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研究生:賴明村
研究生(外文):Ming-Tsun Lai
論文名稱:不同施藥方式對番荔枝冬期果太平洋臀紋粉介殼蟲防治效果及經濟效益之評估
論文名稱(外文):Evaluations of the effectiveness and economic benefits of different pesticide application methods in controlling a mealybug, Planococcus minor Maskell, on the winter crop of sugar apple, Annona squamosa L.
指導教授:張念台
指導教授(外文):Niann-Tai Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:熱帶農業暨國際合作研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:54
中文關鍵詞:太平洋臀紋粉介殼蟲番荔枝監測施藥防治
外文關鍵詞:Planococcus minorAnnona squamosamonitoringchemical control
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本研究探討不同施藥處理對太平洋臀紋粉介殼蟲(Planococcus minor Maskell)在番荔枝(Annona squamosa L.)冬期果之防治效果及經濟效益分析,並探討該粉介殼蟲族群擴散及覓食之習性,藉以建立早期監控及防治之模式。以2005年實驗之結果分析人工施藥與機械噴藥處理,顯示兩者之間平均果實罹害率並無顯著差異(實測F=2.797<F(0.05,1,38),p=0.103),這兩種處理方式皆可有效防治太平洋臀紋粉介殼蟲於冬期果之為害。估算發生蟲數(y)與果實罹害率(x)間之相關得出其直線迴歸方程式為:y=2.3769x-3.5899,而依市場上番荔枝果實遭粉介殼蟲危害面積超過30%就毫無商品價值,換算出此時每果發生蟲數約68隻,但本次實驗未將果實上之卵數列入計算,此方程式僅適用於估算即時之果實上之平均蟲口數。比較人工施藥與機械噴藥處理區每公頃之預計收入、淨收入、總損失,得到這兩處理區各項目間之比率差異微小,但估算人工施藥處理之總成本為機械噴藥處理之2.87倍。因此以經濟效益而言,番荔枝果園仍以機械噴藥處理為較佳之防治方式。分析2006年人工、傳統式機械及改良式機械施藥三處理之實驗結果,顯示改良式機械噴藥處理對於防治番荔枝冬期果太平洋臀紋粉介殼蟲較傳統式機械噴藥處理有顯著較佳之防治效果。兩次田間實驗皆顯示,番荔枝果樹中央方位果實受太平洋臀紋粉介殼蟲之危害發生時間最早、平均果實罹害面積也最大,而該粉介殼蟲是藉由爬行方式來進行族群擴散,分析未施藥前各處理區之果樹上東、西、南、北四個方位之受害果實率,顯示各方位之間並無顯著差異,由此得知該粉介殼蟲於果樹上之擴散、覓食傾向屬於逢機分散(random dispersion )模式,與日照、風向無關。因此番荔枝果樹之根際部至主幹分叉部位為防治該粉介殼蟲最重要之位置,由於此部位是粉介殼蟲向番荔枝果實擴散之必經路徑,且可供躲藏及遮蔽之處最少,若由此部位進行防治工作則防治效率為最高。介殼蟲遷於果實後在平均氣溫20.0℃下,5日內其對果實罹害面積可增長率1.27倍;22.2℃時,為1.57倍;而22.5℃時,則為2.30倍。推測環境溫度的增高會增加本粉介殼蟲對果實的罹害。另外,調查期間累積降雨量為0時,其增長率可高達2.30倍,而若累積降雨量為29.0mm時,其增長率則降為1.08倍,由此推測累積降雨量的增加會減少果實罹害率。太平洋臀紋粉介殼蟲田間族群增長速度極快,平均溫度22.5℃時,果實罹害率倍增所需時間約為4.5日,故目前農民以番荔枝果實上太平洋臀紋粉介殼蟲族群密度的監測來選擇施藥防治時機的慣行方法,應改為由早期監測該粉介殼蟲於番荔枝果樹之根際部至主幹分叉部位之族群密度方式來進行,如此才能有效防止粉介殼蟲族群向果實擴散危害。依照本研究之田間害蟲的發生為害與防治成本效益所得,建議最佳防治時期應於春季3~4月及秋季9~10月當太平洋臀紋粉介殼蟲之若、成蟲開始由番荔枝果樹之根際向上擴散爬行時進行,且採用噴霧車輔以手持式噴霧槍施藥的方式可獲最佳之防治效果。
The effectiveness and economic benefits of using different chemical application methods in the control of a mealybug, Planococcus minor Maskell, on the winter crop of sugar apple, Annona squamosa L., were evaluated. Also, the population dispersion and feeding habits of the mealybug were studied in hope that the results would facilitate the establishment of its early detection and control model. Comparing the results of manual and mobile fogger applications conducted in 2005, there was no significant difference in the rates of fruits infested with the mealybug. Both application methods were effective in controlling the mealybug in the winter crop of sugar apple. Based on the number of mealy bug counted (y) and the rates of fruits infested (x), the regression equation of y = 2.3769x – 3.5899 was calculated. Further, basing on the marketing standards of sugar apple, which are commonly practiced commercially that the number of mealybugs infesting a fruit covering over 30% of a fruit surface would render it non-marketable, the number was estimated at about 68 mealybugs per fruit. This estimated number did not include eggs found on the fruit in the calculations. Therefore, this regression equation is only applicable for the estimation of the number of the mealybugs found on a fruit. In comparing the estimated income, net income, and total losses, the differences between the two application methods were not significant. However, the total costs of the manual application method were 2.7 times more than that of the mobile fogger application method. Results of the analysis of their economic benefits showed that the mobile fogger application was a significantly better method. Comparing the data collected in 2006 on the use of three application methods; manual, mobile fogger and improved mobile fogger, their effectiveness in controlling the mealybug, in a descending order, was improved mobile fogger>manual application> mobile fogger. Based on the two observations conducted in the field, the result showed that the earliest and most severe mealybug infestations were found on the fruits located in the mid section of a sugar apple tree. The mealybug is known