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研究生:翁幸瑜
研究生(外文):UENG, SHING-YU
論文名稱:德語學習者線上與非線上自我調控學習與學習成效之比較研究
指導教授:王政彥王政彥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wang, Cheng-Yen
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:成人教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:成人教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:296
中文關鍵詞:自我調控學習德語學習成人學生線上學習學習成效
外文關鍵詞:self-regulated learningGerman learningadult learneronline learninglearning effect
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全球化和e世代催化了知識社會的來臨,傳統面對面外語教學勢必得在因應新學習典範的變革中找尋出路,除了促使教學方式、學習情境有所突破和更新之外,實踐以學習者為主體的教學本質和提升學習成效的教學目的皆是重要的努力方向。本研究旨在探究和比較德語學習者透過線上與非線上學習,其自我調控學習素養之運用以及對德語學習成效之影響。提出五個研究目的分別為:(一)分析和比較不同背景變項的德語學習者在自我調控學習之情形。(二) 瞭解與比較線上與非線上不同學習型態的德語學習者在自我調控學習之差異情況。(三) 探討和比較線上與非線上學習對於德語學習成效的影響。(四) 分析不同背景變項之德語學習者其自我調控學習與德語學習成效的關係。(五) 剖析線上與非線上學習在自我調控學習與德語學習成效之關係。
本研究主要採用準實驗研究法、輔以質性訪談法來探討所欲解決的相關問
題。為期十六週之實驗設計採準實驗前、後測,以立意取樣選取南部某學院之日夜間部學生,由研究者擔任兩組的教學者,規劃兩種不同學習環境學習德語,一為學習管理系統之教學平台所提供之線上學習環境,線上學習的為成人學生,視為實驗組。另一組在傳統教室進行,對象為傳統學生,採用講述法。本實驗研究資料蒐集的來源以「成人自我調控學習量表」為量化資料主要來源,德語檢定考之學習前後測成績為學習成效之量化評定依據。量性資料以SPSS for Windows 10.0 進行資料分析,並以描述性統計分析、 t檢定、卡方檢定、單因子變異數分析、共變數分析、雙因子變異數分析和二因子多變量變異數分析等統計方法進行資料處理。質性資料的蒐集主要來源為訪談內容,並以教學過程的觀察日誌與學習紀錄、作業內容等資料為參考依據。
本研究從自我調控學習狀況、不同背景變項在自我調控學習差異、線上與非線上在德語學習成效比較以及不同背景變項、不同學習型態與自我調控學習對學習成效之差異四層面進行結果分析與比較,並依據二十五項研究發現,羅列出之以下結論為:

