(34.239.150.57) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/18 23:56
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:蔡瑞修
研究生(外文):Jui-Hsiu Tsai
論文名稱:臺灣某醫學中心精神科門診安眠藥使用分析研究
論文名稱(外文):Analysis of Hypnotic Usage in Psychiatric Outpatient Department of a Medical Center Hospital in Taiwan
指導教授:劉仲康劉仲康引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jong-Kang Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:生物科學系研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2006
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:69
中文關鍵詞:夢遊Zolpidem苯二氮平失憶
外文關鍵詞:somnambulismzolpidemBenzodiazepineamnesia.
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:593
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
失眠是一種非常常見的主訴,它是一種在睡眠量不適當或睡眠品質不佳的經驗。在我們的社區中,目前失眠的盛行率約由15%到28%不等。在失眠的治療中,以藥物治療較其他治療,如:心理治療、催眠治療等等方法,來得快速且有效些。而藥物治療中,有以苯二氮平及非苯二氮平藥物(如:Zolpidem)為非常常用的安眠藥處方用藥,因為它們被證實具有療效、安全、副作用小。
本研究係為病歷回顧分析法,分析精神科門診3,152名病患的資料,主要是回顧藥物副作用,特別是有關夢遊與前行性失憶症。去比較此種副作用在台灣族群是否也是少數個案發生?
在使用長效型或中長效型BZD安眠藥門診病患406名中,有出現有前行性失憶或夢遊副作用,佔使用者的0.25%(406名中,只有1人有出現此副作用)。然而,有5.1%使用Zolpidem安眠藥門診病患出現此副作用(使用者255人中,有13人有出現此副作用)。這個研究資料可提供臨床醫師,在使用Zolpidem時出現一些類睡症副作用時,給予病患及其配偶做為使用藥物衛生教育的參考。
Insomnia, the experience of poor quality or quantity of sleep, is a very common complaint. In the community estimates for the current prevalence of insomnia range from 15 to 28%. Pharmacological treatment of insomia is faster and more effective than other treatments, including psychotherapy, hypnosis, and so on. In pharmacological treatment, benzodiazepines (BZDs) and non-benzodiazepines, including zolpidem, are very common prescribing hypnotic usages because of more effectiveness and safer side-effect profiles.
Our retrospective, current observational study is a chart review of 3,152 psychiatric outpatients, attempted to review adverse effects, specifically somnambulism and antegrade amnesia after these medications, to see whether or not, this is an infrequent occurrence in Taiwan population.
Of a total 406 long-/intermitted-half-life BZD hypnotics users, 0.25% (1 of 406) reported incidence of somnambulism and anterograde amnesia. However, 5.1% (13 of 255) reported incidence of zolpidem-induced somnambulism and anterograde amnesia. It serves as a reminder for clinicians to inquire of spouses (bed parters) of the patients about any unusual behavior of parasomnia activities when prescribing zolpidem, specifically in Taiwan population.
論文審定書 ……………………………………………………… 2
目錄 …………………………………………………………… 3-4
序與致謝 ………………………………………………………… 5
中文摘要 ……………………………………………………… 6
英文摘要 ……………………………………………………… 7
前言 …………………………………………………………… 8-22
材料與方法 ……………………………………………………… 23-26
結果 ………………………………………………………………27-31
討論 ……………………………………………………………… 32-46
圖表 ……………………………………………………………… 47-59
參考文獻 ………………………………………………………… 60-69
李宇宙(2000):睡眠醫學。丁淑敏,編輯。健康世界叢書,臺灣台北:165-168頁。
李宇宙(2005):失眠的臨床評估與處置。臺灣醫學,第9卷第3期:346-353頁。
林信男主持 (1986):失眠症座談會。臺灣醫界,第29卷第6期:33-39頁。
林清華(2003):簡介新一代安眠藥。臺灣醫界,第6卷第46期:9-12頁。
胡銘傳、毛衛中、夏一新(2004):安眠藥物之新趨勢。台北市醫師公會會刊,第48卷第6期:45-52頁。
陳正宗 (1991) : Benzodiazepines在台灣地區之使用。中華精神醫學,第5卷第2期:3-12頁。
陳昭姿(1997):Zolpidem (Stilnox®) 護衛自然睡眠型態的安眠藥。當代醫學,24卷第8期:652-654頁。
莊慧馨、邱南英、胡淑惠 (2004) : 精神科初診主訴失眠患者的診斷分析。彰化基督教醫院醫學雜誌,第9卷附本:254-260頁。
鄭泰安(1992):失眠的原因與治療。心身醫學:7-14頁。
蘇東平(2000):失眠的成因、臨床歷程及治療導向。臨床醫學,第45卷第2期:123-126頁。
(1986) Report of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC: Appendix G.
