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研究生:柯慧玲
研究生(外文):Hui-Ling Ko
論文名稱:南台灣墾丁周邊海域仔魚群聚之時空分布及DNA生命條碼在鑑種上之應用
論文名稱(外文):Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Larval Fish Community in Kenting, South Taiwan, and the Application of DNA Barcode Technique on the Species Identification
指導教授:邵廣昭邵廣昭引用關係劉莉蓮
指導教授(外文):Kwang-Tsao ShaoLi-Lian Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋生物研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:123
中文關鍵詞:墾丁海域仔魚群聚生命條碼
外文關鍵詞:Kentinglarval fishcommunitybarcode
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:11
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  本研究之目的分為下列兩部分,第一、為了解墾丁海域仔魚入添之類型與機制,探討仔魚群聚是否有季節性、離岸遠近、表深層以及有無日夜垂直洄游的仔魚種類,並探討仔魚群聚與環境因子 (溫度、鹽度及葉綠素)間之相關;第二、為了探討仔魚群聚研究是否受鑑種能力的限制,嘗試使用COI序列來解決雀鯛科及蝴蝶魚科仔魚鑑種問題,並進一步利用較低分類層級來分析仔魚群聚。此部分同時可解決雀鯛科及蝴蝶魚科仔魚的鑑種問題,並建立已完成鑑種之仔魚外部形態檢索表。
  仔魚群聚部分係使用北太平洋動浮網,於2001至2002年進行四季表、深水層之採集,及於2004年春季對日夜變化做定點監測。四季共採獲51科86個分類單元 (taxa)共527尾仔魚,經Randomization test檢定結果發現仔魚豐度在不同水層間有顯著性差異 (P < 0.05);科數與季節間亦有顯著性差異 (P < 0.05)。正典對應分析 (Canonical correspondence analysis: CCA)的結果指出影響仔魚群聚的主要因子為溫度和鹽度,次要因子為葉綠素。日夜監測之實驗結果共採獲34科44個分類單元158尾仔魚,仔魚豐度及多樣性以夜間最高,日出後最低,隨著入夜其豐度與科數有增高的趨勢。
  COI序列鑑種部分之實驗係於2005-2007年間利用燈光誘捕器於夜間誘捕後期仔魚,四次採集共捕獲1,505尾仔魚,分科後依形態再細分至不同類型,並將雀鯛科及蝴蝶魚科仔魚與其成魚經COI序列比對後,進行聚類分析並與只能鑑定至科的形態分析結果做比較。雀鯛科由外部形態可分為15個類型,經COI定序後確認為7屬14種,其中11個類型可確認至種,3個類型目前只能確認至屬。蝴蝶魚科依形態可分為5個類型,經COI定序後確認均為蝴蝶魚屬,共有4個類型已確認至種,1個類型只能確認至屬。由鑑種前後群聚之MDS圖看來,細分後群聚有明顯季節及離岸距離差異,證實鑑定至較低分類層級是有助於群聚生態之研究。
  The main objectives of this study is to: (1) understand the recruitment pattern and mechanisms of fish larvae in the kenting waters, such as seasonal variation, distance from shoreline, depth, and diurnal migration of the assemblages of larvae fish. The correlation of the tempo-spatial variations of larval fish communities with temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll were also investigated; (2) to apply DNA barcode technique to identify fish larvae to lower taxonomic categories so as to reveal the temporal or spatial variation of the community structure of fish larvae that was unclear if the identification could only up to higher level. Additionally, DNA barcoding can help us to compile the diagnostic keys for larval fish species identifications.
  For fish larval communities studies, fish larvae were collected from four seasons and two different depths during 2001-2002, and every two hours in a day during 10-11 April 2004 by the standard ORI net in Kenting. 527 specimens belonging to 86 taxa and 51 families of fish larvae were collected during 2001-2002. Randomization tests show significant differences between fish larval abundance vs. depths, and the number of families vs. seasons. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) shows that temperature and salinity were the main environmental factors, and chlorophyll was the second. 158 specimens belonging to 44 taxa and 34 families of fish larvae were collected during 24 hour survey. The abundance and diversity of fish larvae increase after sunset, and reach to their climax in the midnight.
  For COI species identification, 1,505 of the post-flexion stage fish larvae specimens belong to 44 taxa and 34 families were collected by the four-time surveys of light trap in Kenting coral reef area during 2005-2007. Fifteen types of damaselfish larvae and five types of butterflyfish larvae were identified based on their morphological characters. The COI were used to identify the morphological types of damselfishes and butterflyfishes to species level. Fifteen morphological types of damselfishes (Pomacentridae) can be identified to 11 species and three genera. Five morphological types of butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae) can be assigned to four species and one genus. After COI identification to the lower taxonomic levels, the ordination analysis can clearly reveal the seasonal variation. The result shows that applying DNA barcode technique to identify fish larvae to lower taxonomic categories indeed can reveal temporal or spatial variation of the community structure of fish larvae.
謝辭………………………………………………………….i
中文摘要…………………………………………………iii
Abstract……………………………………………………iv
目錄…………………………………………………………vi
表目錄……………………………………………………...vii
圖目錄……………………………………………………..viii
壹、前言…………………………………………………...1
貳、材料方法……………………………………………...6
參、結果………………………………………………….14
肆、討論………………………………………………….29
伍、結論…………………………………………………36
陸、參考文獻……………………………………………37
附錄1. 2001年12月至2002年4月動浮網拖網所採集仔魚組成與個體數………83
附錄2. 2002年7月至2002年9月動浮網拖網所採集仔魚組成與個體數………..87
附錄3. 2004年4月24小時動浮網拖網所採集仔魚組成與個體數……………….90
附錄4. 2005年9月燈光誘捕器所採集仔魚組成與個體數………………………..92
附錄5. 2006年9月燈光誘捕器所採集仔魚組成與個體數………………………..94
附錄6. 2006年12月燈光誘捕器所採集仔魚組成與個體數………………………97
附錄7. 2007年 3月燈光誘捕器所採集仔魚組成與個體數………………………98
附錄8. COI物種鑑定所使用雀鯛科和蝴蝶魚科成魚學名、中文名及採集記錄..100
附錄9. COI物種鑑定所使用15種外部形態雀鯛科及5種外部形態蝴蝶魚科仔魚之採集記錄…………104
附錄10. 雀鯛科仔魚外部形態型之描繪圖…………….106
附錄11. 蝴蝶魚仔魚外部形態型之描繪圖......……….111
個人履歷…………………………………………………113
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