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研究生:蔡維謙
研究生(外文):Wei-chien Tsai
論文名稱:運用問題與不同回饋機制於數位教材的影響之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Using Questions and Different feedback forms on Digital Learning Content
指導教授:邱瓊慧邱瓊慧引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chiung-Hui Chiu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺南大學
系所名稱:數位學習科技學系
學門:教育學門
學類:教育科技學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2007
畢業學年度:95
語文別:中文
論文頁數:75
中文關鍵詞:數位教材回饋問題
外文關鍵詞:questionfeedbackdigital learning content
相關次數:
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本研究旨在探討運用問題與否與不同回饋機制於數位教材對學習成效之影響。研究
採用單因子之準實驗研究設計,自變項為有無運用問題與回饋機制於數位教材,教材內
容共設計四種不同的呈現模式,包括無問題、僅呈現問題、有問題與選擇式回饋和有問
題與開放式回饋;依變項為學生對科學過程技能的獲得與科學概念的改變。實驗對象為
國小八個五年級班級共256 位的學生,並隨機挑選兩班為一組,讓各組學習運用問題與
否及不同回饋機制的數位教材。研究發現學習無問題式數位教材的學生,其在科學過程
技能的學習成效明顯高於學習有問題而無回饋之數位教材的學生;而在科學概念改變方
面,學習有問題與選擇式回饋之數位教材的學生,其學習成效明顯高於學習無問題式之
數位教材的學生。
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using questions and different
feedback forms on digital learning content. The testees were two hundred fifty six 5th grade
students of the elementary school. We got the four groups with eight classes by random and
each group learned different content. There were four lesson treatments as below: (1) no
question (2) questions without feedback (3) questions with option-feedback (4) questions with
open-feedback. One-way ANCOVA was performed to analyze the treatment effects of
various types of learning content on student performance. Depend variable was the students’
science processing skill and science concept change. And we expected the different learning
method would change the testee learning result.
There were two important results of the study. The first was about the science processing
skill, the performance of learned no question content group would better than learned question
without feedback content group etc. The second was about the science concept change, the
performance of learned questions with option-feedback content group would get better result
than learned no question group.
一、緒論.........................................................................................................................1
1.1 研究背景.............................................................................................................1
1.2 研究目的.............................................................................................................2
1.3 研究問題.............................................................................................................2
1.4 研究假設.............................................................................................................3
二、文獻探討.................................................................................................................4
2.1 教學的方法.........................................................................................................4
2.1.1 有效的教學方法............................................................................................4
2.1.2 發問的目的....................................................................................................4
2.1.3 發問問題的種類............................................................................................5
2.1.4 有效的發問....................................................................................................5
2.2 回饋.....................................................................................................................6
2.2.1 什麼是回饋....................................................................................................6
2.2.2 回饋的作用....................................................................................................7
2.2.3 回饋的方式....................................................................................................7
2.2.4 回饋的時間....................................................................................................8
2.3 發問與回饋在數位教材的運用.........................................................................8
2.4 科學過程技能.....................................................................................................9
2.4.1 科學過程技能的重要性................................................................................9
2.4.2 科學過程技能的內涵..................................................................................10
2.4.3 科學過程技能的教學..................................................................................11
2.5 科學概念...........................................................................................................12
2.6 結語...................................................................................................................13
v
三、研究方法...............................................................................................................14
3.1 研究架構...........................................................................................................14
3.2 研究對象...........................................................................................................15
3.3 實驗處理...........................................................................................................15
3.4 實驗教材...........................................................................................................15
3.4.1 無問題機制教材..........................................................................................16
3.4.2 有問題與選擇式回饋機制教材..................................................................17
3.4.3 有問題與開放式回饋機制教材..................................................................20
3.4.4 有問題而無回饋機制教材..........................................................................21