(1990) Benzodiazepine Dependence, Toxicity, and Abuse: A Task Force Report of the American Psychiatric Association. APA, Washington, DC: 1-60.
Asseau M, Doumont A, Diricq S. (1984) Methodology required to show clinical differences between benzodiazepines. Cuur Med Res Opin 8(Suppl 4): 108-114.
Barbee JG. (1993a) Memory, benzodiazepines, and anxiety: integration of theoretical and clinical perspectives. J Clin Psychiatry. 54 (Suppl): 98-101.
Barbee JG. (1993b) Memory, benzodiazepines, and anxiety: integration of theoretical and clinical perspectives. J Clin Psychiatry. 54[suppl 10]: 86-97.
Barett J, Underwood A. (2006) Perchance to ... eat? Newsweek. 147: 54.
Barker MJ, Greenwood KM, Jackson M, et al. (2004) Cognitive effects of long-term benzodiazepine use: a meta-analysis. CNS Drugs. 18: 37-48.
Bernstein JG. (1988) Handbook of Drug Therapy in Psychiatry. 2nd edn. Littleton, Mass., PSG Pub: 51-77.
Biggio G, Concas A, Corda MG, Serra M. (1989) Enhancement of GABA-ergic transmission by zolpidem, an imidazopyridine with preferential affinity for type I benzodiazepine receptors. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 161: 173-180.
Bixler EO, Kales A, Manfredi RL, Vqontzas AN, Tyson KL, Kales JD. (1991) Next-day memory impairment with triazolam use. Lancet. 337: 827-831.
Bixler EO, Kales A, Soldatos CR, Kales JD, Healey S. (1979) Prevalence of sleep disorders in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Am J Psychiatry. 136: 1257-1262.
Bliss TVP, Lomo T. (1973) Long-lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in the dentate area of the anaesthetized rabbit following stimulation of the perforant path. J Physiol (Lond) 232: 331-356.
Blois R, Gaillard JM. (1988) The effects of zolpidem on the characteristics of normal sleep. Sauvanet JP, Langer SZ, Morselli PL edn. Imidazopyridines in sleep disorders: a novel experimental and therapeutic approach. Rave Press, New York: 375-376.
Blum D, Kaln A, Mozin MJ, et al. (1990) Relation between chronic insomnia and school failure in preadolescents. Sleep Res. 19: 1.
Brandt AL, Oakes FD. (1965) Pre-anaesthesia medication: double-blind study of a new drug, diazepam. Anesth Analg. 44: 125-129.
Brower KJ, Aldrich MS, Robinson EA, Zucker RA, GReden JF. (2001) Insomnia, self-medication, and relapse to alcoholism. Am J Psychiatry. 158: 399-404.
Brown J, Lewis V, Brown M, Horn G, Bowes JB. (1982) A comparison between transient amnesias induced by two drugs (diazepam or lorazepam) and amnesia of organic origin. Neuropsychologia. 20: 55-70.
Bruce SE, Vasile RG, Goisman RM, et al. (2003) Are benzodiazepines still the medication of choice for patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia? Am J Psychiatry. 160: 1432-1438.
