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研究生:簡銘伸
研究生(外文):Ming-shen Jian
論文名稱:以資源管理為基礎在異質性行動無線網路做分散式路由挑選之機制
論文名稱(外文):Routing Distribution and Selection Based on Resource Management in Heterogeneous Mobile Wireless Networks
指導教授:李宗南李宗南引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chungnan Lee
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:英文
論文頁數:166
中文關鍵詞:異質性行動無線網路路由選擇資源管理
外文關鍵詞:Mobile Wireless NetworksRoute SelectionResource ManagementHeterogeneous
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於無線隨意式網路中,受限於環境與硬體設備,使用者所能使用之資源如:頻寬、電力、機台之計算能力等,均為有限的。加之以各使用者具有不同地移動特性;相異性質之無線網路亦具有不同之傳輸速度、覆蓋區域、功率大小以及通訊協定,致使透過行動機台做為多重中繼點建立與維持通訊連線相當困難。為了能夠在動態的無線網路架構中搜尋並建立通訊連線,在本論文中針對以下之問題來探討:
1. 於單質性無線網路中,若僅考量單一或少數的機台資源,無法適當的挑選與分散無線路由,並降低行動機台的負載。
2. 不同性質之無線網路具有相異的資源性質,既有的單質性路由挑選與分散機制無法適應混合不同資源性質的異質性網路。
3. 多數的路由挑選機制僅適應於特定單一型態的無線網路環境(如預先動作型態或被動型態),對於環境的變化與察知、使用者移動特性的處理過於單一性,無法應付不同資源性質、不同型態的異質性網路。
於單質性無線網路環境,受限於環境與硬體設備,個別之行動機台於頻寬、電力消耗、計算能力有所不同。為了能夠衡量個別行動機台所具有的資源,我們提出考慮多重資源變因之無線隨意式網路分散式路由選擇架構。首先針對個別行動機台所具有的資源,包含頻寬、電力消耗、計算能力等,提出個別的資源評量與管理方式;其次,透過所提出之一系列的演算法,整體衡量一個行動平台是否能夠支援通訊品質需求,並將由個別資源評量所得到的結果,透過演算法轉換成為瓶頸資源資訊,藉以得到針對單一行動機台資源之整體評價;最後,利用所提出的路由搜尋與挑選之演算法,評價並獲得所有搜尋得到的路由之瓶頸資源資訊,並從之選取最適合、資源最充裕且分散於不同的中繼點之路由,從而達到負載分散與平衡的目的。
考量現今無線網路架構,包含第三代無線通訊系統、無線區域網路、無線隨意式網路等,不同的網路系統於傳輸速率、頻寬、電力消耗、傳輸距離等,皆具有不同的屬性。換言之,單一同質性無線網路架構的路由選擇演算法,無法直接廣泛使用在不同的無線通訊系統。於本論文中,具有基地台的無線區域網路與無線隨意式網路整合成單一的異質性無線網路;而於混合不同資源性質的單一異質性網路中,同時針對不同的無線網路系統中的資源屬性如:傳輸速率、頻寬、電力消耗、傳輸距離等,提出個別資源屬性之評量方法,並藉由適於異質性無線網路之資源評價與路由挑選演算法,根據整合個別資源屬性評價後的資訊以及路徑瓶頸資源資訊,搜尋及挑選耗費成本最低、資源最充裕之路由。
除了考慮同質、異質性無線網路以及個別行動平台資源的特性,路由搜尋與選擇理論的型態也會影響並導致不同的成本與效能。在本篇論文中,路由搜尋與選擇理論被定義與分類為兩種型態:預先動作型態(紀錄表單驅動型態)的協定與被動型態(來源搜尋型態)的協定。預先動作型態的協定付出了記憶體與週期性更新記錄表單(頻寬消耗)的代價以便直接挑選路由。相反的,被動型態的協定節省了此類代價,但卻可能在搜尋與挑選路徑的過程中造成較多的網路擁擠。為了能夠減少整體在搜尋與挑選路徑的成本,本篇論文亦提出了基於使用者移動特性之異質性無線網路以環境察知為基礎的調適性管理方法,挑選適當型態的路由搜尋與選擇理論以減少整體搜尋路由成本。在調適性管理方法中我們提出了型態選擇流程,針對不同型態之通訊協定,相對於使用者的移動性,提出個別型態之成本評價方法,用以衡量使用預先動作型態與被動型態個別所需要的成本,依照評價的結果,需付出較少成本、較為適當使用於即時之異質性無線網路環境的通訊協定將會被選擇用來搜尋與維持通訊路由。
經由模擬之結果,於本論文中所提出之路由選擇機制,透過所提出的路由選擇機制演算法所選擇之路徑,可以維持較久的時間,減少重新建立連線所耗費的時間與資源。不論是在單質性或是異質性,除了可以有效的分散流量、使流量負載更為平衡。針對使用者的移動性,可以選擇適當的路由通訊協定。並且有效降低路由成本與中斷機率。綜合模擬結果,本論文得到以下之貢獻:
1. 提出於單質性無線網路之行動機台資源個別與整體評量與管理方式,並依此挑選與分散能夠支援通訊品質需求之路由,中繼行動機台負載可以獲得降低。
2. 將不同性質之無線網路整合成為一個異質性無線網路,並提出於混合不同資源性質的異質性網路中之路由搜尋、挑選與維護之機制。
3. 定義分類路由搜尋與挑選之演算法,並提出基於使用者移動特性之異質性無線網路、考量不同型態之網路路由搜尋成本、以環境察知為基礎的調適性管理方法,藉以降低路徑搜尋、挑選與維護之成本。
In wireless ad hoc networks, the resources such as bandwidth, power, computing ability, etc., for end users are limited by the environments and hardware. In addition, the mobility of each user is different. Furthermore, the varied wireless networks with different properties such as transmission rate, coverage, power and protocols make it rarely difficult to establish and maintain the communications through the multiple intermediate nodes which are mobile devices. This dissertation will focus on the following three issues:
