跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.201.99.222) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/12/04 01:02
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:曹增皓
論文名稱:溫室氣體排放權交易政策與機制之研究---以國際法、財產基礎及台灣的對策為中心
指導教授:黃居正黃居正引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:科技法律研究所
學門:法律學門
學類:專業法律學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:109
中文關鍵詞:溫室氣體排放權交易財產權國際環境法原則
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:4
  • 點閱點閱:369
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:4
摘 要
自1750年工業革命以降,經濟發展快速,人為排放的溫室氣體濃度,已比過去增加了30%,也導致地球平均溫度不斷的上升,造成氣候變遷,暴雨、洪水、乾旱、龍捲風侵襲未曾發生過的城市,熱帶疾病蔓延的範圍也由赤道漸漸擴張,糧食及飲用水的危機也慢慢浮現。
1992年聯合國的氣候變遷綱要公約的訂定,正式使世界各國重視氣候變遷這個議題,1997年的京都議定書也已經在2005年2月16日正式生效,第一個承諾減量期(2008年至2012年)開始在即,承諾減量的國家無不想盡辦法達到承諾標準,議定書中的彈性機制也將正式啟動。而彈性機制中的排放交易機制,是以商業交易的方式達到減量的目標,也開啟了一個全球性的環保交易市場。
我國雖然不是京都議定書的締約國,但身為地球村的一份子,當不可置身事外,應積極參與國際二氧化碳減量活動,一方面盡一份國際成員的責任,一方面也要避免未來防制氣候變遷,減量二氧化碳排放變成普世義務(obligation erga omnes)時,台灣可能會遭受到的國際制裁。本文便由國際環境法的角度,探討全球溫室氣體排放交易機制之運作,試圖為我國參與二氧化碳減量找一條出路。
本文第一章將敘明研究動機、研究目的及研究方法;第二章介紹溫室氣體與氣候變遷議題的科學基礎之形成與演變,由氣候變遷議題的提出,到國際社會的因應,及締結的條約、議定書,做一總括式的回顧,更要將國際環境法的法學基礎原則加以彙整;第三章介紹溫室氣體交易市場之架構,由京都議定書開端,解構Marrakech Accords真正瞭解交易機制。另外,二氧化碳排放權的財產權基礎為何,由經濟學的外部性理論,可看出其財產屬性的變遷,及為何要建立交易市場,而可能衍生之貿易衝突點在哪;第四章將目前溫室氣體排放交易之幾個主要市場,歐盟、美國、英國及澳洲作一整體介紹,及參與市場交易的契約架構為何;第五章則要反觀我國對於溫室氣體排放交易機制之因應政策;最後第六章結論提出我國最有利的參與方式,供各界參考。
目 錄
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 研究方法 1
1.3 研究之範圍及架構 1
第二章 溫室氣體與氣候變遷議題的形成與演變 3
2.1 溫室效應導致氣候變遷之科學基礎 3
2.2 與溫室效應議題相關之國際環境法發展 7
2.2.1 從斯德哥爾摩宣言到里約 7
2.2.2 聯合國氣候變遷綱要公約之發展背景 9
2.2.3聯合國氣候變遷綱要公約歷次締約國大會之貢獻 12
2.3聯合國氣候變遷綱要公約所運用之國際環境法原則 15
2.3.1 概論 15
2.3.2 衡平原則 20
2.3.3 共同但是有差異的責任 21
2.3.4 開發自然資源的主權原則及不損及無管轄權環境之責任 23
2.3.5 永續發展原則(sustainable development) 25
2.3.6 預防原則 27
2.3.7 普世價值 28
2.3.8 小結 28
第三章 溫室氣體排放權交易機制之發展、財產基礎 30
3.1 溫室氣體排放權交易機制之發展 30
3.1.1 概述 30
3.1.2 京都議定書第17條 32
3.1.3 Marrakech Accords 35
3.1.4 COP11/MOP1的後京都時期 36
3.2 溫室氣體的財產基礎 37
3.2.1 財產權歸屬—定分止爭 38
3.2.2 由res communes到人類共同遺產 39
3.2.3 CHM的變體與妥協 41
3.2.4 CHM棄守,國家主權接手 43
3.2.5 CHM因為經濟外部性而棄守? 44
3.2.6 排放交易額度之私有性、公共信託性 46
3.2.7 排放交易額度之徵收 51
3.3溫室氣體排放權交易機制所衍生之貿易衝突 54
第四章 目前溫室氣體排放交易之主要市場及契約架構 56
4.1 溫室氣體排放權交易之主要市場 56
4.1.1 美國—以芝加哥氣候交換所(Chicago Climate Exchange)為例 57
4.1.2 英國的排放交易制度(The UK Emission Trading Scheme) 58
4.1.3 歐盟的排放交易機制-在Scylla 與Charybdis之間 59
4.1.4 澳洲新南威爾斯減量計畫 61
4.2 各市場的橫向聯繫—以EU ETS為中心 62
4.3 目前交易市場面臨之問題 65
4.3.1 排放額度分配方法 66
4.3.2 減量額度之檢證 67
4.3.3 不同市場造成的價格差異 68
4.4 排放交易合約及交易實務之運用 69
4.4.1 國際交換及衍生性金融商品協會(International Swaps and Derivatives Association) 70
4.4.1.1簡介ISDA 70
4.4.1.2 ISDA契約在我國金融交易之地位 71
4.4.1.3 ISDA契約內容之介紹 71
4.4.2 國際排放交易協會(International Emission Trading Agreement) 73
4.4.2.1簡介IETA 73
4.4.2.2 IETA契約介紹 75
第五章 台灣對於溫室氣體交易機制之因應政策 77
5.1 溫室效應造成氣候變遷對台灣的影響 77
5.1.1 台灣與UNFCCC相關條約之關係 77
5.1.2 溫室效應氣候變遷對台灣的影響 78
5.1.3 溫室效應對台灣產業界的影響 79
5.2 我國溫室氣體排放權交易制度之法源分析 81
5.2.1 溫室氣體排放交易制度之法源 81
5.2.2 其他因應政策 82
5.3 我國參與國際溫室氣體交易市場之可能性 84
