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研究生:劉昱呈
研究生(外文):Yu-Cheng Liu
論文名稱:無線區域網路之動態頻寬調整機制
論文名稱(外文):Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Scheme for Wireless LAN
指導教授:郭芳璋
指導教授(外文):Fang-Chang Kuo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:電子工程學系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:109
中文關鍵詞:服務品質排程方法頻寬分配服務等級便利性設定值頻寬增強型分散式協調存取
外文關鍵詞:IEEE 802.11WLANQoSMACEDCA
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由於無線區域網路的發展與便利性,其應用與服務上的要求也逐漸增加。雖然IEEE 802.11e已提出可支援服務品質(QoS)的運作模式,不過,仍有可以改善、增強的部份—其中之一是希望讓使用者可以自行配置頻寬。對此,趙耘志先生已在其碩士論文中提出一個在增強型分散式協調存取(EDCA)環境下,可以提供頻寬分配功能的傳送模組架構。不同於IEEE 802.11e的4種AC(Access Categories)、8種服務等級(priority)的運作方式,該模組可以針對不同的網路應用程式(process),分配相對應的頻寬。除此之外,也有其它的許多優點。本論文根據其傳送模組,設計頻寬分配的排程方法,讓使用者可依照自己的需求,對工作中的各個process進行頻寬分配。
本文首先提出「主控式頻寬分配」的方法,並驗證其功能。其次,本文也提出「動態頻寬調整」的方法,該方法在計算排程時間,可以考慮到每一個process過去的傳送情況,以便使頻寬分配的結果更符合使用者的設定值。模擬結果顯示,「動態頻寬調整」的方法比「主控式頻寬分配」更能做到精確的頻寬分配。
The legacy IEEE 802.11 WLAN standard supports no QoS for multimedia applications. Thus, considerable research efforts have been carried out to enhance the QoS supporting for 802.11. Among them, 802.11e is the QoS enhanced standard proposed by the IEEE working group. However, some of the parts can be improved and strengthened. One of the parts is that a user can not dispose bandwidth by himself. As a result, Mr. Chao proposed a transmission module in his master thesis. It is a framework that can support bandwidth allocation for each process under EDCA access mode of the MAC Layer.
In this thesis, based on Chao’s module, a “direct bandwidth allocation scheme” is proposed. The scheduling scheme can be used to arrange the frame’s departure time for each process. Its function is also verified by simulation.
A “dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme” is also proposed in this thesis. When calculating the inter-frame departure time for each process, it would also consider the transmission result in the past. The simulation result reveals that it can allocate bandwidth more accurately according to the user's assignment.
論文摘要 i
abstract ii
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 x
第一章 導論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究動機 2
1.3 研究方法 2
1.4 論文架構 3
第二章 背景與相關研究 4
2.1 QoS之背景 4
2.1.1 從使用者角度觀看整體網路QoS的概況 5
2.1.2 從研究者角度觀看整體網路QoS的概況 6
2.2 IEEE 802.11e 的QoS 8
2.2.1 EDCA之簡述 8
2.2.2 HCCA之簡述 10
2.2.3 IEEE 802.11e尚可改善之處 11
2.3 改良的EDCA存取模組 13
2.3.1 架構之優點 16
2.4 其他相關之研究 17
2.5 本論文研究目標 19
第三章 「主控式頻寬分配」的排程方法 20
3.1 動機 20
3.2 設計方法 21
3.2.1 頻寬分配器介面 21
3.2.2 「主控式頻寬分配」排程方法的設計 23
3.2.2.1 計算過去頻寬之使用平均值 24
3.2.2.2 以權重(weight)分配頻寬 26
3.2.3 定義所需參數 28
3.3 「主控式頻寬分配」排程方法的設計優點 29
3.3.1 最大的weight值設定 30
3.4 「主控式頻寬分配」排程方法總結 31
第四章 「主控式頻寬分配」模擬與分析 32
4.1 模擬環境 32
4.2 「主控式頻寬分配」模擬 35
4.2.1 over offered模擬分析 35
4.2.2 Saturation load模擬分析 45
4.2.3 α值的影響分析 56
4.3 「主控式頻寬分配」模擬總結 60
第五章 「動態頻寬調整」的排程方法 61
5.1 「動態頻寬調整」的設計概念 61
5.1.1 引言 61
5.1.2 「動態頻寬調整」的目的 62
5.2 排程方法的設計 64
5.2.1 以process的平均頻寬為依據,設計排程方法 65
5.2.2 「5.2.1」計算式中的隱藏問題 67
5.2.3 以process的平均傳送時間為依據,設計排程方法 68
5.3 「5.2.3」排程方法的探討 70
5.3.1 「以process的平均傳送時間為依據」排程方法的合理性 71
5.3.2 「以process的平均傳送時間為依據」排程方法的優點 72
5.4 「動態頻寬調整」排程方法總結 73
第六章 動態頻寬調整模擬與分析 75
6.1 模擬環境 75
6.2 模擬與分析 76
6.2.1 頻寬分配模擬分析 77
6.2.2 Traffic中斷模擬分析 89
6.2.2.1 差異數 94
6.2.3 β值的影響分析 98
6.3 「動態頻寬調整」模擬總結 102
第七章 結論 103
參考文獻(Reference) 105