Buffett-Jerrott SH, Stewart SH. (2002) Cognitive and sedative effects of benzodiazepine use. Current Pharmaceutical Design. 8: 45-58.
Buxrud EG, Bjorndal A. (1991) Why are female physicians more often absent from work due to sickness than their male colleagues? Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 111: 1132-1135.
Canaday BR. (1996) Amnesia possibly associated with zolpidem administration. Pharmacotherapy 16: 687-689.
Cashman JN, Power SJ, Jone RM, Adams AP. (1987a) Assessment of recovery from anaesthesia: what tests should we use? Anesthesiology. 67: 434.
Cashman JN, Power SJ, Jones RM. (1987b) Assessment of a new hypnotic imidazo-pyridine (zolpidem) as oral premeditation. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 24: 85-92.
Chang FL, Greenough WT. (1984) Transient and enduring morphological correlates of synaptic activity and efficacy change in the rat hippocampal slice. Brain Res. 309: 35-46.
Chouinard G. (2004) Issues in the clinical use of benzodiazepines: potency, withdrawal, and rebound. J Clin Psychiatry 65: 7-12.
Chouinard G, Labonate A, Fontaine R, et al. (1983) New concepts in benzodiazepine therapy: rebound anxiety and new indications for the more potent benzodiazepines. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 7: 669-673.
Cole SO. (1986) Effects of benzodiazepines upon acquisition and performance: a critical assessment. NeurosciBiobehav Rev. 10: 265-272.
Curran HV. (1986) Tranquillizing memories. a review of the effects of benzodiazepines on human memory. Biol Psychol. 23: 179-213.
Curran HV, Brich B. (1991) Differentiating the sedative, psychomotor and amnestic effects of benzodiazepines: a study with midazolam and the benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil. Psychopharmacology. 1039: 519-523.
Curran HV, Schiwy W, Lader M. (1987) Differential amnesia effects of benzodiazepines: a dose-response comparison of two drugs with similar elimination half-lives. Psychopharmacology. 92: 358-364.
DaCunha C, Huang CH, Walz R, et al. (1991) Memory facilitation by posttraining intraperitoneal, intracerebroventricular, and intra-amygdala injection of Ro 5-4864. Brain Res. 544: 133-136.
Demond NL, Levy WB. (1983) Synaptic correlates of associative potentiation/depression: an ultrastructural study of the hippocampus. Brain Res. 265: 21-30.
Dorow R, Berenberg D, Duke T, et al. (1987) Amnestic effects of lormetazepam and their reversal by the benzodiazepine antagonist Ro 15-1788. Psychopharmacology. 93: 507-514.
Fifkova E, Anderson CL. (1981) Stimulation-induced changes in dimensions of stalks of dendritic spines in the dentate molecular layer. Exp Neurol. 74: 621-627.
Ford DE, Kamerow DB. (1989) Epidemiologic study of sleep disturbances and psychiatric disorders-an opportunity for prevention? JAMA 262: 1479-1484.
Gamuz ER. (1987) The role of benzodiazepines in America: Laboratory Predicyors. J Clin Psychiatry 5: 8-13.
Ganzoni E, Santoni JP, Chevillard V, Sebille M, Mathy B. (1995) Zolpidem in insomnia: a 3-year post-marketing surveillance study in Switzerland. J Int Med Res. 23: 61-73.
Gentil V, Tavares S, Gorenstein C, et al. (1990) Acute reversal of flunitrazepam effects by Ro 15-1788 and Ro 15-3505: inverse agonism, tolerance, and rebound. Psychopharmacology. 100: 54-59.
Ghoneim MM, Dembo JB, Block RI. (1989) Time course of antagonism of sedative and amnesic effects of diazepam by flumazenil. . Anesthesiology. 70: 899-904.
