(18.207.129.82) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/19 20:09
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:張晉祥
研究生(外文):Chin-hsiang Chang
論文名稱:台灣產覆瓦刺冠軟珊瑚與踺形羽軟珊瑚化學成分及生物活性之研究
論文名稱(外文):Chemical Constituents and Bio-activity Studies of Formosan Soft Corals Capnella imbricata and Clavularia viridis
指導教授:杜昌益杜昌益引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chang-Yih Duh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋生物科技暨資源學系研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:207
中文關鍵詞:軟珊瑚抗發炎
外文關鍵詞:Clavularia viridisCapnella imbricata
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:193
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
台灣產覆瓦刺冠軟珊瑚 Capnella imbricata 之丙酮/二氯甲烷粗萃物,經層析分離後得到得 6 個新的 capnellene 化合物,為 8b,10a-diacetoxy-D9(12)-capnellene (1)、D9(12)-capnellene-5b,8b,10a-triol (3)、D9(12)-capnellene-8b,10a,13b-triol (4)、8b-acetoxy-D9(12)-capnellene (7)、D9(12)-capnellene-8b,14b-diol (8)、D9(10)-capnellene-12-ol-8-one (9),以及 3 個已知的 capnellene 化合物,分別為 D9(12)-capnellene-8b,10a-diol (2)、D9(12)-capnellene-10a-ol-8-one (5) 和 D9(12)-capnellene-8b-ol (6),還有 1 個新的 calamenene 化合物,為 (+)-15-hydroxy-calamenene (10)。
台灣產踺形羽軟珊瑚 Clavularia viridis 之二氯甲烷粗萃物,經層析分離後得到得 1 個新的 prostanoid 化合物,為 GN61-97-11-8 (11),和 5 個新的 steroids 化合物,分別為 GN61-91-141-14 (12)、GN61-91-141
-12 (13)、GN61-77-6-I (14)、GN61-77-6-E (15) 以及 GN61-97-9-6 (16)。
以上這些化合物的結構皆是經由大量廣泛的光譜分析及化學反應而建立。化合物 2 亦有做 Mosher 酯化反應決定其絕對立體化學。所有化合物均進行抗發炎活性測試,其中化合物 1-3、5 與化合物 12-16 對發炎性蛋白 iNOS (誘發型一氧化氮合成酶) 和 COX-2 (環氧酶-2) 有專一的抗發炎活性。
Chromatographic separation of acetone/methylene chloride extracts of Formosan soft coral Capnella imbricata (GN75) led to the isolations of six new capnellenes, 8b,10a-diacetoxy-D9(12)-capnellene (1), D9(12)-capnellene-5b,8b,10a-triol (3), D9(12)-capnellene-8b,10a,13b-triol (4), 8b-acetoxy-D9(12)
-capnellene (7), D9(12)-capnellene-8b,14b-diol (8), D9(10)-capnellene-12-ol-8-one (9), and three known compounds, D9(12)-capnellene-8b,10a-diol (2), D9(12)-capnellene-10a-ol-8-one (5), D9(12)-capnellene-8b-ol (6), one new calamenene, (+)-15-hydroxy-calamenene (10).
One new prostanoid, GN61-97-11-8 (11) and five new steroids, GN61-91-141-14 (12), GN61-91-141-12 (13), GN61-77-6-I (14), GN61-77-6-E (15) and GN61-97-9-6 (16) were isolated from the methylene chloride extracts of the Formosan soft coral Clavularia viridis (GN61).
All of these compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectral analysis and chemical reactions. The absolute structure of 2 was determined by MTPA esterifications. Compounds 1-3、5 and 12-16 showed more specific inhibition against the up-regulation of the pro-inflammatory iNOS and COX-2 proteins of LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells.
