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研究生:蘇珉賢
研究生(外文):Min-sian Su
論文名稱:壽山動物園遊客對靈長動物行為與展場利用之影響
論文名稱(外文):Influence of visitors on the behavior and the use of enclosure of captive primates in Shou Shan Zoo
指導教授:徐芝敏徐芝敏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsu, Minna J.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:生物科學系研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:83
中文關鍵詞:黑手長臂猿白手長臂猿黑猩猩壽山動物園長鬃狒狒紅毛猩猩黑冠猴
外文關鍵詞:Shou Shan ZooPan troglodytesMacaca nigraHylobate larHylobates agilisPapio hamadryasPongo pygmaeus
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本研究之目的在探討高雄壽山動物園遊客對於靈長動物之影響,主要比較觀眾有無對於靈長動物之行為與空間的影響,並測試遊客行為與六種靈長動物行為和空間利用之相關性。研究時間於95年9月至96年3月,涵蓋時段為9:00至16:00。
壽山動物園在非假日每日入園之遊客平均有681(± 323.71)人,而在假日則可達到2824(± 810.15)人。目前遊客私自對園內六種靈長動物之餵食比率高達3.83%,約是木柵動物園遊客餵食率之四倍,此勢必威脅到動物的健康與動物福利。雖然園內六種靈長動物皆以休息所表現之時間為最高,但在遊客駐留人數與餵食率最高之黑猩猩展場,黑猩猩表現非正常行為比例偏高。
黑猩猩主要行為為休息(53.28%)、非正常(13.75%)與食物相關行為(12.93%),且其每小時待在邊緣區之時間超過70%。紅毛猩猩主要行為為休息(64.10%),食物相關(20.13%)與自體行為(12.18%),且其幾乎都待在後方區(96.67%)。長鬃狒狒主要行為為休息(49.27%),友好(21.10%)與食物相關行為(12.68%),主要待在其他區(50.27%)與後方區(47.35%)。黑冠猴主要行為則為休息(55.12%),友好行為(13.10%)與活動(12.91%),而其待在後方區時間最久(41.51%),其次為豐富區(31.50%)與邊緣區(23.50%)。黑手長臂猿主要行為為休息(54.40%)、活動(27.10%)與食物相關行為(12.17%),而其待在豐富區的時間最久(56.82%)。白手長臂猿主要行為則是休息(74.28%)與活動(18.07%),而其主要待在豐富區(45.58%)與邊緣區(39.52%)。黑手長臂猿主要行為為休息(54.40%)、活動(27.10%)與食物相關行為(12.17%),而其主要待在豐富區(56.82%)、邊緣區(27.00%)與其它區(10.90%)。白手長臂猿主要行為則是休息(74.28%)與活動(18.07%),而其主要待在豐富區(45.58%)與邊緣區(39.52%)。
黑猩猩之非正常、不宜與自體行為頻度受觀眾影響,且黑猩猩表現非正常行為與遊客餵食和主動行為有顯著正相關,但黑猩猩非正常和不宜行為與遊客無駐留與觀看行為則有顯著負相關。觀眾有無對於紅毛猩猩之休息、活動、食物相關與自體行為之時間已造成影響,但對其利用四類空間並無造成影響。紅毛猩猩利用後方區與豐富區之時間與遊客觀看和主動行為時間長短有顯著相關。長鬃狒狒休息時間與不宜行為頻度受觀眾影響。長鬃狒狒休息、食物相關與不宜行為之時間與遊客四類行為有顯著相關,且其利用邊緣區、後方區以及其他區與遊客觀看和餵食亦有顯著相關。觀眾有無對於黑冠猴自體與敵對行為頻度已造成影響。黑冠猴活動、自體、食物相關與友好行為之時間與遊客餵食有顯著相關。觀眾有無對於黑手長臂猿活動、食物相關行為之時間與敵對行為頻度已造成影響,且其表現休息、活動、食物相關、自體、不宜與敵對行為之時間與遊客四類行為有顯著相關。黑手長臂猿利用邊緣區、後方區以及豐富區之時間會受遊客影響,且其利用邊緣區、後方區以及豐富區與遊客主動、餵食以及無駐留行為之時間有顯著相關。白手長臂猿自體行為頻度會受遊客影響,且其活動、食物相關、不宜與非正常行為之時間與遊客四類行為有顯著相關。白手長臂猿利用其他區時間與遊客主動行為有顯著正相關。
The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of visitors on six species of captive primates in Shou Shan Zoo. In this article, I compared the behavior and the use of enclosure of primates with or without audiences, and I studied the correlations among the visitors’ behavior, the behavior of primates, and the use of enclosure of them. Data were collected from September 2006 to March 2007 (between 09:00 to 16:00 hrs). The Shou Shan Zoo’s visitors were estimated as 681 (± 323.71) individuals in non-holidays and 2824 (± 810.15) individuals in holidays. The average feeding provided by visitors was 3.65 % for 6 primate species, and this was more than four times of the feeding rate in Taipei Zoo. This phenomenon will threat the welfare and health of animals. Although resting was the most frequent behavior of these six species of primates, the proportion of abnormal behavior in Chimpanzee display site where attracted highest number of audiences and the highest proportion of animal feeding performed by visitors was relatively high.