Hallstrom C. (1985) Benzodiazepines: clinical practice and central mechanisms. Kenneth GG edn. Recent Advance in Clinical Psychiatry. Churchill Livingstone Medical Division of Longman Group Limited, New York: 143-152.
Hammond EC. (1964) Some preliminary findings on physical complaints from a prospective study of 1,064,004 men and women. Am J Public Health Nations Health. 54: 11-23.
Harazin J, Berigan TR. (1999) Zolpidem tartrate and somnambulism. Mil Med. 164: 669-670.
Hartmann PM. (1995) Drug treatment of insomnia: indications and new agents. American Family Physician 51: 197-198.
Healy M, Pickens R, Meisch R, McKenna T. (1983) Effects of clorazepate, diazepam, lorazepam and placebo on human memory. J Clin Psychiatry 44: 436-439.
Henderson S, Jorm AF, Scott LR, Mackinnon AJ, Christensen H, Korten AE. (1995) Insomnia in the elderly: its prevalence and correlates in the general population. Med J Aust. 162: 22-24.
Hindmarch I. (1980) Psychomotor function and psychoactive drugs. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 10: 189-209.
Hishikawa Y. (1991) Appropriate use of benzodiazepines in insomnia: clinical update. J Clin Psychiatry. 52 (Suppl): 10-13.
Hoehns JD, Perry PJ. (1993) Zolpidem: a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic for treatment of insomnia. Clin Pharm. 12: 814-823.
Hohagen F, Kappler C, Schramm E, Rink K, Weyerer S, Riemann D, Berger M. (1994) Prevalence of insomnia in the elderly general practice attenders and the current treatment modalities. Acta Psychiat Scand 90: 102-108.
Hommer DW. (1991) Benzodiazepines: cognitive and psychomotor effects. Roy-Byrne PP, Cowley DS. edn. Benzodiazepine in clinical practice: risk and benefits. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC: 113-130.
hUrponen H, Vuori I, Hasan J, Partinen M. (1988) Sleep habits, sleep quality and sleep disorders in urban working aged people. J Soc Med. 25: 338-351.
Idzikowski C. (1996) Impact of insomnia on health-related quality of life. Pharmacoeconomics. 10 (Suppl.1): 15-24.
Irevor AJ, Way WL. (1988) Drugs used for anxiety state & sleep problems. Goldman HH edn. Review of General Psychiatry. Simon & Schuster Asia Pte. Ltd., Singapore: 600-612.
Izquierdo I, Medina J. (1991) GABAA receptor modulation of memory: the role of endogenous benzodiazepines. Trends in Pharmacological Science. 12: 260-265.
Johnson LC, Spinweber CL. (1983a) Good and poor sleepers differ in navy performance. Mil Med. 148: 727-731.
Johnson LC, Spinweber CL. (1983b) Quality of sleep and performance in the Navy: A longitudinal study of good and poor sleepers. Guilleminault C, Lugaresi E edn. Sleep/Wake Disorders: Natural History, Epidemiology, and Long-term Evoluation. Raven Press, New York: 13-28.
Kales A, Kales JD, Soldatos CR. (1982) Insomnia and other sleep disorders. Med Clin North Am. 66: 971-991.
Kales A, Soldatos CR, Bixler EO, Ladda RL, Charney DS, Weber G, et al. (1980) Hereditary factors in sleepwalking and night terrors. Br J Psychiatry. 137: 111-118.
Kales JD, Kales A, Bixler EO, Soldatos CR, Cadieux RJ, Kashurba GJ, Vela-Bueno A. (1984) Biopsychobehavioral correlates of insomnia, V: Clinical characteristerics and behavioral correlates. Am J Psychiatry. 141: 1371-1376.
Kandel ER. (1989) Genes, nerve cells, and remembrance of things past. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1: 103-125.
Kanno O, Watanabe H, Ichikawa I, et al. (1991) Effects of zolpidem and triazolam on all night sleep EEG of normal volunteers. Biol Psychol. 29: 305S.
