185
5-2裸露河灘地植物社會 192
5-2-1原生植被優勢度調查 192
5-2-2逆境模擬分析 198
5-2-2-1枝條生根所需時間 201
5-2-2-2.高溫逆境 203
5-2-2-3.缺水逆境 208
5-2-2-4.覆沙逆境 211
5-2-2-5.缺肥逆境 214
5-2-2-6.淹水逆境 217
5-2-2-7植株逆境總結 219
5-3自然復育評估 220
5-3-1.風飛沙發生地點土壤種子庫調查 220
5-3-2優勢草種種子庫推估 226
5-3-3植被自然復育評估 230
5-4人工復育技術 233
5-4-1.商業品種復育 234
5-4-1-1.旱季(冬季)商業草種河灘地安定技術 234
5-4-1-2.田菁做為前驅物種與棲地改良 242
5-4-2.原生草種復育評估 262
5-4-2-1. 播種復育評估 262
5-4-2-2.分株移植評估 267
5-4-2-3. 原生植被容器苗移植評估 273
5-5河灘地生態復育結論 281
第六章 討論與建議 283
6-1 風飛沙發生的時空特性 283
6-2 風飛沙形成條件 288
6-3 河灘地植被復育 291
6-4 建議 294
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報紙資料:
王志偉. (2005/9/1). 強颱穿透台灣閒歇強風吹起沙塵. 更生日報, p. 5.
王獻隆. (2000/10/27). 花蓮溪出海口風沙飛揚. 更生日報, p. 5.
王獻隆. (2004/10/14). 立霧溪口捲起的狂風沙. 更生日報, p. 5.
王獻隆. (2005/10/12). 花蓮大橋也被籠罩. 更生日報, p. 5.
王獻隆. (2005/10/16). 立霧溪颳起風飛沙. 更生日報, p. 5.
林石松. (2004/10/16). 每當花蓮溪吹起風沙. 更生日報, p. 5.
林石松. (2005/7/31). 壽豐夏日風吹沙. 更生日報, p. 5.
黃文琪. (2001/9/22). 採砂為做好防護 出現風飛沙. 更生日報, p. 5.
葉文傑. (2004/7/19). 花蓮溪捲起陣陣夏日風飛沙. 更生日報, p. 5.
葉文傑. (2004/8/12). 花蓮溪狂風吹砂. 更生日報, p. 5.
葉文傑. (2005/9/29). 花蓮溪河床捲起沙 沿溪村落全籠罩在沙塵中. 更生日報, p. 5.
顏建國. (2004/8/11). 七級陣風飛沙走石. 更生日報, p. 5.
顏建國. (2004/9/26). 花蓮溪出海口陣陣風飛沙. 更生日報, p. 5.

網站資料:
中華民國行政院環境保護署. 中華民國台灣地區環境空氣品質標準 http://ecocity.ngo.org.tw/
台東縣政府. 台東風飛砂再起 縣府相關單位進行會勘後將研究試辦以稻草覆蓋方式辦理防砂工作. http://www.taitung.gov.tw/chinese/news/
花蓮縣環保聯盟. 花蓮環境政策白皮書. http://ecocity.ngo.org.tw/
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