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研究生:郭勝元
研究生(外文):Shen-Yuan Kuo
論文名稱:抑制工業設施內諧波共振之分散式主動濾波器
論文名稱(外文):Distributed Active Filters for Harmonic Resonance Suppression in Industrial Facilities
指導教授:鄭博泰
指導教授(外文):Po-Tai Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:英文
論文頁數:88
中文關鍵詞:主動濾波器諧波共振功因校正
外文關鍵詞:active filterharmonic resonancepower factor correction
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在工廠配電系統中, 常安裝虛功補償電容, 以增進功率因數, 但是不當的虛功補償電容容量, 可能會和已有之變壓器、饋線上的電感產生相互作用, 此現象即諧波共振, 諧波共振會在系統上產生大量諧波電壓和電流, 使得電壓及電流品質皆嚴重惡化。
針對諧波共振, 典型的解決方案是安裝被動濾波器,然而此種方式, 適當的設計需要對系統負載可能的變動範圍皆加以考慮, 此過程相當耗費時間與人力; 包含主動與被動部分的混合式主動濾波器,乃是由上述方式改進而來, 但是其設計亦須考慮主動與被動部分間的匹配; 而傳統電流補償式主動濾波器, 由於設計原理限制, 並不適合解決此問題, 且造價高昂。
為此, 本論文提出了應用於抑制工廠諧波共振之分散式主動濾波器,在此系統中, 每一台濾波器可被看成是諧波電導, 各自具有獨立的諧波電導-虛功消耗下降控制器, 用以平均分配各主動濾波器之虛功消耗, 毋須任何額外的通訊介面; 並且得以縮小每一台濾波器的大小, 以減少系統總體成本。
本論文以一典型工廠諧波共振的模擬電路, 以詳細討論所提出之系統的濾波效果, 以及各主動濾波器虛功消耗分配; 另外也展示實驗的結果, 以驗證所提想法的可行性。
VAr support capacitors are often installed to improve displacement power factor in industrial facilities, but they could also conduct considerable voltage and current harmonics due to harmonic resonance phenomenon.
Various harmonic filter strategies have been proposed. Passive L-C filter is the most typical solution for above phenomenon. Hybrid active filter which features harmonic isolation provides an alternative. Nevertheless, they require extensive system studies to achieve a good design. In addition, conventional active filter cannot damp harmonic resonance and usually brings high cost.
This thesis hence proposes a distributed active filter design for harmonics damping within industry facility. In this system, active filter operates as a harmonic conductance with a droop characteristic. The droop control between the harmonic VAr consumption Q of the active filter and its harmonic conductance G is developed to coordinate the operation among individual active filters, so that each unit can share harmonic filtering workload in proportion to the rated capacity without any communications.
Simulation and laboratory prototype are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Abstract I
Acknowledgement III
Contents IV
List of Figures VII
List of Tables XI
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Introduction .... 1
1.2 Thesis Organization .... 3
2 Literature Survey 4
2.1 Introduction .... 4
2.2 Harmonic Resonance Phenomenon.... 5
2.3 Passive L-C Filter.... 8
2.4 Shunt Active Filter.... 10
2.5 Hybrid Active Filter .... 14
2.5.1 Series Hybrid Active Filter .... 15
2.5.2 Shunt Hybrid Active Filter .... 15
2.6 Proposed Distributed Active Filters.... 18
2.7 Summary.... 20
3 Principles of Operation 21
3.1 Introduction .... 21
3.2 VAr Calculation.... 23
3.3 Droop Controller .... 25
3.3.1 Principle of VAr Sharing.... 25
3.3.2 Comparison between Identical and Different AFU Sizes .... 28
3.4 DC Bus Voltage Controller .... 29
3.5 Current Controller.... 30
3.6 Summary.... 31
4 Simulation Results 33
4.1 Introduction .... 33
4.2 Simulation Parameters .... 33
4.3 Frequency Domain Analysis .... 34
4.4 Time Domain Simulations.... 39
4.4.1 Identical Sizes of the Two AFUs.... 39
4.4.2 Different Sizes of the Two AFUs .... 40
4.5 Total VAr Estimation.... 50
4.6 Summary.... 54
5 Experimental Results 55
5.1 Introduction .... 55
5.2 Experimental Test Bench .... 55
5.3 Experimental Results .... 57
5.3.1 Identical Sizes of the Two AFUs.... 57
5.3.2 Different Sizes of the Two AFUs .... 62
5.4 Summary.... 67
6 Conclusions 68
A IEEE Standard 519-1992 75
A.1 IEEE Standard 519-1992.... 75
A.2 Example for Verifying if Current Quality Exceeds IEEE 519 Limits .... 78
B Deduction for Comparison between Identical and Different AFU Sizes 80
C Hardware Description 82
C.1 DSP with Integrated Pulse-Width Modulator.... 83
C.2 Gate Driver .... 83
C.3 Singal Conditioning Circuit for AC Voltage Measurement.... 84
C.4 Singal Conditioning Circuit for Current Measurement .... 86
C.5 Singal Conditioning Circuit for DC Bus Voltage Measurement .... 88

List of Figures
1.1 Single-line diagram of typical industrial user.... 3
2.1 Single-line diagramof a parallel resonance circuit.... 5
2.2 Single-phase equivalent diagramof a parallel resonance circuit.... 5
2.3 Frequency scan of impedance seen from non-linear loads for parallel resonance circuit.... 7
2.4 Single-line diagramof a passive L-C filter.... 9
2.5 Single-phase equivalent circuit of a passive L-C filter with respect to harmonics.... 9
2.6 Frequency scan of impedance seen from non-linear loads for passive L-C filter.... 10
2.7 Single-line diagramof a conventional active filter.... 11
2.8 Single-phase equivalent circuit of a conventional active filter with respect to harmonics.... 12
2.9 Single-line diagram of a conventional active filter and a capacitor bank with respect to harmonics.... 13
2.10 Simulation steady-state waveforms illustrating the voltage at PCC with installation of a shunt active filter.... 13
2.11 Simulation steady-state waveforms illustrating the compensating characteristics of a shunt active filter.... 13
2.12 Cost of filter solutions for industrial facilities as harmonic producing loads increase [1].... 14