1. Most homogeneous wireless networks only considering one or less resources of the mobile device can not select and distribute the routes. In addition, it can cause the load of the intermediate nodes to increase.
2. The various wireless networks have different characteristics of resources. The route selection and distribution algorithms proposed before in homogeneous wireless networks are not adapted for the heterogeneous wireless networks.
3. Most route selection and distribution algorithms are designed for specific type of wireless environments (such as only for proactive type or reactive type). For different environment and different mobility, its cost will be different. To allow an environment-aware based adaptive management for heterogeneous wireless networks with different characteristics of resources becomes an important issue.
In homogeneous wireless ad hoc networks, the resources of the mobile devices such as bandwidth, power, computing ability, etc., are limited and different by the environments and hardware. To evaluate the individual resource of each mobile device, the route distribution and selection algorithm considering the multiple resource variations in wireless ad hoc networks is proposed. First, the evaluation and management for individual resource of each mobile device such as bandwidth, power, and computing ability, are proposed. Second, according to the proposed algorithm, a mobile device can be estimated whether it supports the QoS or not. In addition, these resources evaluation results are transformed as the bottleneck resource information. At last, according to the bottleneck resource information of all the found routes, the route distributed through different intermediate nodes with most resources is selected for load distribution and balance.
Considering the wireless network infrastructure today including 3G wireless communication, IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network, and wireless ad hoc networks, the characteristics such as transmission rates, bandwidth, power consumption, and transmission range of these wireless structures are not the same. In other words, the routing selection algorithm for homogeneous wireless networks may not be flexible for another wireless network. In this thesis, these different wireless network structures are integrated into one heterogeneous wireless network. Individual characteristics such as transmission rates, bandwidth, power consumption, and transmission range of these wireless structures are evaluated. According to the adaptive resource evaluation and route selection algorithm for the heterogeneous wireless networks, the route with the lowest cost and most resources is selected based on the integrated information of each resource estimation and the bottleneck information of each route found.