to disperse by crawling. Results of the analysis of the rates of infested fruits collected respectively from the eastern, western, southern and northern directions of a sugar apple tree showed no significant difference among the four directions. It was concluded that the dispersal and food finding of the mealybugs were done randomly and were independent of the influence of sunlight and wind direction. As such, pesticide application on the truck from the root base to the branching of a stem of a sugar apple tree was most important in order to be effective in the control of the mealybug as this was a critical thoroughfare for its dispersal upward toward sugar apple fruits and this also provided the least protection or refuge for the mealybug. Five days after the mealybug had migrated to a sugar apple fruit, the results appeared to show that the rate of increase of its infestation area on a fruit was in line with the increase of temperature; 1.27 times under 20.0oC, 1.57 times under 22.2oC, and 2.3 times under 22.5oC. When the cumulative rainfall was 0.0 mm during the period of study, the rate of increase of the infestation area reached 2.3 times. However, when the cumulative rainfall was 29.0 mm, the rate of increase of the infestation area decreased 1.08 times. This indicated that rainfall would inhibit the mealybug infestation. Since the mealybug populations increased rapidly in the field, it took only 4.5 days for doubling the fruit infestation area; therefore, sugar apple growers should change from their common practices of using the results of monitoring mealybug populations over the entire tree as a basis for pesticide applications to relying on the result of monitoring the mealybug population density on the section from its root base to the branching of the main trunk of a sugar apple tree. This change in focusing on monitoring the mealybug populations on the tree trunk, instead of the entire tree, would enhance the effectiveness of the mealybug control by preventing its spread to sugar apple fruits. Based on the results of this study on the mealybug infestations in the field and its control costs and benefits, the best time for the control of the mealybug would be in the spring from March to April and in the fall from September to October, when the nymphs and adults of the mealybug were migrating by crawling upward from the root bases to the fruits. Also, the use of improved mobile fogger would be most effective in the control of the mealybug in an orchard.
中文摘要…………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
Abstract…………………………………………………………………. Ⅲ
誌謝………………………………………………………………………Ⅵ
目錄……………………………………………………………………….Ⅶ
圖表目錄………………………………………………………………….Ⅸ
壹、前言…………………………………………………………………..1
貳、前人研究………………………………………………………………..3
2.1 太平洋臀紋粉介殼蟲生態及防治技術………………………….3
2.1.1 太平洋臀紋粉介殼蟲生物學………………………………3
2.1.2 田間族群動態與危害習性…………………………………7
2.1.3 防治技術……………………………………………………7
2.2 番荔枝之特性及產業概況……………………………………….9
2.2.1番荔枝之特性……………………………………………….9
2.2.2台灣番荔枝之產業概況…………………………………11
2.2.3番荔枝之主要病蟲害……………………………………11
2.3 番荔枝果園蟲害之管理………………………………………13
參、材料與方法…………………………………………………………...15
3.1 番荔枝冬期果田間太平洋臀紋粉介殼蟲及族群
危害率相關調查………………………………………………15
3.2太平洋臀紋粉介殼蟲人工施藥處理…………………….………15
3.3太平洋臀紋粉介殼蟲機械噴霧處理…………………………….16
3.4 不同防治處理之經濟效益評估………………………………17
3.5 機械噴藥處理方式之改良……………………………………17
3.5.1 早冬期果田間族群消長調查……………………………18
3.5.2 早冬期果人工施藥處理…………………………………18
3.5.3 早冬期果機械噴霧處理…………………………………19
3.5.4 早冬期果以噴霧車輔以手持式噴霧槍處理……………19
肆、結果………………………………………………………………….....22
4.1 番荔枝冬期果田間受害率及太平洋臀紋粉介殼蟲
族群相關調查……………………………………………………22
4.2 太平洋臀紋粉介殼蟲在不同施藥處理下之危害消長………27
4.2.1人工施藥處理……………………………………………27
4.2.2機械噴霧處理……………………………………………28
4.3 市場價值、防治費用與經濟效益估算………………………….31
4.4 改良式機械噴藥處理之調查…………………………………34
4.4.1 早冬期果田間的族群消長調查…………………………34
4.4.2 早冬期果在人工施藥處理下之族群消長………………36
4.4.3 早冬期果在機械噴藥處理下之族群消長………………37
4.4.4 早冬期果以機械噴藥輔以手持式噴霧槍處理
之族群消長……………………………………………...39
4.5 太平洋臀紋粉介殼蟲田間生態調查及危害情形……………43
4.5.1 果實罹害面積率與氣象因子相關………………………43
4.5.2 果樹上之擴散覓食傾向…………………………………45
伍、討論與結論…………………………………………………………….46
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………50
作者簡介…………………………………………………………………54
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