3.5 研究工具...........................................................................................................22
3.5.1 科學過程技能測驗......................................................................................22
3.5.2 科學概念測驗..............................................................................................23
3.6 實驗步驟...........................................................................................................24
3.7 資料分析...........................................................................................................24
四、結果與討論...........................................................................................................26
4.1 資料分析結果...................................................................................................26
4.1.1 測驗結果分析..............................................................................................26
4.1.2 描述性統計..................................................................................................27
4.1.3 組內迴歸係數同質性檢定..........................................................................28
4.1.4 共變數分析..................................................................................................29
4.2 討論...................................................................................................................32
4.2.1 科學過程技能..............................................................................................32
4.2.2 科學概念的改變..........................................................................................33
五、結論與建議...........................................................................................................35
5.1 結論...................................................................................................................35
vi
5.2 建議...................................................................................................................35
六、參考文獻...............................................................................................................37
中文部份...................................................................................................................37
英文部分...................................................................................................................38
附件一 科學過程技能測驗.......................................................................................40
附件二 科學概念測驗...............................................................................................46
附件三 學習內容.......................................................................................................48
附件四 運用問題與直述式內容...............................................................................74
中文部份
王美芬、熊召弟(民84)。國民小學自然科教材教法。台北:心理。
方炳林(民68)。教學原理。台北:教育文物。
洪榮昭(民77)。電腦輔助教學之回饋處理----學生對字義、圖形、聲音回饋處理之學
習情意研究。台北:師大書苑。
洪碧霞(民72)。有效的發問技巧。高雄:復文圖書。
郭生玉(民91)。心理教育研究法。台北:精華。
教育部(2003)。國民中小學九年一貫課程網要自然與生活科技學習領域。台北市:教
育部。
郭重吉(1992)。從建構主義的觀點探討中、小學數理教學的改進。科學發展月刊,20
(5),548-570。
張玉成(民73)。教師發問技巧。台北:心理。
熊召弟(民85)。臺北公立高中(高一)學生科學過程技能和邏輯思考能力之探討研究。
臺北師院學報,9,545-578。
趙偉智(2006)。整合學習環策略於數位學習內容的成效之研究。國立臺南大學資訊教
育研究所碩士論文,未出版,台南。
楊榮祥(民78)。生物教學問題與改進—談教師的發問技術。當前師範教育 問題研究,
78 年6 月,頁770-779。
歐陽志文(2006)。整合學習環之自然科數位教材與學習風格對國小學生之科學態度與
概念改變的影響。國立臺南大學資訊教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,台南。
鍾校聖(2002)。自然與科技課程教材教法。台北:五南圖書。
38
英文部分
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Chang, C. Y., & Weng, Y. H. (2002) An exploratory study on students’ problem-solving
ability in earth science. International Journal of Science Education, 24(5), 441–451.
Clariana, R. B., & Koul, R. (2005). Multiple-try feedback and higher-order learning outcomes.
International Journal of Instructional Media, 32(3), 239–245.
Delgado, A. R., & Prieto, G. (2003). The effect of item feedback on multiple-choice test
responses. British Journal of Psychology, 94(1), 73.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, New Jersey:
Lawrence Erlbaum Associate, Inc.
Germann, P. J., & Aram, R. J. (1996) Student performances on the science processes of
recording data, analyzing data, drawing conclusions, and providing evidence. Journal
of Research in Science Teaching, 33(7), 773-798.
Gilman, D. A. (1969) Comparison of several feedback methods for correcting errors by CAI.
Journal of Educational Psychology, 62, 503-508.
Haper, R. (2003). Correcting computer-based assessments for guessing. Journal of Computer
Assisted Learning, 19, 2-8.
Howard-Jones, P. A., & Martin, R. J. (2002). The effect of questioning on concept learning
within a hypertext system. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 18(1), 10.
Kulhavy, R. W. (1977). Feedback in written instruction. Review of Eductional Research,
47(2), 211-232.
Kulhavy, R. W., & Anderson, R. C. (1972). Delay-retention effect with multiple-choice tests.
Journal of Educational Psychology, 63(5), 505-512.
Merrill, J. (1985). Levels of questioning and forms of feedback: Instructional factors in
courseware design. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 14(4), 18-22.
39
Mory, E. H. (1994). The use of response certitude in adaptive feedback: Effects on student
performance, feedback study time, and efficiency. Journal of Educational Computing
Research, 11, 263-290.
Rose, L. H., &Lin, H. T. (1986). A meta-analysis of long term creativity training programs.
Journal of Creative Behavior, 18(1), 11-22.
Roy, B. C., & Doris, L. (2001). The effects of recognition and recall study tasks with
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Roy, B. C., & Ravinder, K. (2006). The effects of different forms of feedback on fuzzy and
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