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研究生:歐建甫
研究生(外文):Chien-Fu Ou
論文名稱:無線感測網路中節點後置佈署之方法設計
論文名稱(外文):An Energy-Efficient Post-deployment Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks
指導教授:王朱福
指導教授(外文):Chu-Fu Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東教育大學
系所名稱:資訊科學系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:63
中文關鍵詞:無線感測網路拓樸結構控制節點佈署網路存活時間
外文關鍵詞:wireless sensor network、topology control、node deployment、network lifetime
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近年來由於無線裝置的使用漸趨多元,使得無線通訊技術進步的速度快速的提升,其中無線感測網路(WSN)便是近來新興的一種無線網路領域。無線感測網路是由數百甚至數千個感測器節點所組成,它們被佈署於一特定之感測區域內進行監控的任務。感測器是一種體積小、造價便宜且攜帶著有限能量的電池之裝置。它們可以進行特定物理量(如:溫度、濕度以及壓力)之收集並偵測異常事件的發生(如:森林火災)。由於感測器節點只攜帶著有限電力之電池,因此在執行數次的任務監測以及通訊之後,部分感測器節點就有可能會耗光電力,進而使得WSN死亡。一般而言,我們可以佈署新的感測器節點到WSN中以延長其存活時間,此種方法稱為節點後置佈署,而如何預測節點佈署的最佳位置使得存活時間得以達到最大的延長則是一個重要的探討議題。我們將此一問題模擬為一網路最佳化的問題稱為OCSPP(Optimal Cluster Set Post-deployment Problem)。此外,我們亦提出一MELNPA(Minimum Expectation of Lifetime Node Prediction Algorithm)演算法來做最佳佈署位置之預測。根據實驗模擬成果,此一演算法在延長網路存活時間上比起傳統的佈署方法有不錯的表現。
Due to recent technological advances and many comprehensive wireless devices usages are proposed in diverse scopes, it gives an impetus to increase the developing speed in wireless communication technology. One of the new growing fields of wireless computer networks in recent years is Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). A WSN is consisting of hundreds or thousands of sensor nodes that are usually scattered in a certain area to perform monitoring tasks. The sensor nodes are low-cost, are equipped with limited battery power and small size devices. Besides, they can monitor specific measurement data (e.g. temperature, humidity, and pressure) to detect abnormal events (e.g. a forest fire). Since the sensors only equipped limited battery power, thus after performing several rounds of monitoring and communication tasks, some of the sensor nodes’ power may be exhausted, which will cause the WSN die. Generally, we can deploy additional new sensor nodes to extend WSN’s lifetime. This method is called a post-deployment. The problem of how to forecast the best positions for deployment such that the network lifetime will be extended most becomes an important issue. We formulated the above problem as a network optimization problem called the Optimal Cluster Set Post-deployment Problem (OCSPP). And we proposed a Minimum Expectation of Lifetime Node Prediction Algorithm (MELNPA) to forecast the best sensor node deployment location. From our simulation, the performance of MELNPA is better than other conventional algorithms in prolonging the WSN’s lifetime.
致謝…………………………………………………………………………………………………I
摘要………………………………………………………………………………………………II
Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………III
目錄………………………………………………………………………………………………IV
圖目錄……………………………………………………………………………………………VI
表目錄…………………………………………………………………………………………VIII
第一章 緒論……………………………………………………………………………………1
1.1 無線感測網路之特性……………………………………………………………………1
1.2 無線感測網路之硬體架構………………………………………………………………2
1.3 無線感測網路之電力模式………………………………………………………………3
1.4 無線感測網路之應用……………………………………………………………………5
1.5 無線感測網路之相關系統設計議題……………………………………………………7
1.6 研究動機…………………………………………………………………………………10
第二章 文獻探討………………………………………………………………………………12
2.1 無線網路路由技術………………………………………………………………………12
2.1.1 表格驅動式路由………………………………………………………………………12
2.1.2 需求式路由……………………………………………………………………………13
2.1.3 電力感知路由…………………………………………………………………………13
2.1.4 位置感知路由…………………………………………………………………………14
2.2 拓樸控制…………………………………………………………………………………15
2.2.1 前置佈署階段…………………………………………………………………………16
2.2.2 網路運行階段…………………………………………………………………………18
2.2.3 後置佈署階段…………………………………………………………………………19


第三章 問題模型………………………………………………………………………………20
3.1 基本假設…………………………………………………………………………………20
3.2 問題定義…………………………………………………………………………………20
第四章 解決方法………………………………………………………………………………23
4.1 靜態路由和動態路由……………………………………………………………………23
4.2 靜態路由之解決方法……………………………………………………………………24
4.2.1 靜態路由方法例子-最短路徑路由法………………………………………………24
4.2.2 解決方法MELNPA-static……………………………………………………………26
4.2.3 靜態路由中,利用MELPA-static預測叢集節點佈署之實例……………………28
4.3 動態路由之解決方法……………………………………………………………………30
4.3.1 動態路由方法例子-最大負載路徑法.......................……………30
4.3.2 解決方法MELNPA-dynamic…………………………………………………………32
4.3.3 動態路由中,利用MELPA-dynamic預測叢集節點佈署之實例……………………33
4.4 後置佈署機制………………………………………………………………………………37
第五章 模擬結果及效能分析…………………………………………………………………38
5.1 模擬環境與參數設定……………………………………………………………………38
5.2 比較方法及評估參數……………………………………………………………………39
5.3 模擬結果與分析…………………………………………………………………………40
5.3.1 在靜態路由環境之模擬成果…………………………………………………………41
5.3.2 在動態路由環境之模擬成果…………………………………………………………44
第六章 結論與未來發展………………………………………………………………………48
6.1結論…………………………………………………………………………………………48
6.2未來發展……………………………………………………………………………………48
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………………………………49
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