5.3.1 政府直接參與溫室氣體排放交易市場 84
5.3.2 私人企業參與溫室氣體排放交易市場 85
5.3.3 成立溫室氣體基金參與溫室氣體排放交易市場 86
第六章 結論 88
參考文獻:

漢文書籍
Ahmed M. Hussen 著,陳凱俐譯,《環境經濟學原理—經濟學、生態學與公共政策》,(台北市:揚智文化,2001)
Alan Ryan 著,顧蓓嘩譯,《財產》,(台北市:桂冠,1991)
Fernand Braudel 著,施康強、顧良譯,,《15至18世紀的物質文明、經濟和資本主義—日常生活的結構:可能和不可能(卷一)》(台北:遠足文化,2006)。原:《Civilisation mat�臆ielle, Economic et Capitalisme ⅩⅤ-ⅩⅤⅢ Si�塶le: Les Structures du Quotidien: Le Possible et L’Impossible》, (Paris: Librairie Armand Colin,1979)
Gale E. Christianson著,達娃 譯,《發燒地球200年》,(台北:野人文化,2006)
Gilbert M. Masters 著,葉欣誠譯,《環境工程與科學概論》(台北市:五南,2001)
Michael Bothe、Rudolf Dozler、Kay Haibronner、Meinhard Schroder、Wolfgang Graf Vitzthum 著,Wolfgang Graf Vitzthum 編,吳越、毛曉飛 譯,《當代西方國際法—德國的觀點》,(台北:韋伯文化國際出版有限公司,2006.09)
Peter Singer著,李尚遠譯,《One World,我們只有一個地球》(台北市:商周,2003)
Walter A. Rosenbuam 著,許舒翔等譯,《環境政治學》(台北市:五南,2005)
Paul B. Downing著,黃宗煌等譯,《環境經濟學與政策》,(台北市:聯經,1991)
王之佳、柯金良等譯,《我們共同的未來》,(台北市:臺灣地球日,1992)(原World Commission on Environment and Development,Our Common Future,Oxford University Press,1987)
王澤鑑,《民法物權(一)》,(台北:作者自版,2002)
王曦 著,《美國環境法概論—執行與管理》,(台北市:漢興書局有限公司,1999年,初版)
田中正之 著,陳宏政 譯,《溫暖化的地球》,(台北:書泉出版社,1995.05)
林三田,《社會問題與法治現況》,(台北市:三民書局,1982)
林立,《波斯納與法律經濟分析:一個批判性的探究》,(台北市:學林文化,2004)
林淑閔,《期貨交易法》,(台北市:元照,1999)
呂鴻光著,《溫室氣體之衝擊與對策—我國之影響與因應措施》(台北市:田園城市文化,2003)
於幼華 編著,《臺灣環境議題特論》,(台北市:五南,2005)
柯澤東,《環境法論》,(台北:作者自版,1995)
姜皇池 著,《國際公法導論》,(台北市:新學林,2006)
張清溪、許嘉棟、劉鸞釧、吳聰敏合著,《經濟學-理論與實際》,(台北市:翰蘆圖書,1995,三版)
陳櫻琴、王忠一著,《環境法律》(台北市:五南,2004)
陳慈陽 著,《環境法總論》,(台北市:元照出版有限公司,2003年1月,二版第一刷)
陳隆志策劃、許慶雄編輯、李明峻主編《當代國際法文獻選集》(台北市:前衛,1998,初版)
許舒翔主譯,《產業生態學:新世代環保政策》,(嘉義市:濤石文化,2004)
葉俊榮 著,《全球環境議題—臺灣觀點》,(台北:巨流圖書有限公司,1999.07,一版)
黃異 著《國際法》(台北:啟英文化,1996),初版。
彭明敏 著,《平時戰時國際公法》,(台北市:自版,1961.10.10,改訂四版)
彭明敏、黃昭堂 合著,蔡秋雄 譯,《臺灣在國際法上的地位》(台北市:玉山社,1995)
簡堅訓 著,《衍生性金融商品與ISDA合約法務控管實務手冊》,(臺北:秀威資訊科技,2005.07)
駱尚廉及蕭代基編著,《環境經濟分析》(台北市:曉園,2007)
橫田洋三 著,楊正綸譯,《國際組織論》,(台北市:國立編譯館,1996)
劉聯彬、莫冬立,《溫室氣體減量投資基礎分析》,(台北市:社團法人中華民國企業永續發展協會,2002)
謝哲勝,《財產法專題研究(二)》,(台北市:元照,1999)

漢文期刊
牛惠之,軟法之法律效力與其在國際經濟規範中之發展,經社法律論叢,第20期,民國86年7月。
牛惠之,世界貿易組織之SPS協定關於風險評估與風險管理之規範體系與爭端案例研究,台灣國際法季刊,第一卷第二期,頁151。
王文娟,日本產業界的溫室氣體排放減量對策,經濟前瞻,2005.5.5,頁54。
石信智,氣候變化艱苦的外交戰場,氣候變遷綱要公約資訊速報,第42期,民國94年7月,頁12。
曲新生 et al.,我國參與氣候變化綱要公約第八屆締約國大會與策略建議,氣候變遷綱要公約資訊速報,第35期,民國91年12月,頁1。
曲新生 et al.,我國參與氣候變化綱要公約第九屆締約國大會與策略建議,氣候變遷綱要公約資訊速報,第38期,民國92年12月,頁1。
李盈嬌,全球暖化問題與WTO,中華經濟研究院,WTO電子報第77期。
林俊旭,歐盟國家溫室氣體減量成效—檢討與展望,經濟前瞻,2005.5.5,頁47。
胡文正 et al.,國際碳排放交易市場現況與趨勢,氣候變遷綱要公約資訊速報,第43期,民國94年10月,頁1。
胡文正,未來氣候變化對人類健康、生態系統與經濟衝擊分析,氣候變化綱要公約資訊速報,44期,頁12。
施文真,臺灣參與國際環保類之組織與公約的意義與可行性,臺灣國際法季刊,第2卷第1期,頁125。
洪思竹,國際法上的Obligations Erga Omnes 概念啟發及其在執行1982年聯合國海洋法公約下瀕危物種保護義務上的關聯,臺灣國際法季刊,第1卷第4期,頁245。
屈廣清、陳小雲,中國TBT法律體系建構與完善研究,國際法學,2006第6期,頁14。
章升東、宋維明及李恕云,國際碳市場現狀與趨勢,世界林業研究,第18卷第5期,民國94年10月,頁9。
陳發林et al.,聯合國氣候變化綱要公約第十一屆締約國會議暨京都議定書第一屆締約國會議,氣候變遷綱要公約資訊速報,第44期,民國94年12月。
陳秋幸 等著,出席聯合國氣候變化綱要公約第24屆附屬機構會議,氣候變遷綱要公約資訊速報,第45期,民國95年6月。
張憶琳,二氧化碳商品化交易-國際排放交易協會碳投資基金簡介,氣候變化綱要公約資訊速報,21期,頁3。
黃居正,時間、勞動與生態—原住民族財產權的核心論題,清華科技法律與政策論叢,2卷1期,民國94年3月。