Kawashima T, Yamada S. (2003) Paroxetine-induced somnambulism. J Clin Psychiatry. 64: 483.
Keefauver SP, Guilleminault C. (1994) Sleep terrors and sleepwalking. Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC. edn. Principles and practice of sleep medicine. 2nd edit. WB Saunders, Philadelphia: 567-573.
Kirk T, Roache JD, Griffiths RR. (1990) Dose-response evaluation of the amnestic effects of triazolam and pentobarbital in normal subjects. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 10: 160-167.
Knutsson A, Akerstedt T, Johnson BG, Orth-Gomer K. (1986) Increased risk of ischaemic heart disease in shift workers. Lancet. 2: 89-92.
Koller M. (1983) Health risks related to shift work. An example of time-contingent effects on long-term stress. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 53: 59-75.
Kupfer DJ, Revnold CF 3rd. (1997) Management of insomnia. N Eng J Med 336: 341-346.
Lange CL. (2005) Medication-associated somnambulism. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 44: 211-212.
Langer SZ, Arbilla S. (1988a) Imidazopyridines as a tool for characterization of benzodiazepine receptors: a proposal for a pharmacological classification as omega receptor subtypes. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 29: 763-766.
Langer SZ, Arbilla S, Scatton B, Niddam R, Dubois A (1988b) Receptors involved in the mechanism of action of zolpidem. Sauvanet JP, Langer SZ, Morselli PL edn. Imidazopyridines in sleep disorders. Raven Press, New York: 55-80.
Langtry HD, Benfield P. (1990) Zolpidem: a review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic potential. Drugs 40: 291-313.
Lee KS, Schottler F, Oliver M, Lynch G. (1980) Brief bursts of high-frequency stimulation produce two types of structural change in rat hippocampus. J Neurophysiol. 44: 247-258.
Leigh JP. (1991) Employee and job attributes as predirectors of absenteeism in a national sample of workers: the importance of health and dangerous working conditions. Soc Sci Med. 33: 127-137.
Li RH, Wing YK, Ho SC, Fong SY. (2002) Gender differences in insomnia-a study in the Hong Kong Chinese population. J Psychosom Res. 53: 601-609.
Lister RG. (1985) The amnesic action of benzodiazepines in man. Neurosci Biobehavioral Rev. 9: 87-93.
Lister RG, File SE. (1984) The nature of lorazepam-induced amnesia. Psychopharmacology. 83: 183-187.
Lund R, Ruther E, Wober W, et al. (1988) Effects of zolpidem (10 and 20 mg), lormetazepam, triazolam, and placebo on night sleep and residual effects during the day. Sauvanet JP, Langer SZ, Morselli P edn. Imidazopyridines in sleep disorders: a novel experimental and therapeutic approach. Raven Press, New York: 193-203.
Mac DS, Kumar R, Goodwin DW. (1985) Anterograde amnesia with oral lorazepam. J Clin Psychiatry. 46: 137-138.
Marchini EJ, Coates TJ, Magistad JG, Waldum SJ. (1983) What do insomniacs do, think, and feel during the day? A preliminary study. Sleep. 6: 147-155.
Mejo SL. (1992) Anterograde amnesia linked to benzodiazepines. Nurse Pract. 17: 49-50.
Mendelson WB. (1987) Pharmacotherapy of insomnia. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 10: 555-563.
Mendelson WB. (1994) Sleepwalking associated with zolpidem.[see comment]. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 14: 150.
Mendelson WB, Jain B. (1995) An assessment of short-acting hypnotics. Drug Saf. 13: 257-270.
Merlotti L, Roehrs T, Koshorek G, Zorick F, Lamphere J, Roth T. (1989) The dose effects of zolpidem on the sleep of healthy normals. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 9: 9-14.
Murray JB. (1984) Effects of Valium and Librium on human psychomotor and cognitive functions. Genet Psychol Monogr. 109: 167-197.
