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研究生(外文):Tsui-ju Huang
論文名稱(外文):The Evolution of Fan Kingdom: The Rising, Expansion, and Challenges of Human Brands
指導教授(外文):Chi-tsun Huang
外文關鍵詞:depth interviewJay Chouhuman brandidentification process
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過去有關品牌認同之研究大多以一般消費品牌或奢侈品牌為起點,探討消費者與其喜愛品牌之間的關係與認同感。然而,企業在建構其品牌權益的過程中,許多的行銷活動都是以人物,特別是以偶像明星來做為消費者與其品牌之間的連結橋樑。儘管偶像明星是否能成功的扮演此一角色,偶像明星本身亦為一人物品牌,具廣大的市場價值,且消費者對偶像明星品牌之認同感亦是最容易直接觀察到。再者,消費者的認同過程乃一動態過程而非靜態現象,傳統橫斷面的量化分析亦有其不足之處。因此,本研究以質性研究為出發點,藉由深度訪談14位具有強烈忠誠度與熱忱的消費者,分別檢視其對偶像明星品牌周杰倫的認識經驗與認同過程,旨在發掘消費者如何從一般消費者轉變成為具有高度熱忱的歌迷,以及這些高度熱忱的歌迷如何反應與看待該偶像明星事業版圖的擴張與挑戰。同時,在此動態過程中,本研究亦探討消費者在維持理想自我與不同社會認定的選擇之下,不同群體(群體內與群體間)對其所造成的干擾現象。本研究共提出五個研究問題:(1)消費者如何變成具有高度熱忱的粉絲? (2)當其喜愛的偶像明星品牌版圖持續向外擴張時,忠誠粉絲是如何看待與行動? (3)當其喜愛的偶像明星品牌面臨來自外界與內部的批評與挑戰時,粉絲又會採取什麼樣的因應對策? (4)忠誠的粉絲都是同質性的嗎? 亦或可以再進一步予以區分? (5) 隨著時間的經過,偶像明星的迷國度將會如何演化?研究結果發現,高度忠誠的粉絲並非都是同質的,也絕非如一般大眾所認為的會無條件的包容、接納該偶像明星的所作所為。相反地,高度熱忱的粉絲是可以更進一步予以區分。而不同類型的粉絲在面臨該偶像明星事業的版圖擴張與挑戰時,亦會有不同的反應與因應對策,因而造成迷國度版圖的持續縮小或擴大,端視不同力量的大小而定。另外,本研究亦發現,消費者對偶像明星品牌的認同過程中,對偶像明星的最初認知雖然是影響消費者成為粉絲的關鍵,但並非固定不變,而是會受到許多因素的干擾,進而決定消費者成為哪一類的熱忱粉絲。
The need to further understand human brands has retained much attention both in marketing practice and academic research for their great value to the organizations either as the bridge to other inanimate brands or as the target of communication effort per se. By doing intensive depth interviews with 14 devoted fans of a famous Taiwanese pop singer in a qualitative manner along with content analysis of messages from online fan clubs, this research sets out to illuminate how devoted fans contribute to the rising of a human brand, and how they react to various marketing activities. Five main research questions emergent in this research are (1) how does a consumer turn into a devoted fan? (2) how does a devoted fan react to the expansion of a human brand (3) what kind of strategies does a devoted fan take in the face of challenges encountered by a human brand? (4) are devoted fans homogeneous or can they be further divided into different subgroups? and (5) as time passes by, how does a fan kingdom evolve over time and how do fans’ attachments to a certain human brand influenced by social forces—parents, fan peers, non-fan peers, media and by marketing activities of organizations—in the process of socialization, and under enlightenment of the self identity? Using the metaphor of kingdom to parallel the phenomenon of fandom, the research also explicates the importance of initial brand position, and the construction and expansion from the core castle—the core positioning of the human brand—to become a kingdom where devoted fans swear to be loyal to the human brand and cross-buy the derivative products of the latter.
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Research Background
1.2 Purpose of the Study
1.3 Research Process
Chapter 2 Literature Review
2.1 Celebrity Adoration
2.1.1 What is a celebrity and how is a celebrity created and viewed?
2.1.2 Celebrities as human brands
2.1.3 Positive outcomes of celebrity adoration
2.2 Consumer-Human Brand Relationships
2.3 Consumer Devotion and Fandom
2.4 Social Identity and Identification Process
2.4.1 Identity vs. Identification
2.4.2 Why is identification worth further studying?
2.4.3 The Psychological State of Social Identity
Chapter 3 Methodology
3.1 Grounded Theory
3.1.1 Open Coding
3.1.2 Axial Coding
3.1.3 Selective Coding
3.1.4 Application of Scientific Software
3.2 Hierarchical Cluster Analysis
3.3 Research Site-Jay Chou
3.4 The Stakeholders of Jay’s Fandom
3.5 Informants
3.6 Interview Process
Chapter 4 Research Findings
4.1 Informant Information
4.2 Capital Endowment
4.3 The Configuration of a Fan Kingdom
4.3.1 The Initial Positioning of the Human Brand-The Center Holds
4.3.2 The Reinforcement and Amendment of the Initial Perceptions
4.3.3 The Expansion of the Fan Kingdom
4.3.4 The Challenges of the Fan Kingdom
4.3.5 Classification of Devoted Fans
4.4 The Evolution of Fan Kingdom
4.5 Theoretical Framework
Chapter 5 Conclusion
5.1 General Discussion
5.1.1 Heterogeneous Devoted Fans
5.1.2 The Reinforcement and Amendment of the Initial Perceptions
5.1.3 Critical Devoted Fans
5.1.4 The Evolution of Fan Kingdom
5.2 Managerial Implication
5.3 Limitation and Recommendation for Future Study
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
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