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研究生:方祈翔
研究生(外文):Chi-Hsiang Fang
論文名稱:在無線感測網路上基於節點組之負載平衡叢集式架構協定
論文名稱(外文):A Power-Efficient Protocol Based on Node-set and Load-Balanced in Cluster-Based Wireless Sensor Networks
指導教授:黃天佑黃天佑引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tien-Yu Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東教育大學
系所名稱:資訊科學系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:65
中文關鍵詞:無線感測網路網路存活時間叢集式架構節點組。
外文關鍵詞:Wireless sensor networkNetwork lifetimeCluster-basedNode-set.
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在無線感測網路(Wireless Sensor Network, WSN)中每個無線感測器均搭載受限之電池電量,因此無線感測網路運作時所遭遇最大瓶頸即為如何運用有限之網路電力資源以達成延長網路運作時間。然而目前針對有效運用無線感測網路中無線感測器之能量主要著眼於以下三方面:(1) 路由(Routing Method) (2) 資料聚合(Data Aggregation or Data Fusion) (3) 節點休眠機制(Sleep-Wakeup)。
由於無線感測網路主要應用於在特定區域佈署大數量之無線感測器,然而在密度增加的情形之下,無線感測器間的監測與傳輸範圍便很有可能相互重疊,故網路中構成節點組(Node-Set)的機率亦相對提高,因此本論文根據節點組為概念,意即將數個單一節點組合成為節點組使其擁有較多電力資源可供應用,且令節點組成為叢集式架構中之叢集領導(Cluster-head)的角色,結合叢集式架構協定中節點休眠機制與節點組中節點之切換,以力求減低網路重組次數;再者,在傳輸資料過程結合資料聚合之技術,達到延長網路生命週期;最後,輔以建置一負載平衡之叢集式無線感測網路,藉以達成有效延長整體網路運作時間。最終,使用本論文所提出之協定與先前數個具代表性之無線感測網路協定進行模擬實驗,進而證實本論文所提出之協定能夠有效延長整體網路生命週期。
Each sensor node equips with limited battery power in wireless sensor network (WSN). Hence, the most important issue of the protocol in WSN is how to economize on power consumption at each node to prolong the network lifetime. The previous proposed protocols mainly focus on how to use the power efficiently at each node in a WSN as follows: (1) Routing method, (2) Data aggregation or data fusion, (3) Sleep and wake-up mechanism at each node.
There are a large number of sensor nodes deployed and applied to the specific area in a WSN, however, some nodes are deployed close to each other and the sensing area of some nodes may overlay in a scenario when the density of nodes is cumulative; and further, the probability of forming the node set increases relatively. In this thesis, we propose the concept of node sets whose meaning is making several single node up to become node sets which have more power resources can be used. In our approach, let one of these nodes in node sets stay on working state and the others go into sleeping state; and further, a node set has the responsibility to be a cluster head in cluster-based sensor network in order to reduce the number of times of the sensor network to be reorganized. Furthermore, we use the data aggregation to avoid unnecessary transmission and compress the size of total transmitted packet sizes. Finally, we construct a load-balanced sensor network with the number of cluster members to lengthen the network lifetime of WSN. We analyze our protocol by simulation. According to the result, our protocol shows some good performance.
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
致謝 iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 ix
第一章 緒論 1
1.1無線感測網路之現況 1
1.1.1 無線感測網路之簡介 1
1.1.2 無線感測器之元件簡介 2
1.1.3 無線感測網路協定之架構(Protocol Stack) 4
1.2 無線感測網路相關應用 5
1.3 研究動機 7
1.4 研究流程 8
1.5 論文架構 10
第二章 文獻探討 11
2.1 無線感測網路相關觀點及運作環境之假設 11
2.1.1 無線感測網路設計之影響因素 11
2.1.2 無線感測網路相關觀點 15
2.2 無線感測網路之電力消耗模式 16
2.3 資料聚合(Data Aggregation) 18
2.4 感測節點與節點彙聚點(Sink Node)之通訊方式 20
2.5 多重存取(Multiple Access)技術 22
2.6 節點組之組成說明 24
第三章 基於節點組之負載平衡叢集式架構協定 25
3.1常見之路由協定 25
3.1.1 Flooding 26
3.1.2 Gossiping 28
3.1.3 Sensor Protocol for Information VIA Negotiation (SPIN) 28
3.1.4 Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) 29
3.1.5 Power-Efficient Gathering in Sensor Information System(PEGASIS) 31
3.1.6 Power Efficient Data Gathering and Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks(PEDAP) 31
3.2定義本研究探討之問題 33
3.3 演算法流程 34
3.3.1初始階段 36
3.3.2 穩定狀態階段 38
3.3.3 轉傳階段 39
3.3.4確認叢集重組階段 40
第四章 效能分析 42
4.1 模擬環境規劃 42
4.2模擬結果與分析 43
4.2.1運作回合數(Round time) 43
4.2.2 封包傳送成功率(Packet trans success rate) 48
第五章 結論與未來展望 50
5.1 結論……… 50
5.2 未來展望 50
參考文獻 51
中文文獻
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[2]趙燿庚/沈冠毅,新通訊元件雜誌,無線感測技術競賽起跑功耗/節點數/價格為致勝關鍵,2006.11。
http://203.66.123.22/nc/magazine/magazine_article.asp?Id=1335
英文文獻
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[17]Chun-Chien Chan, Tai-Ku Woo, “The Survey of Data Aggregation Techniques in Wireless Sensor Networks: Current Approaches and Future Directions”, in Proc International Conference of Digital Technology and Innovation Management, pp.1105-1126 , 2006.
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