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研究生:楊東錦
研究生(外文):Tung-chin Yang
論文名稱:高屏溪流域之非點源污染評估
論文名稱(外文):Evaluation of Non-Point Source Pollution in the Kaoping River Watershed
指導教授:高志明高志明引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jimmy C.M.Kao
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:環境工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:英文
論文頁數:136
中文關鍵詞:集水區水質非點源污染
外文關鍵詞:watershed managementGISwater qualityBODNPS pollutant
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高屏溪流域為台灣最大且利用最密集之流域,全長約171公里,流域面積3,257平方公里;為整個高高屏地區的用水主要來源,包含屏東、高雄縣市兩百多萬人口飲用水、農業灌溉用水及工商業等用水,更為大高雄地區主要自來水水源。由於畜牧廢水、工業廢水及生活污水不當之排放以及農業的非點源污染,造成高屏溪一直有很高之生化需氧量(BOD)、氨氮(NH3-N)及總磷(TP)污染負荷。為保護飲用水源行政院環境保護署自民國88年起以養豬離牧依法禁養輔導養豬戶轉業,將高屏溪攔河堰以上56萬頭豬隻全部禁養移除,有效改善高屏溪水質,隨著點源污染的逐步削減,非點源污染削減之重要性逐漸提高。
本研究對高屏溪流域內四大河段之潛在性污染源進行現場定位及調查之工作,執行成果共定位潛在性污染事件827項,總面積達2,610公頃。調查結果顯示,目前流域內最大潛在性非點源污染為果園,總面積佔所有潛在性污染事件面積之60%。根據現場蒐集之資料,位於流域內之果園以種植蓮霧及芒果為主。檳榔則為潛在性非點源污染排名第二者,總面積約佔所有潛在性污染事件面積之23%。在污染量推估方面,經計算後求得潛在性污染區對高屏溪非點源污染之排放總量分別為生化需氧量(BOD)總量69,019 kg/yr、總磷(TP)總量9,197 kg/yr、總氮(TN)總量58,478 kg/yr、氨氮(NH3)總量20,659 kg/yr及懸浮固體物(SS)總量487,483 kg/yr。荖濃溪河段BOD排放量佔所有河段之59%;TP排放量佔所有河段之69%;TN排放量佔所有河段之67%;NH3排放量佔所有河段之70%;SS排放量佔所有河段之72%,由此可知荖濃溪河段為區內最主要潛在性污染排放之區域。
另外本研究亦將應用集水區整合式多介質水質模式(Integrated Watershed Management Model, IWMM)模擬評估高屏溪流域集水區非點源負荷對於高屏溪水質之影響,並針對非點源污染研擬及進行可行性管理方案之效益評估。
根據現場調查及模式模擬之結果,我們提出下列整治策略,以有效管理河川流域及控制污染源,並降低非點源污染對於高屏溪水質之衝擊:應用非點源最佳管理作業(best management practice, BMP)及自然處理系統處理上游集水區暴雨逕流挾帶之非點源污染;建立集水區地理資訊系統(geographic information system, GIS)和及時水質監測系統以有效地監測及管理集水區。而結合GIS系統與非點源污染模式,將可進一步提供河川流域所有集水區潛在非點污染源資訊。而本研究計畫結果與經驗將有助於集水區之管理規劃及其他河川流域非點源控制政策之擬定。
The Kaoping River watershed is the largest and the most intensively used river basin in Taiwan. It is 171-km long, drains a catchment of more than 3,250 km2. Both point and non-point source (NPS) pollutants are now the causes of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nutrients, and suspended solids (SS) in the river. The main water pollution sources are livestock wastewater from hog farms, municipal wastewater, industrial wastewater, and NPS pollutants from agricultural areas. After the implementation of the hog ban in the Drinking Water and Source Water Protection Area (DWSWPA), all of the half million hogs have been removed or relocated in 2001. Thus, the municipal wastewater and NPS pollutants become the major concerns after 2001. In this study, the potential NPS pollution sources located in the Kaoping River watershed are investigated. Investigation results show that there are 827 potential pollution incidents, which cover 2,610 hectors in the Kaoping River watershed. Orchard farms are the major potential pollutant sources, which cover 60% of the total area of the potential pollutant sources. Moreover, results reveal that mango and betel palm farms dominated the illegal farmland areas, and are scattered around the river corridors. Field investigations indicate that major BOD, total phosphate (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and SS loadings came from the betel palm and orchard farms. The calculated total loadings of BOD, TP, TN, and SS are 69,000, 9,200, 58,500, and 487,500 kg/yr, respectively. Among the four major reaches (Lo-Non, Chi-San, Chu-Ko, and I-Lao creeks), the Lo-Non creek discharge the major pollutant loadings into the Kaoping River. Thus, the highest degree of protection is given to the Lo-Non creek. An integrated watershed management model was applied to investigate potential NPS pollution management plans in the Kaoping River watershed. Based on the results from the field investigation and model simulation, the following remedial strategies have been taken to reduce the impacts of NPS pollution on the water quality of Kaoping River: application of best management practice for NPS pollutant control; application of natural treatment systems for stormwater runoff treatment; and construction of the watershed geographical information system (GIS) and real time water quality monitoring system to effectively manage the watershed. Linking land utilization information with the NPS pollution simulation model may further provide essential information of pollution potential of NPS pollution for all sub-regions in the river basin. Results and experience obtained from this study will be helpful in designing the watershed management and NPS pollution control strategies for the Kaoping River watershed and other similar river basins.