目錄
頁次
中文摘要 vi
英文摘要 viii
壹、緒論
一、前言 1
二、Capnella屬軟珊瑚之化學成分研究文獻回顧 3
三、踺形羽軟珊瑚Clavularia viridis之化學成分研究文獻回顧 14
四、研究目的與動機 28
貳、覆瓦刺冠軟珊瑚Capnella imbricata 化學成分之研究
一、生物材料採集與鑑定 29
二、覆瓦刺冠軟珊瑚Capnella imbricata之分類地位 29
三、覆瓦刺冠軟珊瑚化學成分之萃取與分離流程 29
四、覆瓦刺冠軟珊瑚化學成分之分離純化及化學轉變
1. GN75-16-13-2 (1) 之分離純化 32
2. GN75-16-8-7 (2) 之分離純化 34
3. GN75-16-8-7 (2) 之乙醯化 36
4. GN75-16-8-7 (2) 之(S)-MTPA ester 製備 38
5. GN75-16-8-7 (2) 之(R)-MTPA ester 製備 40
6. GN75-22-8-4 (3) 之分離純化 41
7. GN75-22-8-2 (4) 之分離純化 43
8. GN75-16-9-7-15 (5) 之分離純化 45
9. GN75-10-2 (6) 之分離純化 47
10. GN75-7-9-3-12 (7) 之分離純化 49
11. GN75-17-6-14 (8) 之分離純化 51
12. GN75-t-8 (9) 之分離純化 53
13. GN75-12-3-4 (10) 之分離純化 55
五、覆瓦刺冠軟珊瑚化學成分之結構解析
1. GN75-16-13-2 (1) 之結構解析 57
2. GN75-16-8-7 (2) 之結構解析 62
3. GN75-22-8-4 (3) 之結構解析 66
4. GN75-22-8-2 (4) 之結構解析 70
5. GN75-16-9-7-15 (5) 之結構解析 74
6. GN75-10-2 (6) 之結構解析 76
7. GN75-7-9-3-12 (7) 之結構解析 82
頁次
8. GN75-17-6-14 (8) 之結構解析 85
9. GN75-t-8 (9) 之結構解析 89
10. GN75-12-3-4 (10) 之結構解析 94
叁、踺形羽軟珊瑚Clavularia viridis化學成分之研究
一、生物材料採集與鑑定 100
二、踺形羽軟珊瑚Clavularia viridis之分類地位 100
三、踺形羽軟珊瑚化學成分之萃取與分離流程 100
四、踺形羽軟珊瑚化學成分之分離純化及化學轉變
1. GN61-97-11-8 (11) 之分離純化 103
2. GN61-97-11-8 (11) 之甲基化 105
3. GN61-91-141-14 (12) 之分離純化 107
4. GN61-91-141-14 (12) 之鹼水解 113
5. GN61-91-141-12 (13) 之分離純化 116
6. GN61-91-141-12 (13) 之鹼水解 119
7. GN61-77-6-I (14) 之分離純化 122
8. GN61-77-6-E (15) 之分離純化 125
9. GN61-97-9-6 (16) 之分離純化 128
五、踺形羽軟珊瑚化學成分之結構解析
1. GN61-97-11-8 (11) 之結構解析 131
2. GN61-91-141-14 (12) 之結構解析 136
3. GN61-91-141-12 (13) 之結構解析 141
4. GN61-77-6-I (14) 之結構解析 146
5. GN61-77-6-E (15) 之結構解析 152
6. GN61-97-9-6 (16) 之結構解析 157
肆、生物活性之研究
一、抗發炎活性檢測原理與方法 162
二、刺冠軟珊瑚之化學成分抗發炎測試結果 172
三、踺形羽軟珊瑚之化學成分抗發炎測試結果 173
伍、結論 174
陸、參考文獻 180
柒、附錄 190




圖目錄
頁次
圖一、化合物23-26之推測生合成前驅物 6
圖二、化合物65之系列反應過程 8
圖三、軟珊瑚Capnella imbricata化學成分之萃取與分離流程 31
圖四、化合物 1 之 2D 圖譜資料 61
圖五、化合物 2 之 Mosher 酯化反應後氫値差 64
圖六、化合物 2 之 Mosher 酯化反應後之 2D 圖譜資料 64
圖七、化合物 3 之 2D 圖譜資料 69
圖八、化合物 4 之 2D 圖譜資料 73
圖九、化合物 5 之 1D 圖譜資料 75
圖十、化合物 6 之 2D 圖譜資料 81
圖十一、化合物 7 之 2D 圖譜資料 84
圖十二、化合物 8 之 2D 圖譜資料 88
圖十三、化合物 9 之 2D 圖譜資料 93
圖十四、化合物 10 之 2D 圖譜資料 99
圖十五、軟珊瑚Clavularia viridis化學成分之萃取與分離流程 102