The major behavior of captive Chimpanzees were rest (53.28%), abnormal (13.75%) and food-related behavior (12.93%), and the frequency of Chimpanzees used the edge zone beyond 70%. The major behavior of Borneo Orangutan was rest (64.10%), followed by food-related behavior (20.13%) and self-directed behavior (12.18%). The frequency of Borneo Orangutan in the enclosure was highest in the back zone. The major behavior of Hamadryas Baboons was rest (49.27%), followed by affiliative (21.10%) and food-related behavior (12.68%). The frequency of Hamadryas Baboon in the enclosure was 50.27% in the other and 47.35% in the back zone. The major behavior of Celebes was rest (55.12%), followed by affiliative behavior (13.10%) and active (12.91%). The frequency of Celebes in the enclosure was highest in the back zone (41.51%), followed by the enrich (31.50%) and the edge zone (23.50%). The major behavior of the Dark-handed gibbon was rest (54.40%), active (27.10%) and food-related behavior (12.17%), and the frequency of the Dark-handed gibbon in the enclosure was 54.40% in the enrich zoon, 27.00% in the edge zoon and 10.90% in the other zoon. The major behavior of the White-handed gibbon was rest (74.28%) and active (18.07%), and the frequency of it in the enclosure was 45.58% in the enrich zoon and 39.52% in the edge zoon.
The frequency of the Chimpanzees’ abnormal, undesirable and self-directed behavior were influenced by audiences, and the duration of abnormal and undesirable behavior were positively correlated with the visitors’ active and feeding behavior, but that were negatively correlated with the visitors’ behavior (ignore and look). The duration of the Borneo Orangutan’s rest, active, food-related and self-directed behavior were influenced by audiences, and the duration of the Borneo Orangutan used the back and the enrich zone were significantly correlated with the visitors’ behavior (active and look). The Hamadryas Baboon’s rest (time) and undesirable behavior (frequency) were influenced by audiences, and the duration of rest, food-related and undesirable behavior were significantly correlated with the visitors’ behavior (active, look, feeding and ignore), and the duration of the Hamadryas Baboon used the edge and the back zone were significantly correlated with the visitors’ behavior (look and feeding). The frequency of the Celebes’ self-directed and agonistic behavior were influenced by audiences, and the duration of active, self-directed, food-related and affiliative behavior were significantly correlated with the visitors’ feeding behavior. The duration of the Dark-handed gibbons’ active and food-related behavior and the frequency of the Dark-handed gibbons’ agonistic behavior were influenced by audiences, and the duration of rest, active, food-related, self-directed, undesirable and agonistic behavior were significantly correlated with the visitors’ behavior (active, look, feeding and ignore). The duration of Dark-handed gibbons used the edge, the back and the enrich zoon were influenced by audiences, and the duration of the Dark-handed gibbons used these three zones were significantly correlated with the visitors’ behavior (active, feeding and ignore). The frequency of the White-handed gibbon’s self-directed behavior was influenced by audiences, and the duration of active, food-related, undesirable and abnormal behavior were significantly correlated with the visitors’ behavior (active, look, feeding and ignore). The duration of the White-handed gibbon used the other zoon was positively correlated with the visitors’ behavior (active).
誌謝 i
摘要 ii
Abstract iv
目錄 vii
前言 1
材料與方法 3
一、研究時間、地點以及對象 3
二、記錄方式 4
三、靈長動物行為定義 5
四、資料計算與統計分析 6
(一)遊客 6
(二)動物行為 7
(三)動物利用空間模式 8
(四)統計分析 9
結果 10
一、黑猩猩 10
(一)黑猩猩行為模式 10
(二)黑猩猩利用空間之模式 11
(三)遊客對黑猩猩之影響 11
二、紅毛猩猩 14
(一)紅毛猩猩行為模式 14
(二)紅毛猩猩利用空間之模式 14
(三)遊客對紅毛猩猩之影響 15
三、長鬃狒狒 17
(一)長鬃狒狒行為模式 17
(二)長鬃狒狒利用空間之模式 17
(三)遊客對長鬃狒狒之影響 17
四、黑冠猴 20
(一)黑冠猴行為模式 20
(二)黑冠猴利用空間之模式 20
(三)遊客對黑冠猴之影響 20
五、黑手長臂猿 22
(一)黑手長臂猿行為模式 22
(二)黑手長臂猿利用空間之模式 22
(三)遊客對黑手長臂猿之影響 22
六、白手長臂猿 25
(一)白手長臂猿行為模式 25
(二)白手長臂猿利用空間之模式 25
(三)遊客對白手長臂猿之影響 25
討論 27
一、圈養動物行為之改變 27
二、遊客對圈養動物的影響 29
參考文獻 31
圖 36
表 62
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