National Sleep Foundation (1991) Sleep in American. Los Angeles: Gallup Organization, Inc.
Nicholson AN, Pascoe PA. (1986) Hypnotic activity of an imidazopyridine (zolpidem). Br J Clin Pharmacol. 21: 205-211.
Nilsson A, Persson MP, Hartvig P. (1988) Effects of the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil on postoperative performance following total intravenous anesthesia with midazolam and alfentanil. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 32: 441-446.
O''Boyle C, Lambe R, Darragh A, et al. (1983) Ro 15-1788 antagonizes the effects of diazepam in man without affecting its bioavailability. Br J Anaesth. 55: 349-355.
O Brein CP, Woody GE. (1986) Sedative-hypnotics and antianxiety agents. Hales RE edn. Sedative-hypnotics and Antiaxiety Agents. Frances AI. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC: 198-199.
Ohayon MM, Hong SC. (2002) Prevalence of insomnia and associated factors in South Korea. J Psychosom Res. 53: 593-600.
Olson LG. (1996) A community survey of insomnia in Newcastle. . Aust N Z J Public Health. 20: 655-657.
Oswald I, Adam K. (1988) A new look at short-acting hypnotics. Sauvanet JP, Langer SZ, Morselli PL edn. Imidazopyridines in sleep disorders: a novel experimental and therapeutic approach. Rave Press, New York: 253-259.
Palminteri R, Narbonne G. (1988) Safety profile of zolpidem. Sauvanet JP, Langer SZ, Morselli PL edn. Imidazopyridines in sleep disorders. Raven Press, New York: 351-361.
Pary R, Tobias CR, Webb WK, Lippmann SB. (1996) Treatment of insomnia. Getting to the root of sleeping problems. postgrad Med. 100: 195-198.
Praplam-Pahud J, Forster A, Gamulin Z, Tassonyi E, Sauvanet JP. (1990) Preoperative sedation before regional anaesthesia: comparison between zolpidem, midazolam and placebo. Br J Anaesth. 64: 670-674.
Prather PL, Forster MJ, Lal H. (1992) Learning and memory-enhancing effects of Ro 15-4513: a comparison with flumazenil. Neuropharmacology. 31: 299-306.
Preston GC, Broks P, Traub M, et al. (1988) Effects of lorazepam on memory, attention and sedation in man. Psychopharmacology. 95: 208-215.
Rich JB, Brown GG. (1992) Selective dissociations of sedation and amnesia following ingestion of diazepam. Psychopharmacology. 106: 346-350.
Roehrs T, Merlotti L, Zorick F, Roth T. (1994) Sedative, memory, and performance effects of hypnotics. Psychopharmacology(Berl). 116: 130-134.
Roehrs T, Zorick FJ, Sicklesteel JM, Wittig RM, Hartse KM, Roth T. (1983) Effects of hypnotics on memory. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 3: 310-313.
Roth R, Hartse KM, Saab PG, Piccione PM, Kramer M. (1980) The effects of flurazepam, lorazepam and triazolam on sleep and memory. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 70: 231-237.
Roth SM. (1989) Anxiety disorders and the use and abuse of drugs. J Clin Psychiatry. 50 (Suppl): 30-35.
Roth T, Roehrs T, Wittig R, Zorick F. (1984) Benzodiazepines and memory. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 18 (Suppl 1): 45S-49S.
Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. (2003a) Attention-Deficit Disorders. Kaplan & Sadock''s Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences/ Clinical Psychiatry 9th edit. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Philadelphia: 1223.
Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. (2003b) Normal Sleep and Sleep Disorders. Kaplan & Sadock''s Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences/ Clinical Psychiatry 9th edit. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Philadelphia: 756-760.
Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. (2003c) Biological Therapies. Kaplan & Sadock''s Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences/ Clinical Psychiatry 9th edit. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Philadelphia: 1022-1029.
Salva P, Costa J. (1995) Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of zolpidem: therapeutic implication. Clin Pharmacokinet 29: 142-153.