壹、受試者在自我調控學習素養呈現不同程度之表現
一、德語學習者之自我調控學習素養中以學習的自我概念表現最弱
二、線上德語學習者在「學習自我激勵」優於非線上德語學習者
三、 非線上德語學習者在學習過程的改進、學習內容的掌握、學習資料的
搜尋能力優於線上德語學習者,受德語先備知識差異的影響
四、德語學習者因部分社會與心理背景變項之差異而影響自我調控學習素養
(一) 年齡越大其學習的自我激勵能力越高
(二) 不同職業與其渠等自我調控學習素養有密切的關係
(三) 學習媒介偏好對「學習的自我激勵」方面有所影響
(四) 成人德語學習者的學習動機是多元,且工具性動機強於統合性動機
(五) 傳統學生統合性和內在的多元動機強度比成人學生高
五、對語言有興趣、欲瞭解他國文化、提升職場競爭力的德語學習動機與自我調
控學習有顯著正相關,而因成績不足被迫學習德語的動機和自我調控學習呈
現負相關。
貳、德語學習成效方面
一、有效運用教學設計和多元化教學元素有助於學習成效之提升
二、線上學習有助於德語聽力和整體學習成效的增進
三、影響文法、寫作、閱讀學習成效的因素
(一)過度依賴文法規則會阻礙學習成效之進步空間
(二)寫作要獲得成效,必須長期增進其練習、表達和溝通交流的機會
(三) 閱讀學習成效取決於德語先備知識、主動態度和搜尋能力
四、影響線上與非線上德語學習成效的因素
(一) 結合科技元素和多元教學法的功能與影響
(二) 善用線上學習環境可影響並提升成人學習者在德語之學習成效
(三) 自我調控學習能力在提升德語學習成效扮演重要的角色
(四) 自我調控學習是穩定的心理特質和長期的心理現象,短期改變有其難度
綜合以上研究之主要發現與結論,分別對德語學習者、德語教學者、對辦理第二外語線上教學單位和對未來研究提出一些具體之建議。
With the coming of globalization and E-era, the e-Learning has been prospered and become one of the major training methods which emphasized by educational divisions. And to enhance Taiwan’s connection to the world and compete on an international scale, improving one’s foreign language ability has become particularly important.
This research aimed to examine and compare the influences of online learning environment for adult German learners with college students in traditional teaching among Self-regulated Learning and Learning Effects. The purposes of this research included: (1) examine and compare the situations of German learners on Self-directed Learning according to their demographic statistics and psychological variables; (2) reveal and compare the situations of German learners on self-regulated learning in online learning and traditional face-to-face learning; (3) compare the influences and providing the information and feedback of Online Instruction for adult German learners with traditional teaching to college students among German learning effects of reading, grammar, listening and writing; (4) Analyzing Self-regulated Learning and German Learning Effects according to German learners’ demographic statistics and psychological variables; (5) explore and investigate the relationship between self-regulated learning and learning effects of German learners during the process of online learning and face-to-face learning.
After profoundly examining the essential conceptions, methodology, implementation, related issues, literature review, and data collecting of the Self-regulated learning, Online Learning, German language learning and Second Language Instruction, this research designed the online and traditional face-to-face curriculum and then began to practice the curriculum for the College of foreign languages of continuing and extending division and daytime division in southern Taiwan. Furthermore, this research conducted a quasi-experimental experiment with pre-test and post-test format. The participants in this study were divided into two groups, the Control and Experimental groups, over 16 weeks, of German tourism instruction by the same teacher. The teaching program was the same for both groups. The difference consisted in applying asynchronous online learning management system for the experimented group to conduct their learning activities, while those in the control group received the traditional teacher-directed instruction.
The main research tools for quantitative analysis included “Adult Self-Regulated Learning Scale ”, “ Zertifikat Deutsch- the German examination refer to the European Framework (CEF) of Reference for Languages.”, and “Learning Management System Wisdom Master 2.4”. SPSS10.0 for Windows was conducted with the purpose of compiling and analyzing the statistics. The data were analyzed statistically by using Descriptive statistics, T-test, Chi-Square test, one-way ANOVA, two-way ANOVA, ANCOVA , and two-way MANOVA. The Qualitative analysis is based on the interviews, the field notes of the researcher’s observation during the 16-weeks-teaching process, the learning logs and assignments from the students.
According the major findings, the research has drawn the following conclusions:
1. About the self-regulated learning literacy of German learners:
(1) German learners have shown an above average in the performance of self-regulated learning literacy and capability, but the positive self-concept of learning should be promoted.
(2) German learners of the online course have better performances in self-encouragement of learning as those on the face-to-face course.
(3) Under the influence of divergence previous knowledge, German learners on the offline course have better performances in improving learning process, understanding learning contents and searching learning materials.
(4) The findings revealed that some demographic statistics and psychological variables of adult German learners’ had significant influences on Self-regulated Learning.
2. About the German learning effects:
(1) Applying diversified instructional methods and technological elements can foster and enhance positive German learning outcome.
(2)After one semester of applying online teaching, adult German learners made great progress on German listening and the overall learning outcomes.
(3) The positive and negative elements and reasons which influence German learning effects through online and offline learning were also explored.
(4) Barrier free to aim for providing more online learning resources can provide students a convenient German learning environment without restrictions of time and space.
According to the above findings and conclusions, this study has made some suggestions for German learner, German teachers, the overall agencies, educational divisions or authorities which offer online foreign languages courses . In addition, this study gives some insights into continuing study of self-regulated learning within second foreign language and online learning, also poises for even further expansion on the research objects, research variables, online Instruction for Second foreign language and research subjects.
謝誌 ………………………………………………………………………………… i
中文摘要…………………………………………………………………………… iii
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………………… v
目次 ………………………………………………………………………………… vii
表次 ………………………………………………………………………………… x
圖次 ………………………………………………………………………………… xiii
第一章 緒論……………………………………………………………………1
第一節 研究背景與重要性 ………………………………………… 1
第二節 研究動機與目的 …………………………………………… 4
第三節 研究問題與方法 …………………………………………… 7
第四節 名詞釋義 …………………………………………………… 8
第五節 研究範圍與限制 …………………………………………… 10
第二章 文獻探討 …………………………………………………………… 13
第一節 自我調控學習之意涵、理論、背景變項和相關研究……… 13
第二節 線上與非線上學習之比較 ………………………………… 32
第三節 線上學習與自我調控學習關係之探析 …………………… 49
第四節 自我調控學習與學習成效關係之探究 …………………… 51
第五節 成人第二外語學習與其理論基礎 ………………………… 54
第三章 研究設計與實施 ………………………………………………… 69
第一節 研究架構與方法 …………………………………………… 69
第二節 研究假設 …………………………………………………… 72
第三節 研究對象 …………………………………………………… 73
第四節 研究工具 …………………………………………………… 84
第五節 教學實驗與實施 …………………………………………… 93
第六節 研究實施與資料處理 ……………………………………… 110