黃居正,res nullius, common heritage與res communes—遺傳與生物資源公約中的財產意識,政大法學評論,第94期,民國95年12月。
黃宗煌、李堅明,排放交易、廠商最適投資決策及經濟成長,農業經濟半年刊,第70期,民國90年12月,頁1。
黃啟峰 et. al.,參與氣候變化綱要公約第十屆締約國大會與策略建議,氣候變遷綱要公約資訊速報(陳鴻達、吳如珊主編,行政院環境保護署),第41期,民國93年12月,頁1。
楊任徵,能源模型MARKAL簡介,氣候變化綱要公約資訊速報,21期,頁10。
魏國棟,氣候變遷與因應經濟政策工具:文獻回顧,經濟研究,39:1 (2003),頁27。
劉彥蘭,以公共資源制度(CPR)闡述企業溫室氣體排放權交易—以芝加哥氣候交易所為例,全球變遷通訊雜誌,第45期,94年3月,頁17。
顧洋、申永順,國際間溫室氣體管理標準化之發展及因應策略,科學與工程技術期刊,第1卷,第3期,民國94年,頁1。

其他漢文資料
行政院環境保護署八十八年度專案研究計畫,因應重大環境議題相關之立法研究第一部份:我國溫室氣體管制立法之研究。(445.99 4429)主持人:葉俊榮;協同主持人:姜皇池。
行政院環境保護署《95年度環境白皮書》(台北:行政院環境保護署,2006.12)
行政院環境保護署《溫室氣體排放量無悔政策研擬》(台北:行政院環境保護署,2000.12)
行政院環境保護署《我國空氣污染物之排放權交易制度建置》(台北:行政院環境保護署,2000.12)
行政院環境保護署,《2005全國能源會議—京都議定書生效後整體策略方向》報告,2005.6。
天下雜誌第369期,台北:天下雜誌,2007.4.11~2007.4.24。
科學人雜誌56期,台北:遠流出版社,2006.10。
大地地理雜誌第206期,台北:秋雨文化,2005.5。
王吉祥,店頭市場衍生性商品之風險管理,國際證券暨期貨市場簡訊。
何舜琴,京都議定書生效後整體策略方向,2005全國能源會議,94年6月。
洪世淇,氣候變化綱要公約實施下的二氧化碳排放權交易商機,工業技術研究院 產業經濟與資訊服務中心,2001.3.20。

學位論文
施純貞,《店頭市場衍生性金融商品相關法律問題之研究》,東吳大學法律研究所,2003。

漢文網站
臺灣碳排放交易推廣協會:http://www.teta.org.tw/
社團法人中華民國企業永續發展協會:http://www.bcsd.org.tw/
經濟部能源局:http://www.moeaboe.gov.tw/
行政院環保署:http://www.epa.gov.tw/main/index.asp
行政院環保署產業溫室氣體資訊網:http://iggic.estc.tw/index.asp
工業技術研究院能源與環境研究所:http://www.erl.itri.org.tw/
工業技術研究院能源與資源研究所氣候變化綱要公約資訊網:http://sd.erl.itri.org.tw/fccc/ch/index_c.htm


英文書籍
ADEDE A. O., INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW DIGEST: INSTRUMENTS FOR INTERNATIONAL RESPONSES TO PROBLEMS OF ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT 1972-1992, (AMSTERDAM: ELSEVIER SCIENCE PUBLISHERS B.V., 1993)
A GUIDE TO EMISSIONS TRADING, (Cyriel de Jong & Kasper Walet eds Risk Management and Business Implications, London: Risk Books, 2004)
BIRNIE, P. & BOYLE, A., INTERNATIONAL LAW & THE ENVRONMENT, 2ND ED., (OXFORD: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 6TH EDITION, 2002)
CLIMATE CHANGE AND CARBON MARKETS: A HANDBOOK OF EMISSION REDUCTION MECHANISMS, (FARHANA YAMIN ED.,LONDON: EARTHSCAN, 2005)
CLIMATE POLICY: THE EU EMISSIONS TRADING SCHEME, (MICHAEL GRUBB ED., LONDON: EARTHSCAN, 2005)
COLE, D. H., POLLUTION & PROPERTY, (CAMBRIDGE: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2002)
DALES, J. H., POLLUTION, PROPERTY AND PRICES: AN ESSAY IN POLICY-MAKING AND ECONOMICS (TORONTO: UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS, 1968)
EFFICIENCY AND EQUITY OF CLIMATE CHANG POLICY (CARLO CARRARO ED., CALIFORNIA: KLUWER ACADEMIC, 2000)
ELLERMAN, A. D. ET AL., MARKET FOR CLEAN AIR: THE U.S. ACID RAIN PROGRAM, (CAMBRIDGE: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2000)
EMISSION TRADING FOR CLIMATE POLICY: US AND EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVES (BERNARD HANSJ�摧GENS ED.,CAMBRIDGE: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2005)
IAN BROWNLIE, PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW, (OXFORD: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 6TH EDITION, 2003 (1966))
INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENT LAW REPORTS VOL. 1, (CAIRO A. R. ROBB EDS CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1999)
JANE ELLIS & DENNIS TIRPAK, LINKING GHG EMISSION TRADING SCHEMES AND MARKETS, OECD/ IEA, 2006/10/25
KRIER D., PROPERTY, (New York: Aspen Publishers, 2002) 5th ed.
LEGAL ASPECTS OF IMPLEMENTING THE KYOTO PROTOCOL MECHANISMS, (DAVID FREESTONE & CHARLOTTE STRECK EDS., OXFORD: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2005)
MICHAEL T. SNARR & D. NEIL SNARR, INTRODUCING GLOBAL ISSUES, (COLORADO: LYNNE RIENNER PUBLISHERS, 3RD ED., 2005)
PATRICIA W. BIRNIE & ALAN E. BOYLE, INTERNATIONAL LAW AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL, (OXFORD: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2ND EDITION, 2002)
RICHARD BARON & C�聈RIC PHILIBERT, ACT LOCALLY, TRADE GLOBALLY: EMISSION TRADING FOR CLIMATE POLICY, OECD/IEA, 2005
SANDS, P., PRINCIPLES OF INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENT LAW, (CAMBRIDGE: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2ND EDITION, 2003(1995))
SOFT LAW IN GOVERNANCE AND REGULATION: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS, (ULRIKA M�鄗TH ED., CHELTENHAM: EDWARD ELGAR, 2004)
STEPHEN F. LINCOLN, CHALLENGED EARTH: AN OVERVIEW OF HUMANITY’S STEWARDSHIP OF EARTH (LONDON: IMPERIAL COLLEGE PRESS, 2006)
STOWELL, D., CLIMATE TRADING: DEVELOPMENT OF GREENHOUSE GAS MARKETS, (NEW YORK: PALGRAVE MACMILLAN, 2005)
TAYLOR, P., AN ECOLOGICAL APPROACH TO INTERNATIONAL LAW: RESPONDING TO CHALLENGES OF CLIMATE CHANGE, (LONDON: ROUTLEDGE, 1998)
YAMIN FARHANA & JOANNA DEPLEDGE, THE INTERNATIONAL CLIMATE CHANGE REGIME: A GUIDE TO RULES, INSTITUTIONS AND PROCEDURES, (CAMBRIDGE: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2004)
YEN, T. F., ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: CHEMISTRY OF MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL CYCLES (LONDON: IMPERIAL COLLEGE PRESS, 2005)

英文報告
CCX Carbon Market Report, Chicago Climate Exchange, October 2004.10/1-10/31
CCX Carbon Market Report, Chicago Climate Exchange, November 2004. 11/1-11/12
CCX Carbon Market Report, Chicago Climate Exchange, November 2004. 11/13-11/27
CCX Carbon Market Report, Chicago Climate Exchange, Vol. 2 No. 1, 12/1/2004 -1/14/2005
CCX Carbon Market Report, Chicago Climate Exchange, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2/1/2004 -2/15/2005
CCX Carbon Market Report, Chicago Climate Exchange, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2/16/2005 -3/13/2005
CCX Carbon Market Report, Chicago Climate Exchange, Vol. 2 No. 4, 4/1/2004 - 4/30/2005
CCX Carbon Market Report, Chicago Climate Exchange, Vol. 3 No. 1, February 1 2006
CCX Carbon Market Report, Chicago Climate Exchange, Vol. 3 No. 2, March 1 2006
Chicago Climate Futures Exchange, LLC Rulebook, Chicago Climate Exchange.