Table of Contents
Page
謝誌………………………………………………………Ⅰ
中文摘要………………....………………………………Ⅱ
Abstract ……………………………………………………………Ⅳ
Table of Contents………………………………………………Ⅵ
List of Tables…………………………………………………IX
List of Figures…………………………………………………XI
Chapter Ⅰ Introduction …………………………………………………………..1
1-1 Background Information …………………………………………………………....1
1-2 Methodology ……………………………………………………………..3
Chapter Ⅱ Literature Review …………………………………………………………....4
2-1 Non-Point Source Pollution …………………………………………………………...4
2-2 Methods for Quantifying the Potential NPS Loadings …………………………..10
2-3 Evaluation and Selection Non-Point Source Pollution Models ………………..15
2-4 Combination of Non-Point Source Pollution and GIS …………………….……..21
2-5 Technology for Controlling Non-Point Source Pollution ……………………….23
Chapter Ⅲ The Study Region ………………………………………………………...……….26
3-1 Background Information of Kaoping River Watershed ………………………….26
3-2 Characteristics of Hydrology, Meteorology, Geological Environment and
Soil ……………………………………………………………………………………….32
3-3 Current Status of Water Quality ……………………………………………………..38
3-3-1 Progress of Renovating Kaoping River …………………………………38
3-3-2 Degree of River Pollution ………………………………………………….42
3-4 Current Status of Watershed ………………………………………..……………….44
Chapter Ⅳ Application of the Unit Area Output Method ……………………………...….53
4-1 Locating and Investigating Potential Non-Point Sources ………………………53
4-1-1 Division of Regions ………………………………………………………...54
4-1-2 Positioning the Pollution Source ………………..………………….……57
4-1-3 Compiling and Establishing Database ………………….……….…...…61
4-2 Accomplishments of Establishing GIS …………………………………..………...61
4-2-1 Chi San Creek Reach …….………………………………….…….……….61
4-2-2 Lao Nong Creek Reach ……………………………………...……………..65
4-2-3 Jhuo Kou Creek Reach …………………………………….………………68
4-2-4 Ai Liao Creek Reach …………………………………….…….….…….…..71
4-2-5 Kaoping River Watershed ……………………………..…………............74
4-3 Results of Estimating the Potential Non-Point Source Pollution ……………..76
Chapter Ⅴ Model Application …………………………………………………………………..80
5-1 Introduction to IWMM ……………………………………………………………….…80
5-2 Data Input and Items of Simulation …………………………………………………81
5-3 Basic Principle of IWMM ……………………………………………………………...82
5-3-1 Simulation of Water Quantity ……..………………….…………….........82
5-3-2 Water Quality Simulation ………………………………………………….90
5-4 Establishing the Non-Point Source Model ……………………………………….101
5-4-1 Data Collection …………………………..………………………………...101
5-4-2 Water Quality Modeling ………………………………………..…………103
5-4-3 Development of Remedial Strategies ……..………………….………..108
Chapter Ⅵ Conclusions and Recommendations ………………………………………...115
6-1 Conclusions …………………………………………………………………………...115
6-2 Recommendations …………………………………………………………………...117
References …………………………………………………………………………………………119

List of Tables
Page
Table 2-1 Comparison of Non-Point Source Pollution Models ……………………………20
Table 2-2 Removal Efficiencies of Targeted Pollutants by BMPS with the Best
Structure……………………………………………………………………………….24
Table 3-1 The Kaoping River Water Drainage Basin ……………………………………….29
Table 3-2 Kaoping River Watershed Tributaries …………………………………………….30
Table 3-3 Cumulative Monthly Average Flow Rate Recorded at Various Kaoping River Watershed Gauge Stations …………………………………………………………34
Table 3-4 Kaoping River Watershed Pollution Renovation Processes and the Current-Phase Plan …………………………………………………………………….41
Table 3-5 Degree of River Pollution ……………………………………………………………43
Table 3-6 List of Permanent Water Quality Monitoring Stations along Kaoping River .46
Table 3-7.1 Pollutant Concentrations at the Various Water Quality Monitoring Stations for Kaoping River Watershed from 1996 to 2005 ……………………………..47
Table 3-7.2 Pollutant Concentrations at the Various Water Quality Monitoring Stations for Kaoping River Watershed from 1996 to 2005 ……………………………..48
Table 3-7.3 Pollutant Concentrations at the Various Water Quality Monitoring Stations for Kaoping River Watershed from 1996 to 2005 ……………………………..49
Table 3-7.4 Pollutant Concentrations at the Various Water Quality Monitoring Stations for Kaoping River Watershed from 1996 to 2005 ……………………………..50
