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研究生:黃進元
研究生(外文):Chin-yuan Huang
論文名稱:以框架理論探討軟體委外衝突
論文名稱(外文):The Software Outsourcing Conflict - A study based on the Frame Theory
指導教授:林信惠林信惠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lin Hsin-Hui
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:資訊管理學系研究所
學門:電算機學門
學類:電算機一般學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:133
中文關鍵詞:軟體委外衝突解決框架理論衝突原因
外文關鍵詞:Conflict ResolutionCauses of ConflictSoftware OutsourcingFraming Theory
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軟體委外開發早已是政府與企業取得資訊系統很普遍的作法。軟體委外固然有許多好處,但若對外包沒有正確瞭解,則不但無法達到預期效果,很可能還會帶來一些令人頭痛的問題。從過去的研究數據或實際參與專案開發的經驗,都顯示了有很多的問題,尤其在系統開發期間總有許多分工與參與者,衝突很容易成為其中一種如影隨形的問題,如果沒有及時化解或找出原因,很可能就會對專案造成很大傷害。例如,模糊的規格文件與需求,就隱藏著未解決的衝突,當系統錯誤一直累積到最後沒有及時處理,很可能就是一個衝突點。雖然如此,但是絕大多數的開發團隊都不會特別重視衝突發生的原因與解決的方法,卻僅在意團隊合作與專業精神。過去少有針對軟體委外介於顧客與外包商間引起衝突的研究,大多僅於組織間或個人間的衝突研究。而且,大多數採用的研究方法以問卷或個案訪談為主,較少有實地參與衝突事件的發生或針對引起衝突的來龍去脈深入研究,並且持續一段時間的蒐集、整理與分析各種衝突的現象,找出主要原因,達到更深入的了解。
本研究方法以實際參與三個個案的研究,進行事件觀察、紀錄、訪談及資料蒐集,然後深入了解有關顧客與外包商之間引起衝突的現象,再根據框架理論解釋研究期間雙方對衝突事件的看法與認知。然後以立場、特性、事實、權力、輸贏等五種框架分析軟體委外的衝突原因,以程序框架處理衝突解決的策略。尤其,在個案資料蒐集完成後,使用持續比較法做為資料分析歸納的基礎。其目的乃在交叉比對個案資料,以便前後對照找出衝突原因與解決策略。
經由本研究的結果可以幫助軟體業界朋友在軟體委外過程如遇到衝突或發現潛在衝突問題時,可以對照了解與參考實務案例,然後依據衝突管理程序解決彼此的爭議,達到雙贏的目的。
Software development outsourcing is a very common way to gain source for information system among government and private business. Although there are lots of advantages of software development outsourcing, if one do not really understanding outsourcing correctly, not only expected results cannot be met, there will be additional problems. From the past research data and real cases, there are lots of problems shown. There are always lots of participants involved in product development, thus conflicts are very closely associated with participants. If conflicts do not get solved immediately or root caused had not been found right away, conflicts always results in large damages to developments. For example, there are hidden conflicts with in ambiguous document format and request. When mistakes stack up and do not get solved right away, they will become potential conflicts. However, most members do not pay too much attention to the reasons how conflict occurred or to ways of solving but pay more attention on teamwork and professionalism. There were lots of research done in the past regarding the conflicts between customers and suppliers of software development outsoursing; most of them are limited in reseach conflicts of orgination and individuals. Most research methods are market research or individual interviews there is no in depth research regarding the conflict events with long period of data collection and analysis; also tracking the major factors for the root causes.
This research method involoved two real cases. We observe, record, and collect data from the real events and interviews participants. We investigate the causes of conflicts between customers and outsourcing suppliers by framing theory. Then we analyzed the cognition of customers and outsourcing suppliers toward conflicts during the research period. Then, this research result came from using six main conflict frames work as conflict types : identity, characterization, fact, power, loose versus gains, process. After the data was collected, we use consistent comparison as a foundation. The purpose is to cross exam the data and found the root causes before and after conflict resolution.