Besides considering the characteristic of the heterogeneous wireless networks, the module (type) of the route selection and distribution algorithms also induces different costs and performance. The existing algorithms can be defined and divided into two typical types: proactive (table-driven) protocol and reactive (source initiated) protocol. The proactive type protocol pays the memory and periodical update (bandwidth consumption) costs for selecting the routing directly. In opposite, the reactive type protocol saves the costs but may increase the overhead for finding a routing path to the destination. To decrease the total costs of finding and maintaining routing paths, the environment-aware based adaptive management for heterogeneous wireless networks is proposed in this thesis. Corresponding to the movement of the users, the appropriate type of the routing algorithm should be selected for reducing the total costs of finding routing paths. In the adaptive management, we propose the type selection process to individually evaluate the cost of the two type protocols (proactive and reactive) via considering the protocols and the mobility of the users. According to the evaluation results, the appropriate protocol with less cost will be selected for finding and maintaining the routes in the heterogeneous wireless networks.
According to the simulation, the routing selection and distribution algorithm proposed in this dissertation can not only effectively distribute the routing paths but also balance the load within homogeneous or heterogeneous wireless networks. Corresponding to the mobility of the users, the suitable type of routing protocol can be selected. Furthermore, the cost for routing paths searching, selection and maintenance is decreased. The block rate of these routing paths is reduced. Overall, according to the simulation, this dissertation makes the major contributions as follows:
1. The individual resource evaluations and managements for the mobile devices in the homogeneous wireless networks are proposed. The routes which satisfy the QoS can be selected and distributed according to the proposed algorithm.
2. The various wireless networks with different are integrated into a heterogeneous wireless network. The route search, selection, and maintenance algorithm for the hybrid properties heterogeneous wireless networks is proposed.
3. The classification to separate and classify the route search and selection algorithms is proposed. Corresponding to the mobility of the users, the environment-aware based adaptive management for heterogeneous wireless networks is proposed to reduce the costs caused by route search, selection, and maintenance.
1. Introduction 1
1.1. Motivation and Problems 1
1.2. Issues in MANET 12
1.3. Issues in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks 14
1.4. Researches and Contributions 15
1.5. Organization of the Dissertation 18
2. Related Work 19
2.1. Proactive Mobile Ad hoc Networks 19
2.1.1. Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Routing 19
2.1.2. Clusterhead Gateway Switch Routing 20
2.1.3. Wireless Routing Protocol 22
2.2. Reactive Mobile Ad hoc Networks 23
2.2.1. Dynamic Source Routing 24
2.2.2. Signal Stability Routing 25
2.2.3. Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing 26
2.2.4. Zone Routing Protocol 27
2.3. Multiple Paths Routing in Ad-hoc Networks 27
3. Proposed Algorithm for Homogeneous Mobile Ad hoc Networks 29
3.1. Resource Management in Routing Path Discovery Algorithm 31
3.1.1. Bandwidth Management Algorithm 33
3.1.2. Computing Efficiency Management Algorithm 36
3.1.3. Battery Power Consumption Management Algorithm 38
3.1.4. Traffic Load Management Algorithm 39
3.1.5. Routing Path Discovery Algorithm 41
3.2. Routing Distribution and Selection Algorithm 48
3.2.1. Single path Multi-hops Homogeneous MANET 53
3.2.3. Multiple paths Multi-hops Homogeneous MANET 68
3.3. Routing Path Maintenance 72
3.4. Simulation 74
3.4.1. Simulation for Single Path Multi-Hops Homogeneous MANET 74
3.4.2. Simulation for Multiple Path Multi-Hops Homogeneous MANET 83
4. Proposed Algorithm for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks 90
4.1. The Topology of Heterogeneous Wireless Networks 91
4.2. The Routing Distribution and Selection Algorithm 94
4.2.1. Type Selection Process 97
4.2.2. Routing Discovery Process 101
4.2.3. Handoff and Maintenance Process 108
4.3. The Routing Distribution and Selection Algorithm of HWN 109
4.4. Simulation 112
4.4.1. Adaptive Type Selection Process in Cellular System 112
4.4.2. Adaptive Type Selection Process in MANET 117
4.4.3. Route Selection Phase 123
5. Discussions 129
6. Conclusions 138
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