圖十六、化合物 11 及其衍化物之 2D 圖譜資料 135
圖十七、化合物12a 與已知steroids (210−213) 支鏈碳與部分氫值 139
圖十八、化合物 12 及其衍化物之 2D 圖譜資料 140
圖十九、化合物 13 及其衍化物之 2D 圖譜資料 145
圖二十、化合物 14 之 2D 圖譜資料 151
圖二十一、化合物 15 之 2D 圖譜資料 156
圖二十二、化合物 16 之 2D 圖譜資料 161
圖二十三、酯多醣體 (LPS) 之簡要主結構 164
圖二十四、白血球吞噬作用與氧化爆發機制 165
圖二十五、一氧化氮 (NO) 之合成路徑 167
圖二十六、前列腺素之合成路徑 169
圖二十七、capnellene 骨架化合物之推測生合成 176
圖二十八、steroids 類化合物之生合成可能路徑 177



表目錄
頁次
表一、化合物98、99、101-103 之抗真菌活性 12
表二、化合物2、2a和1之1H、13C NMR 之比較 65
表三、化合物3和2 之1H、13C NMR 比較表 68
表四、化合物4和2 之1H、13C NMR 比較表 72
表五、化合物2、6和65之1H、13C NMR 之比較表 80
表六、化合物8和6 之1H、13C NMR 比較表 85
表七、化合物13a與已知steroids (214-217) 支鏈13C-NMR之比較 144
表八、化合物13a與已知steroids (214-216) 支鏈1H-NMR之比較 144
表九、化合物 14 與已知 steroids 支鏈13C-NMR 之比較 149
表十、化合物 14 與已知 steroids 支鏈 1H-NMR 之比較 150
表十一、化合物 15 與已知 steroids 支鏈13C-NMR 之比較 155
表十二、化合物 16 與已知 steroids 支鏈 13C-NMR 之比較 160
表十三、已知 steroids 支鏈 1H-NMR 之比較 161
表十四、化合物1-3、5、9-10之抗發炎測試結果 172
表十五、化合物12-16之抗發炎測試結果 173
1. G.P. Miljanich, “Ziconotide: Neuronal Calcium
Channel Blocker for Treating Severe Chronic Pain.”
Current Medicinal Chemistry 2004, 11, 3029-3040.
2. B. M. Olivera, W. R. Gray, R. Zeikus, J. M. McIntosh,
J. Varga, J. Rivier, V. de Santos, and L. J.
Cruz, “Peptide Neurotoxins from Fish-
Hunting Cone Snails.” Science 1985, 230, 1338-
1343.
3. M. Kaisin, Y. M. Sheikh, L. J. Durham, C. Djerassi,
B. Tursch, D. Daloze, J. C. Braekman, D. Losman,
and R. Karlsson, “Capnellane – A New Tricyclic
Sesquiterpene Skeleton from the Soft Coral
Capnella imbricata. ”Tetrahedron Lett. 1974, 26,
2239-2242.
4. Y. M. Sheikh, G. Singy, M. Kaisin, H. Eggert, C.
Djerassi, B. Tursch, D. Daloze, and J. C.
Braekman, “Chemical Studies of Marine
Invertebrates -XIV. Four Representatives of a
Novel Sesquiterpene Class – The Capnellane
Skeleton. ”Tetrahedron 1976, 32, 1171-1178.
5. Y. M. Sheikh, C. Djerassi, J. C. Braekman, D. Daloze, M. Kaisin, B. Tursch, and R. Karlsson, “Chemical Studies Of Marine
Invertebrates--XXVI.D9(12)-Capnellene-3b,8b,10a,14-tetrol, a Novel Polyoxygenated Sesquiterpene from the Alcyonarian Capnella imbricata.” Tetrahedron 1977, 33, 2115-2117.