第四章 結果分析與討論 ………………………………………………… 117
第一節 線上與非線上不同學習型態和不同背景變項之德語學習
者在自我調控學習之分析與討論 ………………………… 117
第二節 線上與非線上學習對德語學習成效的影響 ……………… 154
第三節 受試者之背景變項與自我調控學習對德語學習成效之差異分析 ……………………………………………………… 182
第四節 線上與非線上學習和自我調控學習交互作用對德
語學習成效之差異分析 ……………………………………
190
第五章 結論與建議………………………………………………………… 197
第一節 主要研究發現 ……………………………………………… 197
第二節 結論 ………………………………………………………… 200
第三節 建議 ………………………………………………………… 209
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………………… 218
中文部分……………………………………………………………… 218
英文部分……………………………………………………………… 222
德文部分………………………………………………………………
附錄……………………………………………………………………… 240
243
附錄一 本研究國內外自我調控學習相關研究文獻摘要表……………
附錄二 歐洲語言通用規範架構:學習、教學與評量……………………… 243
251
附錄三 歐洲外語能力檢定範疇………………………………………… 252
附錄四 研究工具…………………………………………………………
壹、成人自我調控學習調查問卷…………………………………… 253
253
貳、參與研究與訪談同意書………………………………………… 256
參、實驗組學生Agnes訪談逐字稿………………………………… 257
肆、「成人自我調控學習量表」授權同意書………………………… 265
伍、德語檢定考考題………………………………………………… 266
陸、德語檢定考項目說明以及評分標準…………………………… 276
柒、訪談大綱………………………………………………………… 278
附錄五 課程內容與教學活動實施………………………………………
壹、線上課程內容簡介 …………………………………………… 279
279
貳、觀光德文課程自我學習記錄表………………………………… 280
參、教材架構與各單元配置表……………………………………… 282
肆、Producer軟體製成之線上單元教學…………………………… 284
伍、購物和問路主題單元之影片教學……………………………… 284
陸、線上單元學習活動指引………………………………………… 285
柒、線上情境教學示範……………………………………………… 287
捌、購物須知教學單元……………………………………………… 287
玖、德文單字一覽表………………………………………………… 288
拾、線上作業繳交區………………………………………………… 289
拾壹、線上議題討論…………………………………………………… 289
拾貳、線上課程討論區………………………………………………… 290
拾參、實用網站………………………………………………………… 291
拾肆、練習與成果測驗………………………………………………… 293
拾伍、線上計時測驗…………………………………………………… 293
拾陸、BBC自學網站…………………………………………………… 294
附錄六 線上成人學生寫給老師的一則感言…………………………… 295