In software industry, when people encounter conflicts or found problems of conflict, this research helps them to understand the root cause faster and it provides great resource for project managers. By using real cases records and results as examples to find the root cause or potential problems; people could come to neutral agreement by using conflict management to satisfy both parties.
目 錄
第壹章、緒論 1
第一節、研究背景與動機 1
第二節、研究目的 3
第貳章、文獻探討 4
第一節、軟體委外之定義 4
第二節、衝突相關研究探討 4
第三節、衝突框架(CONFLICT FRAMES) 7
第參章、研究方法 16
第一節、研究架構 16
第二節、質性研究法 20
第三節、研究步驟 20
第肆章、個案分析 29
第一節、個案A介紹 29
第二節、個案A資料分析 34
第三節、個案B介紹 46
第四節、個案B資料分析 55
第五節、個案C介紹 72
第六節、個案C資料分析 81
第伍章、結論與貢獻 102
第一節、結論 102
第二節、對實務的貢獻 107
參考文獻 108
附錄一 111
附錄二 114
附錄三 121
中文部份:
林信惠、黃明祥、王文良,軟體專案管理,智勝文化,2005年再版
孫思源,由社會交換理論探討資訊系統委外合夥關係之影響因素,國立中山大學資訊管理學系博士論文,2001年
王文科、王智宏,教育研究法,五男圖書,2005年第九版
王文科、王智宏編譯,質的教育研究-概念分析,師大書苑,2002年
王存國,影響軟體系統委外成效因素之研究-商譽、交易特性、社會關係與服務品質,管理學報,第十六卷,第一期,1999年, pp.69-98
李樹瑾,軟體委外雙方認知與期望落差之探討,國立中山大學資訊管理學系碩士論文,2005年
蘇麗玉,系統開發人員與使用者在資訊系統發展過程中之衝突與系統績效之探討-以銀行業為例,私立銘傳大學資訊管理學系碩士論文,2005年
英文部份:
Hashem Al-Tabtabai and Alex P Alex and Ahmed Abou-alfotouh, Conflict resolution using cognitive analysis approach, Project Management Journal; Jun 2001; 32, 2; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 4
John Lamp, Graeme Altmann and Timothy Hetherington, Functional Group Conflict in Information Systems Development, 14th Australasian Conference on Information Systems, November 2003, Perth, Western Australia, Page 1 26-28
Robin L. Pinkely and Gregory B. Northcraft, Conflict Frames of Reference: Implications for Dispute Processes andOutcomes, Academy of Managemenl Journal, 1994, VoL 37, No. 1, 193-205.
Maurie E Schweitzer and Leslie A DeChurch, Linking frames in negotiations: Gaines, losses and conflict frame adoption, International Journal of Conflict Management; 2001; 12, 2; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 100
Richard E. Walton and John M.Dutton, The Management of Interdepartmental Conflict: A Model and Review, Administrative Science Quarterly, 1969, pg. 73-84
Robey, Daniel and Farrow, Dana L. and Franz, Charles R., Group Process And Conflict In System Development, Management Science; Oct 1989; 35, 10; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 1172
Michael A Hignite and Thomas M Margavio and Jerry M Chin Assessing the Conflict Resolution Profiles of Emerging Information Systems Profcessionals, Journal of Information Systems Education; 2002; 13, 4; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 315
Capers Jones., Conflict and Litigation Between Software Clients and Developers, Version 10 – April 13, 2001
Daniel Robey, Larry A. Smith, and Leo R. Vijayasarathy, Perceptions of Conflict and Success in Information Systems Development Projec, Journal of Management Information System/Summer, 1993, Vol 10,.No.1, pp. 123-139
Sanda Kaufman, Michael Elliott, and Deborah Shmueli, Beyond Intractability: A Free Knowledge Base on More Constructive Approaches to Destructive Conflict, Frames, Framing and Reframing, 2003, http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/framing/
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