6. E. Ayanoglu, T. Gebreyesus, C. M. Beechan, C. Djerassi, and M. Kaisin, “Terpenoids LXXV. D9(12)-Capnellene, a New Sesquiterpene Hydrocarbon from the Soft Coral Capnella imbricata.” Tetrahedron Lett. 1978, 19, 1671-1674.
7. E. Ayanoglu, T. Gebreyesus, C. M. Beechan, and C. Djerassi, “Terpenoids LXXVI. Precapnelladiene, a Possible Biosynthetic Precursor of the Capnellane Skeleton.” Tetrahedron 1979, 35, 1035-1039.
8. M. Kaisin, J. C. Braekman, D. Daloze, and B. Tursch, “Novel Acetoxycapnellenes from the Alcyonacean Capnella imbricata.” Tetrahedron 1985, 41, 1067-1072.
9. L. A. Morris, M. Jaspars, K. Adamson, S. Woods, and H. M. Wallace, “The Capnellenes Rrvisited: New Structures and New Biological Activity.” Tetrahedron 1998, 54, 12953-12958.
10. G. J. Hooper, and M. T. Davies-Coleman, “New Metabolites from the South African Soft Coral Capnella thyrsoidea.” Tetrahedron 1995, 51, 9973-9984.
11. A. D. Wright, E. Goclik, and G. M. König, “Oxygenated Analogues of Gorgosterol and Ergosterol from the Soft Coral Capnella lacertiliensis.” J. Nat. Prod. 2003, 66, 305-307.
12. M. Kobayashi, N. K. Lee, B. H. Son, K. Yanagi, Y. Kyogoku, and I. Kitagawa, “Stoloniferone-A, -B, -C, and -D, Four New Cytotoxic Steroids from the Okinawan Soft Coral Clavularia Viridis.” Tetrahedron Lett. 1984, 25, 5925-5928.
13. K. Watanabe, M. Iwashima, and K. Iguchi, “New bioactive marine steroids from the Okinawan soft coral Clavularia viridis.” Steroids 1996, 61, 439-446.
14. C.-Y. Duh, A. A. H. El-Gamal, C.-J. Chu, S.-K. Wang, and C.-F. Dai, “New Cytotoxic Constituents from the Formosan Soft Corals Clavularia viridis and Clavularia violacea” J. Nat. Prod. 2002, 65, 1535-1539.
15. K. Iguchi, M. Iwashima, and K. Watanabe, “Stoloniolide I and II, New Marine Lactonic Steroids with an Unprecedented 1,10-Secoergostane Skeleton, Isolated from the Okinawan Soft Coral, Clavularia viridis.” Chemistry Lett. 1995, 1109-1110.
16. M. Iwashima, K. Nara, and K. Iguchi, “New marine steroids, yonarasterols, isolated from the Okinawan soft coral, Clavularia viridis.” Steroids 2000, 65, 130-137.
17. M. Iwashima, K. Nara, Y. Nakamichi, and K. Iguchi, “Three new chlorinated marine steroids, yonarasterols G, H and I, isolated from the Okinawan soft coral, Clavularia viridis .” Steroids 2001, 66, 25-32.
18. H. Kikuchi, Y. Tsukitani, K. Iguchi, and Y. Yamada, “Clavulones, New Type of Prostanoids from the Stolonifer Clavularia viridis Quoy and Gaimard” Tetrahedron Lett. 1982, 23, 5171−5174.
19. H. Kikuchi, Y. Tsukitani, K. Iguchi, and Y. Yamada, “Absolute Stereochemistry of New Prostanoids Clavulone I, II and III, from Clavularia viridis Quoy and Gaimard ” Tetrahedron Lett. 1983, 24, 1549−1552.
20. M. Kobayashi, T. Yasuzawa, M. Yoshihara, H. Akutsu, Y. Kyogoku, and I. Kitagawa, “Four New Prostanoids: Claviridenone-A, -B, -C, and -D, from the Okinawan Soft Coral Clavularia viridis.” Tetrahedron Lett. 1982, 23, 5331-5334.
