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研究生:林浚清
研究生(外文):Lin Chun-Ching
論文名稱:高效率對焦技術應用於積層電容厚度之量測
論文名稱(外文):A High Efficient Auto-Focusing Technique Applied to Depth Measurement of Multi-Layer Ceramic Capacitor
指導教授:林宜弘林宜弘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-Hong Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:機械工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:57
中文關鍵詞:自動對焦技術精密光學伺服技術視覺檢測平台
外文關鍵詞:auto focusing techniquedepth measurementmachinevision
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本文為應用發展高效率對焦技術應用於非接觸性積層電容厚度之量測,以機器視覺之自動對焦技術(Auto-Focusing)與精密光學伺服控制結合之厚度量測系統。我們利用雙CCD攝影機的量測理念,即利用低倍率CCD測出積層電容的位置,建立低倍率CCD與高倍率CCD之相對位置,然後將積層電容精準的移到高倍率CCD下利用Z軸所架設之精密光學尺進行自動取像對焦,找出最佳對焦位置,讀取在Z軸所架設精密光學尺的位置值,最後計算此位置距離檢測平台高度。
本系統目前可一次量測25顆以內的積層電容,量測單顆時間為7秒,可用於大量及大批的量測,經由實際量測實驗後,系統之重現性可達0.02mm,準確性達到0.033mm,可以達到業界所要求,增進量測時的便利及縮短量測時間與人力資源。
This study developed a high efficient auto-focusing measurement system for depth measurement of multi-layer ceramic capacitor. This measuring system integrates auto-focusing vision-based technique with a precise moving X-Y stage. Especially, dual video cameras are used to locate sample position and measure sample depth respectively. One CCD with low magnification rate take a wide field for position-searching, while another CCD with high magnification rate take a micro field for depth-measuring. The principle of depth measurement make use of auto-focusing technique by precise optical scale built on the Z axis of stage to find out the optimal focusing position.
The system is able to measure 25 numbers of multi-layer ceramic capacitors at one batch. The measuring time costs only 7 seconds per chip. Therefore, it is applied in large quantities of measurement. After the experiment of practical measurement, the measuring reproducibility reaches 0.02mm and its accuracy to 0.033mm, which all measurement ability meet the demands of practical field. Eventually, this developed measuring system can shorten the time of measurement and decrease human resource, as well as bring them more convenience.
摘要....................................................................................................................I
Abstract ..........................................................................................................III
誌謝.................................................................................................................V
目錄.................................................................................................................VI
表目錄...........................................................................................................IX
圖目錄..........................................................................................................X
第一章 緒論.................................................................................................1
1.1 研究背景與動機..............................................................................1
1.2 陶瓷電容器之發展及分類..............................................................2
1.3 積層電容MLCC製程.....................................................................4
第二章 文獻回顧.........................................................................................9
2.1雷射量測技術....................................................................................9
2.2 CCD視覺量測技術..........................................................................9
2.3對焦技術............................................................................................9
2.3.1主動式自動對焦技術.............................................................10
2.3.2被動式自動對焦技術.............................................................10
2.3.3變焦測深技術.........................................................................10
第三章 研究方法.......................................................................................12
3.1積層電容2.5D量測原理.................................................................12
3.1.1量測項目.................................................................................14
3.1.2量測流程.................................................................................15
3.2 軟硬體系統說明............................................................................15
3.3 使用物品規格及功能....................................................................16
3.3.1檢測軟體.................................................................................20
3.3.2 軟體流程...............................................................................20
第四章 影像處理.......................................................................................23
4.1 影像處理技術................................................................................23
4.1.1 影像分割...............................................................................23
4.1.2 灰階..........................................................................23
4.1.3 二值化......................................................................25
4.1.4 連結體標示...........................................................................27
4.1.5 影像侵蝕...............................................................................30
4.1.6 圖框處理...............................................................................30
4.1.7 次像素...................................................................................30
4.2 低倍率鏡頭CCD1 校正...............................................................34
4.3高倍率鏡頭CCD2 校正.................................................................38
4.4 雙CCD 相對位置關係的校正......................................................39
4.5量測高度的工作平面(Seating plane)之校正.................................40
4.6 四種清晰運算法.........................................................……….......42
4.6.1影像拉普拉斯能量…...............................................................42
4.6.2最大梯度值…...........................................................................43
4.6.3變異數.......................................................................................43
4.6.4 相關係數法.............................................................................44
第五章 實驗結果與討論….......................................................................45
5.1自動對焦量測結果..........................................................................45