Franck Lecocq, State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2004, World Bank
Franck Lecocq & Karan Capoor, State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2005, IETA
Jhy-Ming Lu, Markal Applications in Taiwan, Energy Technologies Systems Analysis Program Annex IX Technical Conference, Energy & Resources Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Apr. 4, 2005, available at http://www.etsap.org/worsh_4_2005/18.pdf。
Karan Capoor & Philippe Ambrosi, State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2006, IETA
Karan Capoor & Philippe Ambrosi, State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2007, IETA
GHG Market Sentiment Survey, IETA
IPCC, The Third Assessment Report : Climate Change 2001, The Scientific Basis
IPCC, The Fourth Assessment Report, Climate Change 2007: The physical Science Basis, summary for policymakers.
OCED/GD(95)124, Environmental Principles and Concepts, Paris 1995.
Richard Rosenzweig, Matthew Varilek, Ben Feldman, Radha Kuppalli, Josef Janssen, The Emerging International Greenhouse Gas Market, Pew Center on Global Climate Change
Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, United Kindom
The 2002 ISDA Master Agreement: A summary of the main changes from the 1992 Master Agreement, Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer.
Stop Climate Change: it is possible!, WWF
Reuven Glick & Allen M. Taylor, Collateral Damage: Trade disruption and the economic impact of war, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, 2005.
KEY GHG DATA, UNFCCC, 2005。

其他英文資料:
EMISSIONS TRADING MASTER AGREEMENT FOR THE EU SCHEME, Version 2.1, 2005
EMISSIONS REDUCTION PURCHASE AGREEMENT, Version 3.0, 2006, IETA
2002 MASTER AGREEMENT, ISDA

外文期刊:
Abraham Bell & Gideon Parchomovsky, A theory of property, 90 Cornell L. Rev. 531
Adam L. Aronson, From “cooperator’s loss” to cooperative gain: negotiating greenhouse gas abatement, 102 Yale L.J. 2143
Adam Rose, Thomas D. Peterson, ZhongXiang Zhang, Regional carbon dioxide permit trading in the United States: coalition choices for Pennsylvania, 14 Penn St. Envtl. L. Rev. 203
Annie Petsonk, The Kyoto protocol and the WTO: integrating greenhouse gas emissions allowance trading into the global marketplace, 10 Duke Envtl. L. & Pol'y F. 185
Agust�瀋 Molina Morales & Miguel Guerrero , The European union as first mover in the market for greenhouse gas emissions permits, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 49:4, 533 - 553
Alastair R. Lucas, Implementing the Kyoto Protocol in north America: Canada’s policy and instrument choices,, I.E.L.T.R. 2006, 2, 48-55
Albert Mumma, The poverty of Africa’s position at the climate change convention negotiations, 19 UCLA J. Envtl. L. & Pol'y 181.
Alison Aubry, Environmental law, the economy, and sustainable development, edited by Richard L. Revesz, Philippe Sands, and Richard B. Stewart, 25 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 601 (book review).
Allen Pei-Jan Tsai & Annie Petsonk, The skies: an airline-based system for limiting greenhouse gas emissions from international civil aviation, 6 Envtl. Law. 763.