圖目錄

圖2-1 IEEE 802.11e MAC層的結構圖 7
圖2-2 EDCA 序列模型圖 9
圖2-3 IEEE 802.11e EDCA 時間關係圖 10
圖2-4 EDCA_Chao模組架構圖 14
圖3-1 頻寬分配器介面圖-1 22
圖3-2 頻寬分配器介面圖-2 23
圖3-3 Frame傳送時序圖-1 24
圖3-4 Exponential Smoothing Coefficients 26
圖3-5 Frame傳送時序圖-2 28
圖3-6 Station parameter 28
圖3-7 Process parameter 29
圖4-1 模擬環境示意圖 33
圖4-2 frame的傳送過程圖 34
圖4-3 Over offered頻寬分佈圖-1 37
圖4-4 Over offered frame累積數量分佈圖-1 38
圖4-5 Over offered頻寬分佈圖-2 41
圖4-6 Over offered frame累積數量分佈圖-2 42
圖4-7 Over offered frame累積數量分佈圖-2.1 43
圖4-8 Saturation load模擬頻寬分佈圖-1 47
圖4-9 Saturation load frame累積數量分佈圖-1 49
圖4-10 Saturation load頻寬分佈圖-2 52
圖4-11 Saturation load frame累積數量分佈圖 54
圖4-12 Station頻寬分佈圖-α值=0.95、0.5、0.05 58
圖4-13 α值標準差分析圖 59
圖5-1 傳送時序圖-1 63
圖5-2 傳送時序圖-2 63
圖5-3 傳送時序圖-3 64
圖5-4 傳送時序圖-「動態頻寬調整」 70
圖5-5 傳送時序圖-「主控式頻寬分配」、「動態頻寬調整」 74
圖6-1 模擬環境示意圖 76
圖6-2 分配模擬頻寬分析圖-1 78
圖6-3 分配模擬frame傳送數量累積圖 80
圖6-4 頻寬分析圖-主控式頻寬分配與動態頻寬調整 83
圖6-5 frame傳送數量累積圖-主控式頻寬分配與動態頻寬調整 86
圖6-6 傳送時序圖-1 90
圖6-7 傳送時序圖-2 90
圖6-8 traffic中斷模擬頻寬分析圖-2 92
圖6-10 traffic中斷模擬傳送數量累積圖-1 93
圖6-11 traffic中斷模擬傳送數量差異圖-1 95
圖6-12 traffic中斷模擬傳送數量差異圖-2 96
圖6-13 traffic中斷模擬傳送數量差異圖-3 97
圖6-14 β值的影響模擬傳送數量差異圖-1 99
圖6-15 β值的影響模擬傳送數量差異圖-2 100

表目錄

表4-1 相關參數表 34
表4-2 Over offered模擬參數表-1 36
表4-3 Over offered設定參數表-1 36
表4-4 Over offered frame累積數量分析表-1 39
表4-5 Over offered模擬環境表-2 40
表4-6 Over offered設定參數表-2 41
表4-7 Over offered frame累積數量分析表 44
表4-8 Saturation load模擬環境表-1 46
表4-9 Saturation load模擬設定表-1 46
表4-10 Saturation load模擬頻寬分析表-1 48
表4-11 Saturation load frame累積數量分析表-2 50
表4-12 Saturation load模擬環境表-2 51
表4-13 Saturation load模擬設定表-2 51
表4-14 Saturation load頻寬分析表-2 53
表4-15 主控式模擬frame累積數量分析表 55
表4-16 α值影響的模擬參數表 57
表6-1 相關參數表 76
表6-2 頻寬分配模擬環境表-1 77
表6-3 頻寬分配模擬設定表-1 77
表6-4 分配模擬頻寬分析表-1 79
表6-5 分配模擬傳送數量分析表 81
表6-6 頻寬分配模擬環境表-2 82
表6-7 頻寬分配模擬設定表-2 82
表6-8 頻寬分析表-主控式頻寬分配 84
表6-9 頻寬分析表-動態頻寬調整 85
表6-10 傳送數量分析表-主控式頻寬分配 87
表6-11 傳送數量分析表-動態頻寬調整 88
表6-12 traffic中斷模擬參數表-2 91
表6-13 β值的影響模擬參數表 99
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