21. I. Kitagawa, M. Kobayashi, T. Yasuzawa, B. W. Son, M. Yoshihara, and Y. Kyogoku, “New Prostanoids from Soft Coral.” Tetrahedron 1985, 41, 995-1005.
22. K. Iguchi, Y. Yamada, H. Kikuchi, and Y. Tsukitani, “Novel C-20-Oxygenated Prostanoids, 20-Acetoxyclavulones, from the Stolonifer Clavularia viridis Quoy and Gaimard ” Tetrahedron Lett. 1983, 24, 4433-4434.
23. K. Iguchi, S. Kaneta, K. Mori, Y. Yamada, A. Honda, and Y. Mori, “Chlorovulones, New Halogenated Marine Prostanoids with an Antitumor Activity from the Stolonifer Clavularia viridis Quoy And Gaimard ” Tetrahedron Lett. 1985, 26, 5787-5790.
24. H. Nagaoka, K. Iguchi, T. Miyakoshi, N. Yamada, and Y. Yamada, “Determination of Absolute Configuration of Chlorovulones by CD Measurement and by Enantioselective Synthesis of (-)-Chlorovulone II ” Tetrahedron Lett. 1986, 27, 223-226.
25. K. Iguchi, S. Kaneta, K. Mori, Y. Yamada, A. Honda, and Y. Mori, “Bromovulone I and Iodovulone I, Unprecedented Brominated and Iodinated Marine Prostanoids with Antitumour Activity isolated from the Japanese Stolonifer Clavularia viridis Quoy and Gaimard.” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1986, 981-982.
26. K. Iguchi, S. Kaneta, K. Mori, and Y. Yamada,”A New Marine Epoxy Prostanoid with an Antiproliferative Activity from the Stolonifer Clavularia viridis Quoy and Gaimard.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1987, 35, 4375-4376.
27. A. Honda, Y. Mori, K. Iguchi, and Y. Yamada,”Antiproliferative and Cytotoxic Effects of Newly Discovered Halogenated Coral Prostanoids from the Japanese Stolonifer Clavularia viridis on Human Myeloid Leukemia Cells in Culture.” Molecular Pharmacology 1987, 32, 530-535.
28. M. Iwashima, K. Okamoto, and K. Iguchi,” Clavirins, a new type of marine oxylipins with growth-inhibitory activity from the Okinawan soft coral, Clavularia viridis. ” Tetrahedron Lett. 1999, 40, 6455-6459.
29. K. Watanabe, M. Sekine, H. Takahashi, and K. Iguchi,” New Halogenated Marine Prostanoids with Cytotoxic Activity from the Okinawan Soft Coral Clavularia viridis.” J. Nat. Prod. 2001, 64, 1421-1425.
30. Y.-C. Shen, Y.-B. Cheng, Y.-C. Lin, J.-H. Guh, C.-M. Teng, and C.-L. Ko,” New Prostanoids with Cytotoxic Activity from Taiwanese Octocoral Clavularia viridis.” J. Nat. Prod. 2004, 67, 542−547.
31. K. Iguchi, M. Iwashima, and K. Watanabe,”Clavulolactones, New Marine Prostanoids with a g-Lactonic Moiety in the a-Side-Chain from the Okinawan Soft Coral Clavularia viridis.” J. Nat. Prod. 1995, 58, 790-793.
32. K. Watanabe, M. Iwashima, and K. Iguchi,” New Marine Prostanoid Carboxylate Salts from the Okinawan Soft Coral Clavularia viridis.” J.Nat. Prod. 1996, 59, 980-982.
33. M. Iwashima, K. Watanabe, and K. Iguchi,” New Marine Prostanoids, Preclavulone Lactones, from the Okinawan Soft Coral Clavularia viridis. ” Tetrahedron Lett. 1997, 38, 8319-8322.
34. M. Iwashima, K. Okamoto, Y. Miyai, and K. Iguchi,”4-Epiclavulones, New Marine Prostanoids from the Okinawan Soft Coral, Clavularia viridis.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1999, 47, 884-886.