Table 3-7.5 Pollutant Concentrations at the Various Water Quality Monitoring Stations for Kaoping River Watershed from 1996 to 2005 ……………………………..51
Table 3-7.6 Pollutant Concentrations at the Various Water Quality Monitoring Stations for Kaoping River Watershed from 1996 to 2005 ……………………………..52
Table 4-1 Title, Identification Number and Total Number of Basic Maps for each Investigating Region ……………..…………………………………………………56
Table 4-2 Number of Pollution Sources with Errors between On-site Investigation and Determination based on Aviation Maps as well as the Total Number of Pollution Source Investigated ……………………………………………………..60
Table 4-3 Statistics of the Various Potential Pollution Activities in Chi San Creek Region …………………………………………………………………………………63
Table 4-4 Statistics of the Various Potential Pollution Activities in Lao Nong Creek Region …………………………………………………………………………………66
Table 4-5 Statistics of the Various Potential Pollution Activities in Jhuo Kou Creek Region …………………………………………………………………………………69
Table 4-6 Statistics of the Various Potential Pollution Activities in Ai Liao Creek Region …………………………………………………………………………………72
Table4-7 Potential Incidents for NPS Pollution in the Kaoping River Watershed …….75
Table 4-8 Areas of the Various Potential Pollution Incidents in the Kaoping River Watershed ……………………………………………………………………………..76
Table 4-9 The Annual Potential Pollution Output per Unit Area for the Various Land
Uses ……………………………………………………………………………………78
Table 4-10 Potential NPS Discharges for the Various River Sections in the Kaoping River Watershed ……………………………………………………………………..78
Table4-11 NPS Pollution Caused by the Various Polluting Activities ……………..……79
Table 5-1 Measured and Simulated Flow Rates and Ammonia Loadings from Point
and NPS Pollutants at Monitoring Station G1 ………………………………….105
Table 5-2 Simulated NH3-N Loadings after the Completion of each Proposed Plan to Meet the Class B Water Quality Criteria for Kaoping River ……..………..…111


List of Figures
Page
Fig. 3-1 Drainage Basins of Kaoping River …………………………………………………..31
Fig. 4-1 Map of the Range for On Site Positioning ………………………………………….59
Fig. 4-2 Distribution of the Various Potential Pollution Activities in the Up and Middle Reaches of Chi San Creek …………………………………………………………….64
Fig. 4-3 Distribution of the Various Pollution Activities in Lao Nong Creek Region …67
Fig. 4-4 Distribution of the Various Potential Pollution Activities in the Jhuo Kou Creek Region ……………………………………………………………………………………..70
Fig. 4-5 Distribution of the Various Pollution Activities in Ai Liao Creek Watershed ..73
Fig. 5-1 Water Balance in a Soil Layer ………………………………………………………..87
Fig. 5-2 Flow Balance in a River Reach ………………………………………………………90
Fig. 5-3 Monitoring Stations Located in the Kaoping River Watershed ………..……..105
Fig. 5-4 Comparison of Simulated and Observed Flows at Li Ling (G1) Monitoring Station …………………………………………………………..………………………106
Fig. 5-5 Comparison of Simulated and Observed Ammonia Concentrations at Li Ling (G1) Monitoring Station ………………………………………………………………106
Fig. 5-6 Simulated NPS Ammonia Concentrations in Chi San Creek Basin during the Period from July 2002 to Jan. 2003 ……………………..………………………….107
Fig. 5-7 Simulated NPS Ammonia Concentrations in I-Liao Creek Basin during the Period from July 2002 to Jan. 2003 ……………………………..………………….107
Fig. 5-8 Chi San Creek - Scenario 1:Source Reduction 60% ……………………………111
Fig. 5-9 Chi San Creek - Scenario 2:Grassy Buffer Zone 12% …………………………112
Fig. 5-10 Chi San Creek - Scenario 3:Source Reduction 10% + Grassy Buffer Zone
10%......................................................................................................................112
Fig. 5-11 Chi San Creek - Scenario 3:Source Reduction 20% + Grassy Buffer Zone
8% ……………………………………………………………………………………..113
Fig. 5-12 Chi San Creek - Scenario 3:Source Reduction 30% + Grassy Buffer Zone
6% ……………………………………………………………………………………..113
Fig. 5-13 Yi Liao Creek - Scenario 2:Grassy Buffer Zone 40% …………………………114
Fig. 5-14 Yi-Liao Creek - Scenario 3:Source Reduction 30% + Grassy Buffer Zone
39% ………………………………..114
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