2.13 Single-line diagramof a series hybrid active filter.... 16
2.14 Experimental steady-state waveforms illustrating the performance of a series hybrid active filter [2].... 16
2.15 Single-line diagramof a shunt hybrid active filter.... 17
2.16 Experimental steady-state waveforms illustrating the performance of a series hybrid active filter [3].... 17
2.17 Single-line diagramof proposed distributed active filters.... 19
3.1 The proposed distributed active filters and the associated control.... 22
3.2 Synchronous reference q . d frame.... 23
3.3 Operation curve of droop controller.... 27
4.1 Single-line diagramof the simulation circuit.... 36
4.2 Single-phase equavilent circuit of the simulation circuit.... 37
4.3 Frequency scans of equivalent impedance Zth and the ratio IS/Ih of the simulation circuit.... 38
4.4 Simulation waveforms illustrating voltage at PCC VPCC with identical sizes of the two AFUs.... 42
4.5 Simulation waveforms illustrating source current IS with identical sizes of the two AFUs.... 43
4.6 Simulation results illustrating even-sharing of VAr consumption Q with identical sizes of the two AFUs, Y axis: VAr.... 44
4.7 Simulation steady-state waveform illustrating output current of individual AFU IAF with identical sizes of the two AFUs.... 45
4.8 Simulation waveforms illustrating voltage at PCC VPCC with different sizes of the two AFUs.... 47
4.9 Simulation waveforms illustrating source current IS with different sizes of the two AFUs.... 48
4.10 Simulation results illustrating even-sharing of VAr consumption Q with different sizes of the two AFUs, Y axis: VAr.... 49
4.11 Diagrams showing the relation between conductance command G and associated power qualities of the simulation circuit, linear load: 66.28%.... 52
4.12 Diagrams showing the relation between total VAr consumption Q and associated power qualities of the simulation circuit, linear load: 66.28%.... 53
5.1 Single-line diagramof the test bench.... 56
5.2 Experimental steady-state waveforms illustrating voltage at PCC VPCC and source current IS with identical sizes of the two AFUs.... 59
5.3 Experimental steady-state waveforms illustrating individual AFU current IAF with identical sizes of the two AFUs, Y axis for singal in DSP: 7 A/div.... 60
5.4 Experimental spectra showing associated peak voltage and current qualities with identical sizes of the two AFUs.... 61
5.5 Experimental results illustrating even-sharing of VAr consumption Q and the corresponding conductance command G with identical sizes of the two AFUs, X axis: 1.0 sec/div, Y axis: 500 VAr/div or 0.5 Ω.1/div.... 63
5.6 Experimental steady-state waveforms illustrating voltage at PCC VPCC and source current IS with different sizes of the two AFUs.... 64
5.7 Experimental results illustrating even-sharing of VAr consumption Q and the corresponding conductance command G with different sizes of the two AFUs, X axis: 1.0 sec/div, Y axis: 500VAr /div or 0.5 Ω.1/div.... 66
C.1 Picture of the AFU.... 82
C.2 Picture of the DSP board.... 83
C.3 Picture of Rhymebus gate driver.... 84
C.4 Circuit diagramfor AC voltage measurement.... 85
C.5 Picture of LEM LV25-P voltage transducers and associated differential amplifiers.... 86
C.6 Circuit diagramfor current measurement.... 87
C.7 Picture of LEM SHY-045T current transducers.... 87
C.8 Circuit diagramfor DC bus voltagemeasurement.... 88

List of Tables
4.1 Simulation steady-state results illustrating fifth and seventh voltage RMS at PCC VPCC with identical sizes of the two AFUs.... 41
4.2 Simulation steady-state results illustrating voltage THD at PCC VPCC with identical sizes of the two AFUs.... 41
4.3 Simulation steady-state results illustrating source current THD IS with identical sizes of the two AFUs.... 41
4.4 Simulation steady-state results illustrating the comparison between quality of source current IS and the corresponding IEEE 519 current limits with identical sizes of the two AFUs.... 44
4.5 Simulation steady-state results illustrating voltage THD at PCC VPCC with different sizes of the two AFUs.... 50
4.6 Simulation steady-state results illustrating source current THD IS with different sizes of the two AFUs.... 50
5.1 Experimental steady-state results illustrating THD of both voltage at PCC VPCC and source current IS with identical sizes of the two AFUs.... 58
5.2 Experimental steady-state results illustrating fifth and seventh voltage RMS at PCC VPCC with identical sizes of the two AFUs.... 58
5.3 Experimental steady-state results illustrating fifth and seventh source current IS with identical sizes of the two AFUs.... 59
5.4 Experimental results illustrating even-sharing of VAr consumption Q and the corresponding conductance command G.... 62
5.5 Experimental steady-state results illustrating THD of both voltage at PCC VPCC and source current IS with different sizes of the two AFUs.... 65
5.6 Experimental results illustrating even-sharing of VAr consumption Q and the corresponding conductance command G with different sizes of the two AFUs.... 65
A.1 IEEE 519 Voltage Limits for the utility.... 76
A.2 IEEE 519 Current Limits for the industrial users.... 77
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