Sattar SP, Ramaswamy S, Bhatia SC, Petty F. (2003) Somnambulism due to probable interaction of valproic acid and zolpidem. Ann Pharmacother 37: 1429-1433.
Scharf MB, Khosla N, Brocker N, Goff P. (1984) Differential amnestic properties of short- and long-acting benzodiazepines. J Clin Psychiatry. 45: 51-53.
Scharf MB, Mayleben DW, Kaffeman M, Krall R, Ochs R. (1991) Dose response effects of zolpidem in normal geriatric subjects. J Clin Psychiatry. 52: 77-83.
Schnabel T Jr. (1987) Evaluation of the safety and side effects of antianxiety agents. Am J Med. 82: 7-13.
Shader RI, Greenblatt DJ. (1983) Triazolam and anterograde amnesia: all is not well in the Z-zone. J Clin Psychopharmcol. 3: 273.
Sharma A, Dewan VK. (2005) A case report of zolpidem-induced somnambulism. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 7: 74.
Squire LR. (1982) The neuropsychology of human memory. Annu Rev Neurosci. 5: 241-273.
Stahl SM. (2000) Anxiolytics and Sedative-Hypnotics. Essential Psychopharmacology: Neuroscientific Basis and Practical Applications, 2nd Edit. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK: 311-333.
Stahl SM. (2002) Selective actions on sleep or anxiety by exploiting GABA-A/Benzodiapine receptor subtypes. J Clin Psychiatry. 63: 179-180.
Stewart SA. (2005) The effects of benzodiazepines on cognition. J Clin Psychiatry. 66[suppl 2]: 9-13.
Stoller MK. (1994) Economic effects of insomnia. Clin Ther. 16: 873-897.
Sumner DD. (1998) Benzodiazepine-induced persisting amnestic disorder: are older adults at risk? Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 12: 119-125.
Sweethood H, Grant I, Kripke DF. (1980) Sleep disorders over time: psychiatric correlates among males. Br J Psychiatry. 136: 456-462.
Tomaz C, Dickinson-Anson H, McGaugh JL. (1991) Amygdala lesions block the amnestic effects of diazepam. Brain Res. 568: 85-91.
Tomaz C, Dickinson-Anson H, McGaugh JL. (1992) Bilateral amygdala lesions block diazepam-induced anterograde amnesia in an inhibitory avoidance task. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 89: 3615-3619.
Uhlenhuth EH, DeWit H, Balter MB, Johnson CE, Mellinger GD. (1988) Risks and benefits of long-term benzodiazepine use. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 8: 161-167.
van Puijenbroek EP, Egberts AC, Krom HJ. (1996) Visual hallucinations and amnesia associated with the use of zolpidem. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 34: 318.
Weingartner HJ, Eckardt MJ, Hommer DW, Mendelson W, Wolkowitz OM. (1991) Specificity of memory impairments with triazolam use. Lancet. 338: 883-884.
Weyerer S, Dilling H. (1991) Prevalence and treatment of insomnia in the community: results from the Upper Bavarian Field Study. Sleep 14: 392-398.
Yanes Baonza M, Ferrer Garcia-Borras JM, Cabrera Majada A, Sanchez Gonzalez R. (2003) [Sleep-walking linked to zolpidem] Aten Primaria. 32: 438.
Yang W, Dollear M, Muthukrishnan SR. (2005) One rare side effect of zolpidem--sleepwalking: a case report. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 86: 1265-1266.
Yeo BK, Perera IS, Kok LP, Isoi WF. (1996) Insomnia in the community. Singapore Med J. 37: 282-284.
Zivkovic B, Perrault G, Morel E, et al. (1988) Comparative pharmacology of zolpidem and other hypnotics and sleep inducers. Sauvant JP, Langer SZ, Morselli PL edn. Imidazopyridines in sleep disorders: a novel experimental and therapeutic approach. Rave Press, New York: 97-109.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