5.2 積層電容量測結果........................................................................49
5.3量測人員穩定性..............................................................................50
5.4系統穩定性分析..............................................................................51
第六章 結論與建議...................................................................................53
6.1結論..................................................................................................53
6.2 建議................................................................................................54
參考文獻.........................................................................................................55
作者簡介.........................................................................................................57



表目錄
表3-1 歩進馬達規格表...............................................................................16
表3-2 步進馬達驅動器規格表...................................................................17
表3-3 影像擷取卡規格表...........................................................................17
表3-4 光學尺規格表...................................................................................18
表3-5 CCD規格表.......................................................................................19
表3-6 低倍數鏡頭規格表...........................................................................19
表3-7 高倍數鏡頭規格表...........................................................................20
表5-1 測高實驗結果...................................................................................47
表5-2 重現性數據.......................................................................................48
表5-3 準確性數據.......................................................................................48
表5-4 重現性數據.......................................................................................49
表5-5 準確性數據.......................................................................................50
表5-6 量測積層電容之穩定性分析表…...................................................51
表5-7 量測積層電容重現性.......................................................................51







圖目錄
圖1-1 多層陶瓷電容器積層方式與構造圖.................................................3
圖1-2 積層電容製造流程圖.........................................................................4
圖1-3 塗工頭示意圖.....................................................................................5
圖1-4 積層電容積層示意圖.........................................................................5
圖1-5 倒角示意圖.........................................................................................7
圖1-6 沾頭示意圖.........................................................................................7
圖1-7 電鍍示意圖.........................................................................................8
圖3-1 積層電容隨意放置圖..................….................................................13
圖3-2 雙CCD取像示意圖...........................................................................13
圖3-3 2.5D量測高度示意圖.......................................................................14
圖3-4 0402型積層電容規格.......................................................................14
圖3-5 歩進馬達 PK266-01A......................................................................16
圖3-6 歩進馬達驅動器...............................................................................17
圖3-7 影像擷取卡.......................................................................................18
圖3-8 Mitutoyo光學尺................................................................................18
圖3-9 CCD規格圖................…...................................................................19
圖3-10 鏡頭外觀圖.......................................................................................20
圖3-11 二值化圖...........................................................................................21
圖3-12 CCD相對位置圖...............................................................................22
圖4-1 灰階值...............................................................................................24
圖4-2 全動態範圍,對比低圖.....................................................................24
圖4-3 偏暗圖...............................................................................................24
圖4-4 物體和背景分明圖...........................................................................25
圖4-5 原影像的特性分佈圖.......................................................................27
圖4-6 二值化後影像的特性分佈圖...........................................................28
圖4-7 幅長碼(Run-Length-code)................................................................28
圖4-8 實際影像個體編碼...........................................................................28
圖4-9 導數與物體邊緣關係.......................................................................31
圖4-10 在二值化影像邊緣處5點取樣點及標號.......................................32
圖4-11 邊緣處5點取樣灰階示意圖...........................................................33
圖4-12 (a)圓桶失真、(b)柳腰失真................................................................34
圖4-13 假定校正塊.......................................................................................35
圖4-14 假定校正塊分成九個視窗...............................................................36
圖4-15 測試點判別視窗................................................................................38
圖4-16 高倍率CCD2圖................................................................................39
圖4-17 雙CCD相對位置關係示意圖..........................................................40
圖4-18 高度量測原理示意圖.......................................................................41
圖4-19 高度量測校正塊...............................................................................41
圖5-1 步進值1mm之影像清晰度..............................................................45
圖5-2 步進值0.1mm之影像清晰度...........................................................45
圖5-3 步進值0.05mm之影像清晰度........................................................46
圖5-4 步進值0.01mm之影像清晰度.........................................................46
圖5-5 檢測物較高的面作對焦評估圖.......................................................47
圖5-6 檢測物較低的面作對焦評估圖.......................................................47
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