35. M. Iwashima, K. Okamoto, F. Konno, and K. Iguchi,” New Marine Prostanoids from the Okinawan Soft Coral, Clavularia viridis.” J. Nat.Prod. 1999, 62, 352-354.
36. K. Watanabe, M. Sekine, and K. Iguchi,” Isolation and Structures of New Halogenated Prostanoids from the Okinawan Soft Coral Clavularia viridis.” J. Nat. Prod. 2003, 66, 1434-1440.
37. K. Watanabe, M. Sekine, and K. Iguchi,”Isolation of Three Marine Prostanoids, Possible Biosynthetic Intermediates for Clavulones, from the Okinawan Soft Coral Clavularia viridis.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2003, 51, 909-913.
38. K. Mori, K. Iguchi, N. Yamada, and Y. Yamada,” Stolonidiol, a new marine diterpenoid with a strong cytotoxic activity from the Japanese soft coral” Tetrahedron Lett. 1987, 28, 5673-5676.
39. K. Mori, K. Iguchi, N. Yamada, Y. Yamada, and Y. Inouye, ”Bioactive Marine Diterpenoids from Japanese Soft Coral of Clavularia sp.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1988, 36, 2840-2852.
40. J. Su, Y. Zhong, K. Shi, Q. Cheng, J. K. Snyder, S. Hu, and Y. Huang, “Clavudiol A and Clavirolide A, Two Marine Dolabellane Diterpenes from the Soft Coral CIavularia viridis. ”J. Org. Chem. 1991, 56, 2337-2344.
41. J. Su, Y. Zhong, and L. Zeng,” Four Novel Diterpenoids: Clavirolides B, C, D, and E from the Chinese Soft Coral Clavularia Viridis.” J. Nat. Prod. 1991, 54, 380-385.
42. M. Yasumoto, K. Mada, T. Ooi, and T. Kusumi,” New Terpenoid Components from the Volatile Oils of the Soft Corals Clavularia viridis and Sarcophyton acutangulum.” J. Nat. Prod. 2000, 63, 1534-1536.
43. M. Iwashima, I. Terada, K. Okamoto, and K. Iguchi,” Tricycloclavulone and Clavubicyclone, Novel Prostanoid-Related Marine Oxylipins, Isolated from the Okinawan Soft Coral Clavularia viridis.” J. Org. Chem. 2002, 67, 2977-2981.
44. M. Suzuki, K. Watanabe, S. Fujiwara, T. Kurasawa, T. Wakabayashi, M. Tsuzuki, K. Iguchi, and T. Yamori,” Isolation of Peridinin-Related Norcarotenoids with Cell Growth-Inhibitory Activity from the Cultured Dinoflagellate of Symbiodinium sp., a Symbiont of the Okinawan Soft Coral Clavularia viridis, and Analysis of Fatty Acids of the Dinoflagellate.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2003, 51, 724-727.
45. J. A. Dale, and H. S. Mosher,” Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Enantiomer Reagents. Configurational Correlations via Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Chemical Shifts of Diastereomeric Mandelate, O-Methylmandelate, and a-Methoxy-a- trifluoromethylphenylacetate (MTPA) Esters.” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1973, 95, 512-517.
46. G. R. Sullivan, J. A. Dale, and H. S. Mosher,” Correlation of Configuration and "F Chemical Shifts of a-Methoxy-a-Trifluoro- methyl-phenylacetate Derivatives.” J. Org. Chem. 1973, 88, 2143-2147.
47. I. Ohtani, T. Kusumi, Y. Kashman, and H. Kakisawa,” High-Field FT NMR Application of Mosher’s Method. The Absolute Configurations of Marine Terpenoids.” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1991, 113, 4092-4095.
48. G.-H. Wang, J.-H. Su, C.-T. Chen, C.-Y. Duh, C.-F. Dai, and J.-H. Sheu, ”Novel Polyhydroxysteroids from the Formosan Soft Coral Sarcophyton glaucum.” J. Chin. Chem. Soc., 2004, 51, 217-220.