Andrew Abraham, Deconstructing derivatives transactions: has contract law become destabilized?, 32 HKLJ 549
Andrew G. Thompson & Rob Campbell-Watt, Australia and an emission trading market-opportunities, cost and legal frameworks, I.E.L.T.R. 2005, 4, 79-89
Andrew Green, You can’t pay them enough: subsidies, environmental law, and social norms, 30 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 407
Barbara Hendrickson, Anastasia Mamai & Virginia Huang, Setting boundaries: Climate change in Canada, I.E.L.T.R. 2006, 7, 182-188
Brain Evans, Principles of Kyoto and emissions trading systems: a primer for energy lawyers, 42 Alberta L. Rev. 167
Bruce A. Ackerman & Richard B. Stewart, Reforming environmental law, 37 Stan. L. Rev. 1333
Bruce Yandle & Stuart Buck, Bootleggers, Baptists, and the Global Warming Battle, 26 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 177
Carl Bruch & John Pendergrass, TypeⅡ partnership, international law, commons, 15 Geo. Int'l Envtl. L. Rev. 855
Carol M. Rose, Expanding the choices for the global commons: comparing newfangled tradable allowance schemes to old-fashioned common property regimes, 10 Duke Envtl. L. & Pol'y F. 45
Carol M. Rose, The several futures of property: of cyberspace and folk tales, emission trades and ecosystems, 83 Min. L. Rev. 129
Cass R. Sunstein, Montreal and Kyoto: a tale of two protocols, 31 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 1
Christopher D. Stone, Beyond Rio: “insuring” against global warming, 86 Am. J. Int'l L. 445
Cinnamon Carlarne, Climate change policies an ocean apart: EU & US climate change policies compared, 14 Penn St. Envtl. L. Rev. 435
Clare Breidenich, Daniel Magraw, Anne Rowley & James W. Rubin, The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 92 Am. J. Int'l L. 315
Daniel C. Esty & Damien Geradin, Market Access, Competitiveness, and harmonization: Environmental Protection in Regional Trade Agreements, 21 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 265
David A. Wirth, The Rio declaration on environment and development: two steps forward and one back, or vice versa?, 29 Ga. L. Rev. 599
David M. Driesen, Free lunch or cheap fix?: the emissions trading idea and the climate change convention, 26 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 1
David M. Driesen, Trading and its limits, 14 Penn St. Envtl. L. Rev. 169
David M. Driesen, What's Property Got to Do with It?, 30 Ecology L.Q. 1003 (book review)
Eduardo Moises Pe�狒lver, The persistent problem of obligation in international law, 36 Stan. J. Int'l L. 271
Eileen Claussen, Carping at Kyoto, 34 Geo. Wash. Int'l L. Rev. 247
Emily flynn Vencat, Emitting market, Newsweek, Apr. 16, 2007, at 43
Eric T. Freyfogle, Ownership and ecology, 43 Case W. Res. L. Rev. 1269
Gabriela Llobet, “Trust by Verify”: verification in the joint implementation regime, 31 Geo. Wash. J. Int'l L. & Econ. 233
Gary C. Bryner, Carbon Markets: Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Emissions Trading, 17 Tul. Envtl. L.J. 267.
Gary E. Marchant, Freezing carbon dioxide emissions: an offset policy for slowing global, 22 Envtl. L. 623.
Geoffrey Palmer, New ways to make international environmental law, 86 Am. J. Int'l L. 259
Gerald Torres, Who owns the sky?, 19 Pace Envtl. L. Rev. 515
Giovanna Golini, Tradable green certificate systems in the E.U., 26 Energy L.J. 111
Glenn M. Wiser, The clean development mechanism versus the world trade organization: Can free-market greenhouse gas emissions abatement survive free trade?, 11 Geo. Int'l Envtl. L. Rev. 531
Harold Hongju Koh, Why do nations obey international law, 106 Yale L.J. 2599
Harvard Law Review Association, Foreign affairs preemption and state regulation of greenhouse gas emissions, 119 Harv. L. Rev. 1877
Ibibia L. Worika & Thomas Walde, Contractual architecture for the Kyoto Protocol: From soft and hard laws to concrete commitments, 15 J. Land Use & Envtl. L. 489
Inho Choi, Global climate change and the use of economic approaches: the ideal design features of domestic greenhouse gas emissions trading with an analysis of the European Union’s CO2 emissions trading directive and the climate stewardship act, 45 Nat. Resources J. 865
Inigo Del Guayo, The implementation of the flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol in Spain, I.E.L.T.R. 2006, 4, 114-120
Jacob A. Fisch, Note, The Collapse of the Kyoto Protocol and the Struggle to Slow Global Warming, by David G. Victor, 26 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 547.
James Cameron, David J. Robertson & Paul Curnow, Legal and regulatory strategies for GHG reductions – A global survey, 15-WTR Nat. Resources & Env't 176
James T. Bryce, Controlling the temperature: an analysis of the Kyoto protocol, 62 Sask. L. Rev. 379
Jeffrey C. Fort & Cynthia A. Faur, Can emissions trading work beyond a national program? Some practical observations on the available tools, 18 U. Pa. J. Int'l Econ. L. 463
Jeffrey L. Dunoff & Joel P. Trachtman, Economic analysis of international law, 24 Yale J. Int'l L. 1
Jennifer P. Morgan, Carbon trading under the Kyoto protocol: risks and opportunities for investors, 18 Fordham Envtl L. Rev. 151
Joel B. Eisen, From Stockholm to Kyoto and back to the United States: international environmental law’s effect on domestic law, 32 U. Rich. L. Rev. 1435
Jonathan Baert Wiener, Something borrowed for something blue: legal transplants and the evolution of global environmental law, 27 Ecology L.Q. 1295
Jonathan Baert Wiener, On the political economy of global environmental regulation, 87 Geo. L.J. 749
Jonathan Baert Wiener, Global environmental regulation: instrument choice in legal context, 108 Yale L.J. 677
Jonathan H. Adler, Back to the future of conservation: changing perceptions of property rights & environmental protection, 1 N.Y.U. J. L. & Liberty 987
Jonathan Remy Nash, Too Much Market? Conflict between tradable pollution allowances and the "Polluter Pays" principle, 24 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 465
John D. Sterman & Linda Booth Sweeney, Cloudy Skies: assessing public understanding of global warming, System Dynamic Review, vol. 18, No. 2, Summer 2002.
