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研究生:楊智超
研究生(外文):Chih-Chao Yang
論文名稱:結合IE3D與基因演算法進行多頻段PIFA天線設
論文名稱(外文):Design of Multiband PIFA by IE3D Combined with Genetic Algorithms
指導教授:邱建文邱建文引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chien-Wen Chiu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:電子工程學系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:73
中文關鍵詞:基因演算法多頻段PIFA天線
外文關鍵詞:Genetic AlgorithmsIE3DMultiband PIFA
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平面倒F型天線具有尺寸小、成本低與容易製作等優點,適合用於手持式個人行動通訊收發機;再者現今個人通訊設備必須可收發不同頻帶之無線通訊系統訊號,因此本論文之主要研究目的為設計多頻帶之平面倒F型天線以符合上述需求。研究過程中,天線設計則是利用IE3D進行模擬,並結合基因演算法來達成最佳化設計。IE3D是利用混合位勢積分方程式結合動差法所撰寫之軟體,它雖可模擬天線上金屬電流分佈及阻抗頻寬特性,但由於多頻帶天線在設計阻抗匹配時,饋入位置及設計參數的改變在設計上常會相互影響,不易達到多頻段之阻抗匹配要求,因此本論文利用IE3D結合基因演算法,進行用於GSM-900、DCS-1800、PCS-1900、UMTS-2100等多頻帶的天線設計。本論文使用兩種結構進行最佳化設計。第一種方式,選定特定結構,將幾何尺寸參數轉換為染色體之基因來進行最佳化設計。第二種方式,直接將平面倒F型天線金屬部分轉換為染色體來進行最佳化設計,找出最佳之天線結構。本論文除了設計出符合多頻帶之平面倒F型天線並進行實驗量測,以驗證所設計之平面倒F型天線是否符合各系統規格之要求。
Planar invert-F antenna, which has some features such as low profile, low cost and easy implementation, is suitable to be applied in the hand-set for mobile communication. In addition, the hand-held equipment must have the capability of transmitting and receiving the RF signal in the multiband from different wireless systems today. In this thesis, we aim to design the multi-band PIFA to meet the requirement mentioned above. The proposed antennas are simulated and optimally designed for multiband by using IE3D simulator combined with genetic algorithms. IE3D is an EM solver based on the mixed-potential integral equation approach that is numerically solved by the method of moments. Although IE3D can tell us the current distribution on the conductors and then characterize the impedance bandwidth of the designed antenna, it can not tell us how to do optimization for multiband function. Since the number of design parameters for mutiband antenna is quite numerous, genetic algorithms combined with full-wave IE3D is programmed to optimally design the quad band PIFA. In this thesis are two kinds of structure of the PIFA for optimization design: one is a specific tri-band PIFA with some design parameters that are encoded into the genes of the chromosomes for genetic algorithms; the other is a random PIFA that the metal shapes of patch and ground plane are directly encoded into the binary string for the chromosome. Finally, the prototypes are constructed and measured to verify the optimized design obtained by IE3D + GA.
第一章 序論 1
1.1. 概述 1
1.2. 文獻回顧 1
1.3. 章節概要 2
第二章 基因演算法(Genetic Algorithms) 4
2.1. 基因演算法簡介 4
2.2. 自然演化與二元基因演算法類比 4
2.3. 基因演算法的組成 5
2.4. 選擇變數與適應函數 5
2.5. 族群的產生 5
2.6. 變數編碼與解碼 6
2.7. 選擇 6
2.8. 配對 7
2.9. 突變 8
2.10. 停止條件 8
第三章 平面倒F型天線與電磁模擬介紹 13
3.1. 單頻PIFA簡介 13
3.1.1. PIFA天線發展介紹 13
3.1.2. 天線特性與天線設計 15
3.2. 多頻帶PIFA 17
3.3. 積分方程式 18
3.4. 動差法(MoM) 20
3.4.1. 線性運算方程式 20
3.4.2. 動差法基本概念 21
3.4.3. 基底函數 21
3.4.4. 電流連結矩陣 22
3.4.5. 全波等效方程式(Full-wave equivalent circuit) 23
3.5. IE3D結合GA之作法 24
第四章 使用IE3D+GA進行特定PIFA結構最佳化設計 37
4.1. PIFA結構選擇 37
4.2. 基因演算法(GA)結合IE3D流程圖 37
4.3. 定義變數、適應值、適應函數 38
4.4. 編碼選擇 38
4.5. 配對選擇 39
4.6. 配對方式 39
4.7. 突變選擇 40
4.8. 停止條件 40
4.9. 模擬結果與實驗驗證 40
第五章 使用IE3D+GA進行隨機PIFA結構最佳化設計 51
5.1. PIFA結構選擇 51
5.2. 基因演算法(GA)結合IE3D流程圖 51
5.3. 定義變數、適應值、適應函數 52
5.4. 編碼選擇 54
5.5. 配對選擇與配對方式 55
5.6. 突變選擇 55
5.7. 停止條件 56
5.8. 模擬結果與實驗量測 56
第六章 結論與討論 70
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