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研究生:陳鴻
論文名稱:綠色設計之三維產品拆卸計算方法
論文名稱(外文):Computational Methods in 3D product Disassembly for Green Design
指導教授:瞿志行
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:工業工程與工程管理學系
學門:工程學門
學類:工業工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:125
中文關鍵詞:拆卸規劃再生率回收率粒子群演算法綠色設計先行關係八元樹
外文關鍵詞:disassembly planningrecycling rateprecedence relationshipOctreegreen designPSO
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由於綠色意識抬頭,各國開始制定產品環保限制指令,目前以歐盟施行之環保指令最為明確,輸入之產品必須達到規定的再生率與回收率,對於產品開發所帶來的衝擊甚大。研究指出拆卸分析為產品生命週期結束(Product End-of-Life)之關鍵,應及早於設計階段考量之,藉以縮短產品設計時間、減少產品拆卸成本與加強零組件模組化。於拆卸規劃上則可降低拆卸成本,減少人為判斷不足所造成的成本損失。本論文將針對¬產品拆卸問題進行深入探討,主要研究範圍包括「單一零件拆卸」、「產品先行關係決定」與「最佳化產品拆卸順序」。針對單一零件拆卸提出了創新性漸進式網路圖建構法,透過切平面與可移動空間切割決定網路圖的節點,再利用切平面之間的零件移動規劃產生拆卸路徑,不需建構出完整的網路圖,故能有效提升計算效率。為增加產品拆卸效率,亦探討兩零件同時拆卸之做法,並於過程中避免兩零件產生碰撞。產品先行關係議題上,有別於以往僅考量單一方向的先行關係產生方式,造成考量範疇過於狹窄,本研究透過八元樹逼近與最少障礙物搜尋法,計算每一零件之先行零件。最後根據先行關係計算結果結合粒子群演算法,考量回收率、再生率與拆卸成本決定最佳之產品拆卸順序。應用本研究所提出之創新方法論,搭配電腦輔助設計技術以及產品CAD模型,將可有效地進行產品拆卸分析、降低產品拆卸成本進而達到綠色產品永續設計之理念。
Most developed countries started to enforce environmental protection regulations due to the recent green consciousness. The European Unions (EU), among them, has passed two strict directives, WEEE and RoHS, which restrict the amount of hazardous substances in the product and the recycling/reuse rates in product end-of-life, respectively. These regulations significantly impact development of the products exported to the EU. Thus most international brands have to take special procedures in the product development for compliance with the green directives. Previous studies indicate that product disassembly sequence is a key factor in green product development. It must be taken into account at the design stage. This research investigates disassembly of 3D product with focuses on three topics: “disassembly planning of single part”, “calculation of the part precedence relationship”, and “optimization of disassembly planning”. First, a novel method is proposed to construct a progressive path planning network for part disassembly. The nodes in the network are determined by intersecting a series of cutting planes and the obstacle space. The disassembly path is then computed by incrementally moving the part within consecutive cutting planes. The calculation efficiency is improved without the need of the entire network construction. This work also presents an approach for concurrent disassembly of two parts without interference. In the part precedence relationship, the Octree technique is applied to characterize the spatial relationships among the parts comprising a product. Integrated with PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization) algorithms, the result allows optimization of the product disassembly sequence while considering the recycling rate, the reuse rate, and the disassembly costs. The proposed methods provide effective means for computer-aided green product design, which facilitates disassembly planning, reduces disassembly cost, and thus achieve sustainable product development.
摘要 i
西文摘要 ii
目錄 iii
圖目錄 v
表目錄 viii
第一章 緒論 9
1.1 研究背景與動機 9
1.2 研究目的 9
1.3 研究架構 12
第二章 文獻探討 14
2.1 拆卸研究之緣起 15
2.2單一零件拆卸路徑規劃 15
2.3 產品拆卸先行關係 17
2.3.1樹狀表示法 18
2.3.2 狀態表示法 19
2.4 拆卸順序 20
2.5 小結 22
第三章 單一零件拆卸路徑方法論 24
3.1重建障礙物空間 24
3.2 產生可移動空間 31
3.3 零件移出判斷 32
3.4 拆卸網路圖的建立 34
3.5 演算法之限制與證明 39
第四章 雙零件拆卸規劃 43
4.1 可行路徑存在判斷 43
4.2 個別零件路徑產生 46
4.3 干涉時間判斷與路徑重整 47
4.4小結與限制 55
4.5 單一拆卸路徑演算法之延伸應用 56
4.5.1 指定拆卸路徑 56
4.5.2 節點搜尋法 57
第五章 產品拆卸先行關係 63
5.1 單一方向考量先行矩陣演算法架構 63
5.2 單一方向考量拆卸先行關係實作流程 64
5.2.1 重建障礙物 65
5.2.2 干涉判斷與重整矩陣 66
5.3 小結與限制 68
5.4 重建障礙物 68
5.5 八元樹逼近法 71
5.6 整合八元樹 78
5.7 最少障礙物搜尋法 80
5.8 小結與限制 85
第六章 產品拆卸順序演算法 87
6.1 粒子群演算法架構 87
6.2 演算法基本假設 91
6.3 拆卸順序編碼 91
6.4 適應度函數 94
6.5 演化過程 94
第七章 演算法實作範例 100
7.1 演算法實作環境 100
7.2 單一零件拆卸路徑 100
7.2.1兩層方格範例一 100
7.2.2 兩層方格範例二 102
7.2.3 兩層方格範例三 102
7.2.4 迷宮範例一 103
7.2.5 迷宮範例二 104
7.3 拆卸先行關係 105
7.4 粒子群最佳化拆卸順序 111
第八章 結論與未來研究方向 120
8.1 結論 120
8.2 未來研究方向 121
參考文獻 122
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