John R. Crook ed., United Kingdom and California conclude agreement on global warming, 100 Am. J. Int'l L. 933
Joseph R. Dancy, The impact of the clean air act’s ozone non-attainment areas on Texas: major problems and suggested solutions, 47 SMU L. Rev. 451
Judith Resnik, Law’s migration: American exceptionalism, silent dialogues, and federalism’s multiple ports of entry, 115 Yale L.J. 1564
J. T. Kiehl & B. P. Briegleb, The Relative Roles of Sulfate Aerosols and Greenhouse Gases in Climate Forcing, Science Vol. 260, 16 April 1993.
Kevin A. Baumert, Participation of developing countries in the international climate regime: lessons for the future, 38 Geo. Wash. Int'l L. Rev. 365
Lakshaman Guruswamy, A true comprehensive approach, 9 Ariz. J. Int'l & Comp. L. 115
Lawrence P. Schnapf, Due diligence in corporate transactions, 499 PLI/Real 175.
Lavanya Rajamani, Re-negotiating Kyoto: a review of the sixth conference of parties to the framework convention on climate change, 2000 Colo. J. Int'l Envtl. L. & Pol'y 201
Margaret A. Yowell & Jessica K. Ferrell, Using carbon sequestration projects to offset greenhouse gas emissions, 20-SUM Nat. Resources & Env't 20
Matthew Vespa, Climate change 2001: Kyoto at Bonn and Marrakech, 29 Ecology L.Q. 395
Meinhard Doelle, Linking the Kyoto Protocol and Other Multilateral Environmental Agreements: From Fragmentation to Integration?, 14 J. Env. L. & Prac. 75
Michaell J-H. Smith & Thierry Chaumeil, Greenhouse gas emission trading within the European Union: an overview of the proposed European Directive, 13 Fordham Envtl. L.J. 207
Michael Taylor, Marco Gelmetti & Felicity Kohn, Italy and the Kyoto Protocol, I.E.L.T.R. 2006, 7, 175-181
Nathanael Greene & Vanessa Ward, Getting the sticker price right: incentives for cleaner, more efficient vehicles, 12 Pace Envtl. L. Rev. 91
Paul G. Harris, The European Union and environmental change: sharing the burdens of global warming, 17 Colo. J. Int'l Envtl. L. & Pol'y 309
Peggy Rodgers Kalas & Alexia Herwig, Dispute Resolution Under the Kyoto Protocol, 27 Ecology L.Q. 53, 2000
Peter Davies, Trading in greenhouse gas emissions: the European community’s endorsement of emission trading, I.E.L.T.R. 2006, 4, 105-113
Pierre-Marie Dupuy, Soft law and the international law of the environment, 12 Mich. J. Int'l L. 420
Prue Taylor, Heads in the sands as the tide rises: environmental ethics and the law on climate change, 19 UCLA J. Envtl. L. & Pol'y 247
Richard B. Stewart, Environmental regulation and international competitiveness, 102 Yale L.J. 2039
Richard B. Stewart and Jonathan B. Wiener, The comprehensive approach to global climate policy: issues of design and practicality, 9 Ariz. J. Int'l & Comp. L. 83
Richard J. (Tad) Ferris, Jr., Meg Caldwell, Kevin T. Haroff & Nicole L. Leonard,
Gwen Parker, International Environmental Law, 38 Int'l Law. 477.
Robert B. McKinstry, Jr., Laboratories for Local solutions for global problems: state, local and private leadership in developing strategies to mitigate the causes and effects of climate change, 12 Penn St. Envtl. L. Rev. 15.
Robert H. Cutting, Lawrence B. Cahoon, Thinking outside the box: property rights as a key to environmental protection, 22 Pace Envtl. L. Rev. 55
Robert W. Hahn & Gordon L. Hester, Where did all the market go? an analysis of EPA’s emission trading program, 6 Yale J. on Reg. 109
Robert W. Hahn, Sheila M. Olmstead & Robert N. Stavins, Environmental Regulation in the 1990s: A Retrospective Analysis, 27 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 377
Robin R. Churchill & Geir Ulfstein, Autonomous institutional arrangement in multilateral environmental agreements: a little-noticed phenomenon in international law, 94 Am. J. Int'l L. 623
Royal C. Gardner, Taking the principle of just compensation abroad: private property rights, national sovereignty, and the cost of environmental protection, 65 U. Cin. L. Rev. 539.
Prosper Weil, Towards relative normativity in international law?, 77 Am. J. Int'l L. 413
Salil P. Patel, Reducing carbon dioxide emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000: What are the options and can the United States achieve this reduction without disruption the economy?, 3 Dick. J. Envtl. L. & Pol'y 79
Sean M. Flanagan, The rise of a trade association: group interactions within the international SWAPS and derivatives association, 6 Harv. Negot. L. Rev. 211.