49. M. Kobayashi, and H. Mitsuhashi, ”Marine Stweols XIV. Isolation of (24S)-24-Methyl-5a-cholestane-3b,5,6b,25x,26-pentol from the Soft Coral Sarcophyton glaucum.” Chem. Pharm. Bull., 1983, 31, 4127-4129.
50. M.V. D`Auria, F. De Riccardis, L. Minale, and R. Riccio, ”Synthesis of 24-Methyl-26-hydroxysteroid Side-chain: Models for Stereochemical Assignments in Polyhydroxylated Marine Steroids” J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1, 1990, 2889-2893.
51. P. V. Demarco, E. Farkas, D. Doddrell, B. L. Mylari, and E. Wenkert, “Pyridine-Induced Solvent Shifts in the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra of Hydroxylic Compounds.” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1968, 90, 5480-5486.
52. F. Zollo, E. Finamore and L. Minale,” Starfish Saponins, XXXI. Novel Polyhydroxysteroids and Steroidal Glycosides from the Starfish Sphaerodiscus placenta.” J. Nat. Prod. 1987, 50, 794−799.
53. W. Wang, F. Li, Y. Park, J. Hong, C.-O. Lee, J. Y. Kong, S. Shin, K. S. Im, and J. H. Jung,” Bioactive Sterols from the Starfish Certonardoa semiregularis.” J. Nat. Prod. 2003, 66, 384−391.
54. W. Wang, H. Jang, J. Hong, C.-O. Lee, K. S. Im, S.-J. Bae, and J. H. Jung,” Additional Cytotoxic Sterols and Saponins from the Starfish Certonardoa semiregularis.” J. Nat. Prod. 2004, 67, 1654−1660.
55. J.-H. Sheu, K.-C. Chang, and C.-Y. Duh,” A Cytotoxic 5a,8a-Epidioxysterol from a Soft Coral Sinularia Species.” J. Nat. Prod. 2000, 63, 149-151.
56. P. A. Blanc, and C. Djerassi,” Isolation and Structure Elucidation of 22(S),23(S)-Methylenecholesterol. Evidence for Direct Bioalkylation of 22-Dehydrocholesterol1.” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1980, 102, 7113-7114.
57. J. L. C. Wright, A. G. McInnes, S. Shimizu, D. G. Smith, J. A. Walter, D. Idler, and W. Khalil, ”Identification of C-24 alkyl epimers of marine sterols by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.” Can. J. Chem. 1978, 56, 1898-1903.
58. N. Koizumi, Y. Fujimoto, T. Takeshita, and N. Ikekawa,”Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of 24-Substituted Steroids.” Chem. Pharm.Bull. 1979, 27, 38-42.
59. C. Anta, N. González, J. Rodríguez, and C. Jiménez.” A New Secosterol from the Indonesian Octocoral Pachyclavularia violacea.” J. Nat. Prod. 2002, 65, 1357-1359.
60. W. Zhang, Y.-W. Guo, E. Mollo, A. Fontana, and G. Cimino,” Acanthovagasteroids A-D, Four New 19-Hydroxylated Steroids from the South China Sea Gorgonian Acanthogorgia vagae Aurivillius.” J. Nat. Prod. 2004, 67, 2083-2085.
61. A. Migliuolov, I. Icciaui, and D. Sica,” Steroidal Ketones from the Sponge Geodza cydonzum.” J. Nat. Prod. 1990, 53, 1262-1266.
62. Y.-H. Kuo and M.-T Yu, ”Two New Sesquiterpenes,
(-)-15-Hydroxycalamenene and (-)-1-Hydroxy-1,3,5-bisabolatrien-10-one, from the Heartwood of Juniperus formosana HAY. var. concolor HAY.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1996, 44, 2150-2152.
63. 范念祖,2006,國立暨南國際大學應用化學研究所 ” 台灣本土藥用植物之抗發炎功效研究 ” , p.9-16, 39。
64. 潘威仁,2004,南台科技大學 ” 朱紅栓菌生物活性探討 ”, p.10-13, 21。
65. 林義峰,2004,國防醫學院生理學研究所碩士論文 ” Simvastatin 抑制血小板凝集及抗發炎機轉探討”, p.49-59
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