表次

表2-1-1 本研究國內自我調控學習相關研究文獻摘要表 ………… 20
表2-1-2 本研究國外自我調控學習相關研究文獻摘要表 ………… 24
表2-2-1 傳統教室與虛擬教室環境比較 …………………………… 35
表2-2-2 傳統教學與線上教學之特性與差異 ……………………… 36
表3-3-1 研究對象之人數 …………………………………………… 73
表3-3-2 研究對象背景資料一覽表 ………………………………… 74
表3-3-3 受訪者背景資料一覽表 …………………………………… 82
表3-3-4 受訪者學習狀況一覽表 …………………………………… 83
表3-4-1 「成人自我調控學習量表」項目分析結果摘要表………… 86
表3-4-2 「成人自我調控學習量表」因素分析結果摘要表………… 87
表3-4-3 「成人自我調控學習量表」Cronbach’s α值…………… 88
表3-5-1 準實驗不等組前後測設計 ………………………………… 94
表3-5-2 九十四學年度第二學期德文系觀光德文課程教學綱要 … 96
表3-5-3 單元教學活動設計表 --「單元名稱:購物與退稅」……… 104
表3-5-4 本研究傳統教室與線上學習環境之學習行為比較表 …… 109
表4-1-1 研究對象基本資料分析摘要表 …………………………… 120
表4-1-2 線上德語學習者之「自我調控學習」現況分析摘要表…… 121
表4-1-3 非線上德語學習者之「自我調控學習」現況分析摘要表… 122
表4-1-4 實驗組與對照組在「自我調控學習」之差異分析摘要表… 123
表4-1-5 不同性別的德語學習者在自我調控學習上之差異分析摘要表…………………………………………………………
124
表4-1-6 不同年齡的德語學習者在自我調控學習量表各構面之變異數分析摘要表……………………………………………
126
表4-1-7 不同職業的德語學習者在自我調控學習量表各構面之變異數分析摘要表……………………………………………
128
表4-1-8 有無國外旅遊經驗的德語學習者在自我調控學習上之差異分析摘要表………………………………………………
129
表4-1-9 不同課外學習途徑與自我調控學習之卡方檢定摘要表 … 131
表4-1-10 德語學習者在學習媒介的運用偏好對自我調控學習之差異分析摘要表………………………………………………
132
表4-1-11不同電腦使用經驗的德語學習者在自我調控學習上之差異分析摘要表…………………………………………………
133
表4-1-12 不同學習動機與自我調控學習素養之卡方檢定摘要表… 135
表4-1-13 不同學習型態與背景變項之德語學習者在自我調控學習之差異綜合摘要表…………………………………………
表 4-1-14 實驗組與對照組的德語學習動機摘要表…………………
表 4-1-15 不同學習動機之德語學習者在自我調控學習之卡方檢定摘要表………………………………………………………
表4-2-1 線上與非線上德語學習成效前測與後測各項分數比較表.
137
147

150
155
表4-2-2 實驗組與對照組在德語學習成效前測之差異考驗........ 157
表4-2-3 實驗組與對照組在德語學習成效後測之差異考驗........ 157
表4-2-4 實驗組與對照組在德語學習進步分數之差異考驗....... 157
表4-2-5 實驗組與對照組兩組德語能力之迴歸係數同質性考驗 … 158
表4-2-6 線上與非線上在德語學習成效各層面與整體共變數分析摘要表………………………………………………………
158
表4-2-7 線上與非線上德語學習成效前測與後測摘要表 ………… 159
表4-3-1 不同背景變項與自我調控學習在德語學習成效整體交互作用檢核摘要表……………………………………………
183
表4-3-2 性別與自我調控學習素養在德語學習成效之雙因子變異數分析摘要表………………………………………………
184
表4-3-3 性別、自我調控學習在德語學習成效總分估計邊緣平均數之摘要表……………………………………………………
184
表4-3-4 年齡和自我調控學習素養在德語學習成效之雙因子變異數分析摘要表………………………………………………
表4-3-5 年齡和自我調控學習素養在德語學習成效總分估計邊緣平均數之摘要表……………………………………………
185
185
表4-3-6 職業和自我調控學習在德語學習成效之雙因子變異數分摘要表………………………………………………………
186
表4-3-7 職業、自我調控學習在德語學習成效總分估計邊緣平均數之摘要表……………………………………………………
187
表4-4-1 線上學習與非線上學習和自我調控學習在德語學習成效整體與各層面交互作用檢核摘要表………………………
190
表4-4-2 線上與非線上學習、自我調控學習在德語聽力學習成效二因子細格平均數摘要表……………………………………
191
表4-4-3 線上與非線上學習和自我調控學習在德語聽力之學習成效之單純主要變異數分析表………………………………
192
表4-4-4 自我調控學習在學習成效整體和各層面之單因子變異數分析摘要表…………………………………………………
193
表4-4-5 研究假設摘要表 ………………………………………
196

圖次

圖 3-1-1 本研究架構圖……………………………………………… 69
圖 3-4-1 本實驗線上學習環境:智慧大師網路教學平台…………… 90
圖 3-5-1 本研究準實驗流程圖……………………………………… 94
圖 3-5-2 線上教材製作架構圖……………………………………… 98
圖 3-5-3 線上隨選視訊課程目錄…………………………………… 101
圖 3-6-1 本研究實施流程圖………………………………………… 111
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