Sean T. Fox, Responding to climate change: the case for unilateral trade measures to protect the global atmosphere, 84 Geo. L.J. 2499
Sonya Dewan, Emissions Trading: A Cost-Effective Approach to Reducing Nonpoint Source Pollution, 51 Fordham Envtl. Law J. 233
Sikina Jinnah, Emissions Trading Under the Kyoto Protocol: NAFTA and WTO Concerns, 15 Geo. Int'l Envtl. L. Rev. 709
Stephen McCaffrey, International Law and Sustainable Development: Past Achievements and Future Challenges. Edited by Alan Boyle & David Freestone, 94 A.J.I.L. 823 (book review and note)
Tania Voon, Sizing up the WTO: trade-environment conflict and the Kyoto Protocol, 10 J. Transnat'l L. & Pol'y 71
Tanya L. Forsheit, International emissions trading: equity issues in the search for market-based solutions to global environmental degradation, 18 U. Pa. J. Int'l Econ. L. 689
Terry W. Frazier, Protecting ecological integrity within the balancing function of property law, 28 Envtl. L. 53
The Monitor, Future/Derivatives/SWAPS/Commodities, 24 NO.1 Banking & Fin. Services Pol’y Rep.8
Thomas W. Merrill, Private property and the politics of environmental protection, 28 Harv. J.L. & Pub. Pol'y 69
Vinay Ganga & Simon Armitage, The Kyoto protocol, carbon credit trading and their impact on energy projects in Europe and the world, I.E.L.T.R. 2005,4,73-78
W. E Alnaser & M. K. Merzaa, Profile of the Climate Change in the Kingdom of Bahrain, Environmetrics, 2003; 14: 761-773。(John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.)
William H. Rodgers Jr., Air and Water Chapter 2. Common Law and the Variations, 1 Envtl. L. (West) § 2:20
William Underhill, This way forward, Newsweek, Apr. 16, 2007, at 38
Yi-Yuan Su, Climate law special edition 2006: the effects of the Kyoto Protocol on Taiwan, 6 Sustainable Dev. L. & Pol'y 51
Zoya E. Bailey, The sink that sank the Hague: a comment on the Kyoto Protocol, 16 Temp. Int'l & Comp. L.J. 103

英文網站
Australia Greenhouse Office:http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/
Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center:http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/
Chicago Climate Change Exchange: http://www.chicagoclimatex.com/
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change:http://www.ipcc.ch/
International Court of Justice:http://www.icj-cij.org/
International Emissions trading Association:
http://www.ieta.org/ieta/www/pages/index.php
International Energy Agency:http://www.iea.org/
International SWAP and Derivatives Association, Inc.:http://www.isda.org/
The World Bank Carbon Finance Unit:
http://carbonfinance.org/Router.cfm?Page=Home&ItemID=24675
United Nations Environmental Programme:http://www.undp.org/
UNFCCC: http://unfccc.int/2860.php
World Trade Organization http://www.wto.org

國際法院案例
Permanent Court of International Justice
Legal Status of Eastern Greenland (Denmark v. Norway), PCIJ Series A/B, No.53, 49
The Lotus (France/ Turkey), PCIJ Series A, No.10
The Wimbledon (Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan, and Poland (Intervening) v. Germany), PCIJ Series A, No.1

International Court of Justice
Barcelona Traction, Light and Power Company Limited (Second Application) (Belgium v. Spain) (1970) ICJ Report 3
Continental Shelf (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya/ Malta) (1985) ICJ Reports 13
Corfu Channel (United Kingdom v. Albania) (1949) ICJ Reports 4
Fisheries Jurisdiction (Federal Republic of Germany v. Iceland) (Jurisdiction) (1983) ICJ Reports 96; (Merits) (1974) ICJ Reports 175
Gabcikovo-Nagymaros (Hungry/ Slovakia) (1997) ICJ Reports 7
Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons (1990) ICJ Reports 226
Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States of America) , I.C.J. Reports (1986) ICJ Reports 14
North Sea Continental Shelf (Federal Republic of Germany/ Denmark; Federal Republic of Germany/ Netherlands) (1969) ICJ Reports 3
Nottebohm (Liechtenstein v. Guatemala) (Judgment) (1955) ICJ Reports 4
Nuclear Tests (Australia v. France) (Interim Protection) (1973) ICJ Reports 99; (Judgment) (1974) ICJ Reports 253
Nuclear Tests (Australia v. France) (Interim Protection) (1973) ICJ Reports 135; (Judgment) (1974) ICJ Reports 457
International Status of South-West Africa (Advisory Opinion) (1950) ICJ Reports 128
South West Africa (Preliminary Objections), (1966) ICJ Reports 47

Awards of international arbitral tribunals
Lac Lanoux Arbitration (France v. Spain) 24 ILR 101 (1957)
Trail Smelter Arbitration (United States v. Canada) 16 April 1938, 11 March 1941; 3 RIAA 1907 (1941)

Property Cases
Brumagim v. Bradshaw, 39 Cal. 24 (1870)
Ghen v. Rich, 8 Fed. 159 (D. Mass. 1881)
Loretto v. Teleprompter Manhattan CATV Corp. 458U.S. 419(1982)
Miller v. Schoene, 276 U.S. 272
National Audubon Society v. Superior Court of Alpine County ( 33 Cal. 3d 419;658 P. 2d 709;189 Cal. Rptr. 346;1983)
Prah v. Maretti, 108 Wis. 2d 223, 321 N. W. 2d 182 (1982)
State Ex. Rel. Thornton v. Hay, 254 Or. 584, 462 P. 2d 671 (1969)
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top