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研究生:顏郁芳
研究生(外文):Yu-Fang Yen
論文名稱:創業導向、社會資本與企業績效關聯之研究-以在大陸投資之台商中小企業為主
論文名稱(外文):The Relationship among Entrepreneurial Orientation, Social Capital and Firm Performance: An Empirical Research on Taiwanese SMEs Subsidiaries in China
指導教授:黃英忠黃英忠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ing-Chung Huang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:人力資源管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:95
語文別:英文
論文頁數:157
中文關鍵詞:中小企業創業導向社會資本企業績效
外文關鍵詞:SMEsEntrepreneurial OrientationSocial CapitalFirm Performance
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本論文旨在探討台商中小企業創業導向與組織績效間的關連,企業進入一個與本國文化有差異的區域進行商業活動,其中的干擾因素相當多元,經過文獻探討後與實地訪談過台商中小企業主後,社會資本被選擇當成本研究的干擾因素。Youndt (2005)提出社會資本有助益於知識的分享與交流,因此,對於組織的成長及各種資本的強化具有提升的效果。由此可得知,社會資本會對企業績效會產生重要的影響力。因此研究設計同時探討創業導向,社會資本與企業績效,才能清楚地觀察期間的整體作用與因果關係。

在文獻探討中,有關創業者、創業精神以及組織層面的創業導向的相關研究。從最早創業相關的議題如:創業者的人格特質、創業精神的定義一直擴大到以公司組織為探討單位的研究。其中廣為學者所運用的創業導向的構面包含了:自主性、預應性、創新能力、風險承擔以及競爭的積極性五個構面。本研究同時也基礎於此五個構面進行研究探討。在社會資本的文獻探討整理後,有三個構面被認知為在探討台商中小企業到大陸設立子公司時,會形成干擾因素的構面。分別為信任、垂直網絡與水平網絡。最後一部份的文獻是有關於企業績效,經過文獻整理後,三個指標被選定為最能反映台商中小企業績效表現的依變數,它們分別為銷售成長率、獲利成長率以及新的產品或服務的創新。研究的結論在學術方面將有助於中小企業創業導向研究的完整性,在管理意涵上則可提供組織採行適當的管理實務,進而提升企業經營績效。

研究結果顯示出:(一) 創業導向的四個構面整體上會造成企業績效的正面影響。並且這四個構面中,以創新及預應性呈現正面顯著相關。(二) 交互作用的分析結果顯示出社會資本的三個構面中,垂直網絡呈現出顯著交互作用,但信任及水平網絡呈現不顯著的交互作用。研究方法尾聲安排了四位台商中小企業主的深度訪談,針對實證結果進行討論。第五章中將所有的結論彙整,並且提出對管理上的建議,以及將來相關研究進行方向的修正與檢討。
The research aims to explore the relationships among entrepreneurial orientation, social capital and firm performance when Taiwanese SMEs are expanding their business territory in China. Apart from social capital, there would be more other moderating variables existing in the environment. However, after literature review and in-depth interviews with the SMEs owners/directors/executives, social capital has been regarded as the possible influential factor affecting the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance.

In the second part of the research, comprehensive literature and studies relating to entrepreneurs, entrepreneurship, and entrepreneurial orientation are investigated and summarized. Later, the literature of social capital and firm performance is summarized in order to develop the hypotheses to examine the relationships among entrepreneurial orientation, social capital and firm performance.

This is an empirical research, assisting with in-depth interviews with Taiwanese SMEs owners/directors/executives to outline the findings more accurately. The statistical tools applied in the thesis include SPSS and AMOS.

The findings of the research have come up with some practical implications and suggestion. The implications of the results might intrigue people who are interested in the influence of entrepreneurial orientation on organizational success. Lastly, some suggestions are made accordingly for the further development.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS--------------------------------------- ii iii
ABSTRACT (English)---------------------------------------------- iv
ABATRACT (Chinese)--------------------------------------------- v vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS------------------------------------------- vii viii ix x
LIST OF TABLES--------------------------------------------------- xi xii xiii
LIST OF FIGURES------------------------------------------------- xiv

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION---------------------------------- 1
A. Background and Motives---------------------------------------------- 1
B. Research Objectives-------------------------------------------------- 7
C. Research Procedure--------------------------------------------------- 11
D. Major Contributions-------------------------------------------------- 12


CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW------------------ 14
A. Small and Medium Sized Enterprises------------------------------ 14
B. Entrepreneurial related Literature---------------------------------- 18
1. The Application of Resource Dependence Models on
Research of Entrepreneurial Orientation---------------------- 18
2. Entrepreneur----------------------------------------------------- 19
3. Entrepreneurship------------------------------------------------ 26
4. Entrepreneurial Orientation----------------------------------- 33
C. Firm Performance---------------------------------------------------- 38
D. Social Capital--------------------------------------------------------- 42
E. The Relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation and Firm
Performance--------------------------------------------------------- 47
1. Autonomy------------------------------------------------- 50
2. Innovativeness-------------------------------------------- 51
3. Risk-taking------------------------------------------------ 56
4. Proactiveness--------------------------------------------- 57
5. Competitive Aggressiveness--------------------------- 58
F. The Relationship among Entrepreneurial Orientation, Social
Capital, and Firm Performance----------------------------------- 59
1. Trust---------------------------------------------------------- 63
2. Vertical Network-------------------------------------------- 64
3. Horizontal Network---------------------------------------- 67


CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY------------------------------- 71
A. Research Framework---------------------------------------------- 71
B. Summary of the Research Hypotheses-------------------------- 72
C. Operational Definitions of Variables and Questionnaire
Design---------------------------------------------------------------- 74
1. Entrepreneurial Orientation--------------------------------- 74
2. Social Capital------------------------------------------------- 77
3. Firm Performance--------------------------------------------- 79
4. Industry Traits------------------------------------------------ - 80
5. Control Variable----------------------------------------------- 81
D. Data Collection----------------------------------------------------- - 82
1. Sampling------------------------------------------------------- 82
2. Data Collection Procedure----------------------------------- 84
3. Sample Description------------------------------------------ 85
E. Data Analysis------------------------------------------------------- 85
1. Factor Analysis, Reliability Analysis, Validity
Analysis, and Restructured Questionnaire---------------- - 86
2. Descriptive Statistics----------------------------------------- 98
3. Factor Analysis----------------------------------------------- 98
4. Hierarchical Regression Analysis-------------------------- 98
5. Correlation Analysis----------------------------------------- 99
6. Interviews after the Empirical Research------------------ 99



CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS AND RESULTS------------------- 100
A. The Descriptive Analysis on the Research Dimensions-------- 100
B. Correlation Analysis of Entrepreneurial Orientation, Social
Capital, and Firm Performance------------------------------------- 104
1. Correlation Analysis on Entrepreneurial Orientation
and Social Capital----------------------------------------------- 104
2. Correlation Analysis on Entrepreneurial Orientation
and Firm Performance------------------------------------------- 106
3. Correlation Analysis on Social Capital and Firm
Performance------------------------------------------------------- 107
C. Influential Analyses on Entrepreneurial Orientation,
Social Capital, and Firm Performance----------------------------- 107


CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION-------- 111
A. Summary of the Research and Major Findings------------------- 112
B. Managerial Implications--------------------------------------------- 118
C. Limitations ------------------------------------------------------------ 124
D. Suggestions for Future Research----------------------------------- 125



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